(1916- 2011)Newmark was an English professor on translation at the University of Surrey.He was one of the main figures in the founding of Translation Studies. Informative, procedimental,appelative, argumentative, expository
Approaches to translation (1981) A Textbook of Translation (1988) Paragraphs on Translation (1989) About Translation (1991) More Paragraphs on Translation (1998)
Newmark defines the act of translating as transferring the meaning of a text, from one language to another, taking care mainly of the functional relevant meaning. For him, theory oftranslation is neither theory nor science, but a huge group of knowledge.
Newmark’s main contribution to general theory of translation was the introduction of the next concepts: Semantic Translation Communicative translation
Semantic translation attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the TL allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. Semantic translation is accurate, but may not communicate properly. Semantic translation emphasizes the “loyalty” to the original text.
it attempts to render the exact contextualmeaning of the original in such a way that bothcontent and language are readily acceptable andcomprehensible to the readership.
Semantic translation Communicative translation Author-Centred. Reader-centred Related to speech Faithful, more literal. Easy reading, more Semantic and Syntactic natural, smoother, but oriented. longer Usually more awkward, Contents more more detailed, more accessible to the complex, but briefer. reader.
Newmark also referred to the following methods of translation: Literal translation Faithful translation Free translation Idiomatic translation Adaptation
Newmark mentioned the difference between: Translation methods. Translation procedures.