Juegos de mesa, historia de los


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Juegos de mesa, historia de los

  1. 1. BibliOdysseyB o o k s ~ ~ I l l u s t r a t i o n s ~ ~ S c i e n c e ~ ~ H i s t o r y ~ ~ V i s u a l M a t e r i a O b s c u r a ~ ~ E c l e c t i cB o o k a r t .W e d n e s d a y , N o v e m b e r 1 9 , 2 0 0 8Board GamesFive Centuries of Board GamesFilosofia cortesana de Alonso de BarrosEtching/engraving made by Mario Cartaro in Venice in 1588. The game squares,numbering up to 63, lead to the ships sailing in the centre of the board on the sea
  2. 2. of suffering.Il novo bello et piacevole gioco della scimia(The new beautiful and enjoyable game of apes)Etching published by Altiero Gatti in 1588 featuring numerous monkeys displayinghuman characteristics.
  3. 3. Il novo et piacevol gioco del giardin damore(The new and enjoyable game of the garden of love)Published by Giovanni Antonio de Paoli in the 1590s, the board features two rowsof game squares, the outer one displaying the virtues and the one closer to thecentral garden with game numbers on pairs of dice.
  4. 4. Il nuovo et piacevole gioco dell ocha(The new and enjoyable game of the goose)Engraving published by Lucchino Gargano in 1598 with the game rules in thecentre and pictures of fools in each corner.
  5. 5. Nuovo et Piacevole Gioco detto il Barone(?The barons new and pleasant game)Anonymous woodcut printed board game from the second half of the 16th century,featuring a rustic military figure in the centre carrying a flag inscribed "Capitano diBaroni".
  6. 6. Il Nuovo et Piacevole Giuoco del Biribisse(The new and pleasant game of biribisse)Etching published by Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi between 1640 and 1690. Thegame board has numbered pictorial compartments of animals, objects andcharacters, repeated in smaller equivalent squares below the rules of the game.
  7. 7. Il gioco del aquila(The game of the eagle)Etching print made by Giuseppe Maria Mitelli in the 1680s. The Imperial Eagle,surrounded by medallions depicting commanders, holds chains in its talonsattached to defeated Turks.
  8. 8. Zuogh dal cacciator(? [..] hunters)Another Giuseppe Maria Mitelli print, dated 1699. There are eleven bird huntingscenes depicted.Mitelli was an innovative and wonderful graphic artist - definitely gosee: one , two &three at Giornale Nuovo and the previous entry on BibliOdyssey;they are all well worth seeing.
  9. 9. Karten Lotterie Spiel(Lottery tickets)Johann Trautner made this print between about 1700 and 1710. The circular game-board has three concentric rings, each divided into 32 compartments: the outerring contains instructions; the next ring shows pictorial representations of playingcards which appear in their regular form in the inner ring, all surrounding a centraldomestic scene.
  10. 10. Game of the GooseSimplistic spiral arrangement of game squares in an anonymous board produced inthe 1700s.
  11. 11. Il Dilettevole Gioco del Oca(The Delightful Game of the Goose)Anonymous 18th century board game print from Bologna with corner drawings of(what appear to be) Commedia dellArte figures and a central couple eyeing thegoose hungrily. As with the majority of the goose games, this board has sixty threenumbered playing fields.
  12. 12. Il novo e piacevole gioco del pela il chiu(known as: pluck the owl)Humans and owls make up the majority of figures in the four concentric ringssurrounding a crowned owl atop a triple six of dice. The inscription languagesuggests the creator of this anonymous 18th century print comes from the northeast of Italy and it may have been published in Parma by Giovanni BattistaPanzera. The t and the p below the compartmented figures refer to the number ofquattrini (q) that a player was awarded or had to pay out. Evidently it was apopular game: prints were still being published well into the 19th century.Generally speaking, people purchased their games as prints on paper and fastenedthem to a board or a hard surface in their own home (ie. this was the case for themajority of game boards: its obviously cheaper to buy them unmounted)
  13. 13. Jagd-Spiel(Game of the hunt)Published by Johann Raab in Nuremberg in the late 18th century, this print isdescribed in the notes as a hand-coloured lithograph. I think its more likely awoodblock print, given the fairly unsophisticated quality and the fact thatlithography was only invented in 1796. *shrug*
  14. 14. Le Nouveau jeu de la marine(The new navy game)[spliced together - poorly - from two aberrant halves]Hand-coloured etching from the 1790s filled with nautical terms and associatedillustrations. Perhaps the British ship in the central scene could be sunk at the endof the game? I cant quite read the rules.
  15. 15. Grand jeu du nouveau testament avec 120 figures(Great game of the New Testament with 120 figures)I recall this etching from 1800 was accompanied by two other similarly busysections and the complete print appears to offer three different games in the singlelayout. Nothing evokes the prospect of commercial success quite like thecombination of religion, education and gambling.
  16. 16. "The New Game of Emulation designed forThe Amusement of Youth of Both Sexes andcalculated to inspire their minds with anAbhorrance of Vice and a Love of Virtue"Linen-backed, hand-coloured etching, published by John Harris in London in1804. Circular game-board with 66 numbered pictorial compartments, someillustrating moral scenes, the last compartment showing an angel.
  17. 17. Musical ToyEtching published by John Hatchard and John Harris in 1811. Circular game boardwith lines of musical notation, divided into 12 segments, with scales in the centre.
  18. 18. Neues Bilder Lotterie Spiel(New picture lottery)Anonymous print from about 1810 to 1820. Game-board with 80 pictorialcompartments, arranged in 8 rows of 10, depicting flowers, animals characters andvarious objects, with instructions beneath.
  19. 19. Le Jeu de Paris en MiniatureGame board etching published in 1815 by Veuve Chéreau. Features ninetynumbered pictorial compartments, each depicting a shop sign in Paris, with aliteral interpretation of its name, a description of what it sells and its address; thewinning square is Au Retour dAstrée; in the centre the rules.
  20. 20. Het Stoomboots Spel(The steamboat game)Dutch design published in Paris by A. Daane between 1810 and 1825. The coveringof the paddle wheel bears the steamboats name or the cities between which itoperated, Rotterdam en Dort. (Dort or Dordt is the informal name of the city ofDordrecht).
  21. 21. The Swan of Elegance -A New Game Designed for the Instruction and Amuseument of YouthJohn Harris published this linen-backed, hand-coloured etching in 1814. Each ofthe game boards compartment shows a child engaged in a moral or an immoraldeed. A twelve page rulebook had four lines of verse explaining each scene. Themedaliions in each corner represent Apollo, Minerva, Wisdom and Genius.
  22. 22. The Noble Game of the SwanAnother linen-backed etching - presumably for the children of the elite - from 1821,published in London by William Darton. The nineteen compartments of the swangame board includes the British Museum (No. 3). The game board came completewith a rule book, an etching of some swans and a slip case.
  23. 23. "The Noble Game of the Elephant and Castle or Travelling in Asia CombiningAmusement and Instruction for Youth of Both Sexes. A hand-coloured etching andengraving mounted on linen showing an elephant with scenes of Asia on hisHowdah and trappings -- 19½in. (50cm.) by 15½in. (40cm.) in original slip casewith coloured label showing an elephant under a palm tree, published by WilliamDarton, 58 Holborn Hill 1822" [source: sold for £1,645]
  24. 24. Der Bergbau(The Working of Mines)Hand-coloured lithograph, pasted onto marbled board from the mid-1800s. Game-board showing a cross-section of a mine and the network of tunnels leading downfrom 6 buildings, along the tunnels, various numbers which represent ore.Accompanied by 5 of an original 6 tokens in the form of miners, a rule sheet and anoblong box in which are small squares of glass, possibly originally used as counters.Kept in an embossed box with gold margins and bearing a printed label with anillustraion of a mine and the title in German, and beneath the lower margin, inFrench and English.
  25. 25. Die Steckenpferd Galloppade(? The galloping hobbyhorse)Game-board print by Johann Benedikt Wunder from the 19th century with 60numbered compartments arranged in a spiral. Several compartments show variousscenes, and a number of compartments show a hobby horse; the centralcompartment shows Minerva pointing at a folly (?), figures in each corner: top left,a child on a hobby horse waving a sword, top right an old man on a hobby horsealso waving a sword, bottom right, a man with a searchlight, bottom left, a fool.
  26. 26. Kunst und Glück(Art and happiness)19th century anonymous game board etching with 16 compartments, numberedfrom 3 - 18, numbers 3 to 16 showing literary characters arranged in a square, withtwo larger central compartments, showing Dlle Sonntag and Signor Paganini.Accompanied by a letterpress rule sheet in French and German.
  27. 27. Giuoco dell Oca(Game of the Goose)An 1872 Italian lithograph published by Lebrun-Boldetti & co with a goose in eachcorner in a compromising position.
  28. 28. Il Vero Giuoco della Barca(The True Game of the Boat)Anonymous late 19th century game board lithograph of two sailors in a boat withina ring bearing numbers and shellfish. There are putti in each corner of the boardand letterpress instructions beneath
  29. 29. A New Game - Russia versus TurkeyHand-coloured anonymous etching published in Paris (for the Englsh market)between 1875 and 1895. The folding game-board has 55 numbered compartments(numbered both forwards and in reverse) arranged in two rough spirals of water,each emanating from a port - the Turkish port on the left and the Russian on theright, with associated ships, harbours, forts and sandbanks.
  30. 30. The Ranks to Field MarshallFirst World War board game with portraits of George V and Field Marshals Frenchand Kitchener. Anonymous artist. Manufactured in Britain as a process print on aboard.
  31. 31. Manga sugoroku(Manga board game)Print artist Okamoto Ippeis colour lithograph from 1929 featured as a supplementto the Japanese magazine, Shufu no Tomo (Housewifes Friend). The board game(purports to) illustrate the life choices of a young modern woman.
  32. 32. Jagd auf Kohlenklau(Hunt the Coal Thief)Very rare propaganda board game print published by Lepthian-Schiffers in the1930s that sought to promote economy in the use of raw materials in Germany.
  33. 33. German print - game-boardUntitled anti-British World War II propaganda shipping race board gamepublished by F Westenberger in about 1940.
  34. 34. British print - game-boardAnonymous and untitled, this lithograph was published in the 1940s*. Notablyabsent from the curators notes are the terms anti-German and propaganda. Justan observation.*Brett points out in the comments that the figures depicted in this game print dateto WWI and not WWII - the British Museum are changing their notes.[click on any image to go direct to the largest version]Except where noted, all these board game prints were sourced from the BritishMuseum Prints Database (search on "game-board" in the free text area towards thebottom and tick the images box - there are several hundred images available)All the captions above are quoted or were derived from the curators notes at theBritish Museum site.
  35. 35. -----------------------Im not a historian although I did start a history course (incomplete) some yearsago. I remember reading a book about the industrial revolution and was impressedwith the authors research. Specifically, I recall that in assessing the impact ofindustrialisation on the quality of life in childhood they included a copy of a shirepharmacy ledger that listed sales of medicines.The quantities of laudanum (heroin derivative) sold over a given period of time wasstaggering. But the really impressive aspect - just in terms of smart thinking - wasthat the author showed that the graph of sales of the drug correlated fairly well withthe infant mortality rate. Destitute people found it cheaper to spend what little theyhad on a medicine to quieten their starving children rather than buying them food.Something like two out of every three kids didnt make it to the age of five years(thats surely inaccurate but its in the ballpark range).[Later: this was not fact-checked and is, at best, only partly true: read the comments.]That little memory came back to me while I was trawling through these board gameprints because, like the pharmacy ledger, the prints seem to me to contain a wealthof indirect evidence about things like customs and social status and attitudes toeducation and maybe a whole lot more besides. No, its not atom splitting and itsperhaps quite logical to most people and second nature to historians. That doesntdetract, for me, from the elegant thinking I see in deciding to sift through a pile ofotherwise inconsequential illustrated material to learn more about history. Thatsort of detective work makes history more appealing, more alive somehow.I am going to have to cut this public musing short. My regular beast has contractedavery nasty virus which may yet have destroyed the hard drives contents. For allour sakes, lets hope not. Time to look for a cure. I wonder where I can get hold ofsome laudanum?In the meantime, a few little excerpts from the The Development of the EnglishBoard Game, 1770 - 1850 by Caroline G. Goodfellow IN: TheInternational Journal for the Study of Board Games. There are a few articles andextracts available as pdfs. The cited article is well worth downloading, if only forthe nice prints included. If things go well, I may yet find - and add - some morerelevant links. Or not."There are only a few basic methods of playing [board] games and over the past250 years many thousands of variations have been created. The basic methods ofplay come down to four types – race games, strategy games, table games and cardgames. Many were originally developed for adults and were later adapted forchildren. [..]The Game of Goose is generally regarded as the prototype of the modern racegame. Devised in Italy and taken from much early formats of games played in theMiddle and Far East, it was first noted in England by John Wolfe in 1597 as “theNewe and Most Pleasant Game of the Goose”. [..]
  36. 36. Many of the first publishers of games were in fact cartographers and they quicklyincluded the race game idea into game of Geography. The spiral format was notused; it was replaced by a map – of England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland(collectively or individually), of Europe or of the world."Update: Closely related: New exhibition site (March 2009) at BNF {en français}:**Jeux de Princes, Jeux de Vilains**posted by peacay at 9:07 am2 2 C O M M E N T S :Luciana Christante said...These pictures are simply awesome. Thanks. Hope your HDs contents aresafe!19 NOVEMBER, 2008 10:22Brett said...Fantastic post! Ive talked a bit about military-themed board games on myblog,here and here; for some reason it amazes me just how far back thesegames go.I think we can date From the Ranks to Field Marshal a little more precisely,to 1914 or 1915, as I discuss in my first link. And the last game you show isnew to me, but its clearly from the First World War, not from the 1940s: thetechnology is 1910s (airships and that weird aeroplane) and one of the citiesup the top is Petrograd, the name of St Petersburg between 1914 and 1924.And from the fact that it shows an armoured car instead of a tank, Id say itsfrom 1916 (when tanks were first used) or earlier. Probably earlier from theprimitive look of that aeroplane!
  37. 37. And Im fully on-board (ha) with your comments about the evidence forhistorical ideas and attitudes that can be gleaned from studying such games.19 NOVEMBER, 2008 11:32Axis of Entropy said...Anyone know why so many of those older board games had 63 spaces?19 NOVEMBER, 2008 11:51Joey Parlett said...THIS IS THE BEST EVER! Thanks so so so so much. More like board withmy life till I looked at these lil gems.19 NOVEMBER, 2008 12:00Karla said...Most intriguing. Are there instructions for all of them, or just those that havethe instructions printed (in whatever language) on the game surface itself?My most unusual board game (by no means as elegant as most of these, butstill...) has a title that translates to "Building Stalins Monument," whichrefers to the gigantic Stalin statue that briefly loomed over Prague. The gameis loosely based on Monopoly and gets played at Christmas every now andthen (there have to be enough players to make it worthwhile). Weve neveractually pasted the print to a board, so the parts tend to travel around thetable a bit during play as the players move elbows and breathe and such.Changing the subject slightly, my understanding is that while laudanum is a
  38. 38. venerable opiate, heroin (also, of course, an opiate) has only been around forabout a hundred years and was invented (I believe by Bayer) as a cure formorphine addiction. I may not be remembering all of this quite perfectly butthats how it sticks in my head from a book I once proofread on heroin (!).19 NOVEMBER, 2008 13:29Karla said...Oh, and you will feel much better once the laudanum takes effect. Be sure tofeed some to the ailing HD too. It should do in the virus, especially if youspoon the laudanum directly onto the mechanism (although that mightcause other problems, of course). Take two drams and call in the morning.19 NOVEMBER, 2008 13:35Maria Fellowsisters said...You are amazing! I follow Bibliodyssey since quite a while and I enjoy everysingle of your posts.Keep up the great work!19 NOVEMBER, 2008 20:47UC said...Fantastic blog and fantastic post, as usual!"Zuogh dal cacciator" means "Game of the hunter". "Zuogh" is a northernItaly dialect form of "Giuoco", game.19 NOVEMBER, 2008 21:15
  39. 39. renatoram said...Zuogh dal cacciator: "The Game of the Hunter"The writing is in vulgar/dialectal italian. What I can make of it from thephoto is:"The Game of the Hunter: you play with two dice. First you roll to see whogoes first, then every player places money on the board, and rolls".Its very hard to read both because the language is very archaic and becauseit uses several random abbreviations.It looks to be a simple betting game: the phrases on the sections are mostlycolor, but if you roll 12 you scoop up all the bets. (tira tutt)If you have a higher resolution and are interested I could try to deciphermore :)(yeah, Im italian)19 NOVEMBER, 2008 21:38Kittybriton said...The thing about buying laudanum for the starving children rather than foodmakes sense. Particularly if the L. was less expensive volume for volumethan food.What a sad commentary on the times!Thank you, BTW, for posting these. It is so easy to forget what an importantpart of our humanity is represented by playing games, particularly beforethe development of the entertainment industry.20 NOVEMBER, 2008 02:58
  40. 40. misteraitch said...This has to be one of my favourite ever Bibliodyssey posts, which is saying alot. Bravo!I hope your suspected virus caused no harm.20 NOVEMBER, 2008 06:51willow said...Who would have thought that board games had been around that long? TheNoble Swan is my favorite, but they are all amazing.20 NOVEMBER, 2008 10:00António Erre said...Its a pitty you didnt show the marks, pieces and dices to play with theseastonishing board games. Love the post.20 NOVEMBER, 2008 11:08johanna said...i always love to visit your blog, but this is one of the best posts ever!! i can´tpick a favorite of these games, they are all just great! (any problems if i*borrow* a pic and show it on my blog with a link to you?)keep up your great work!!!20 NOVEMBER, 2008 22:34
  41. 41. jeffrey said...This is awesome! Thank you for your brilliant blog!20 NOVEMBER, 2008 23:05Pius said...This post exceeds even your usual high standards. Amazing stuff, I had noidea board games had such a long history. Thanks so much!21 NOVEMBER, 2008 05:00ShakaUVM said...How do you play them??23 NOVEMBER, 2008 12:19Marge said...Laudnum is tincture of opium, and antedates heroin by centuries (Heroinwas synthesised from opium only in the late 19th century).Sorry to burst your bubble on the infant mortality and starvation theory, butits far more likely related to gastroenteritis and cholera. Before the modernera diarrhea was a leading cause of infant mortality. Opium causesconstipation and so was a standard treatment for diarrhea. What youreprobably looking at are disease peaks, causing both the mortality and theincreased demand for opiates.
  42. 42. The board games are great, but have to correct you on the medicine andhistory!30 NOVEMBER, 2008 00:29peacay said...Well, the only bubble I was really trying to inflate was the idea that unusualevidence (pharmacy register, board games) can be used as secondaryhistorical sources. Thanks for the corrections. This post was fairly obviously(I hope) a long way from Beta release quality when it was abandoned andposted. Stream of conciousness/half remembered factoids are usuallyfiltered through google before being made public. This entry will stand asa(nother) reminder of that. Cheers.30 NOVEMBER, 2008 04:17Justin du Coeur said...What a delightful post! If you dont mind, Id like to link to this from theMedieval and Renaissance Games homepage that I run( thanks for the pointer to the Museums page -- the Digital Image servicethere should be quite the godsend for studying these boards for moredetails...01 DECEMBER, 2008 07:07mirror2image said...Wow, what a great post! Its especially interesting for me as Im thinkingabout application of Augmented Reality to board games.
  43. 43. 06 JANUARY, 2009 18:15Patrick Wirbeleit said...the "game of the hunt" could also be seen as a kind of early "propaganda" - itsays:"the Turk who got caught by the lion has lost the game".At least it has got a political touch.This is such a great blog! I cannot find the words to decribe how much I likeit!15 MAY, 2009 07:44P O S T A C O M M E N TNewer PostOlder PostHomeAdd BibliOdysseySearch the siteAdvertise hereTranslationW H O ? / E M A I L
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