What is DOS?Short for Microsoft Disk OperatingSystem, MS-DOS is a non-graphical commandline operating system derived from 86-DOS thatwas created for IBM compatible computers. MS-DOS originally written by Tim Paterson andintroduced by Microsoft in August 1981and waslast updated in 1994 when MS-DOS 6.22 wasreleased.
Today, MS-DOS is no longer used; however,the command shell, more commonly knownas the Windows command line is still usedby many users. In the picture to the right, isan example of what a MS-DOS windowmore appropriately referred to as theWindows command line looks like underMicrosoft Windows.
1. How to Hide or Dismount a Partition in Windows2. An Ode to the Command Prompt - the MostPowerful and Least Used Windows Tool3. Fix Issues with your Boot Records4. Repair Missing or Corrupt Files5. Advanced Commands for System Information &Managing Active Tasks6. Advanced Disk Management Commands7. Advance Networking Commands8. How to use Basic Commands9. How to Customize the Command Prompt
HOW TO OPENCOMMAND PROMPT INWINDOWS 7 ANDWINDOWS 8
1. Launch the Command Prompt UsingSearch.Search is very helpful, both in Windows 7 and Windows 8.In Windows 7, open the Start Menu andtype command or cmd.Then, click the Command Prompt search result.
2. Launch it from the Run WindowOne of the quickest ways to launch the Command Prompt isto use the Run window (press Win+Ron your keyboard toopen it).Then, type cmd or cmd.exe and press Enter orclick/tap OK.
3. Launch it from the Start Menu/ScreenIf you like clicking on stuff and you are using Windows 7,open the Start Menu. Then, go to All Programs ->Accessories.There you will find the Command Prompt shortcut.
4. Create a Command Prompt Shortcuton the DesktopIf you prefer using your own shortcuts, then don’t hesitateto create a shortcut to the Command Prompt.
5. Pin it to the Start Menu/Screen or theTaskbarIf you would rather have a clean Desktop, you might wantto pin the Command Prompt to the taskbar, the StartMenu (in Windows 7) or to the Start screen (in Windows 8).
6. Launch it from Windows/File ExplorerLast but not least, you can open Windows Explorer (inWindows 7) or File Explorer (in Windows 8). Then, openthe partition where Windows is installed and browseto Windows -> System32.
WHAT IS COMMANDPROMPT?Before Windows came into the picture, the most commonoperating system was DOS (Disk Operating System). It wasa text-based operating system, that enabled you to runprograms by manually typing in commands. The launch ofthe Windows operating system simplified the wholecomputing experience by making it more visual. Eventhough DOS has not been included in Windows operatingsystems for years, there still is the Command Prompt - thetext command-line interpreter, analog of the command shellof its old DOS ancestor.
• This tool is generally used by more advancedusers such as system administrators to runcommands which might not be triggered from thevisual interface of Windows.• Even though it may look a bit unfriendly, it doesnot mean that you cannot learn how to use it. Ifyou will follow our mini-series you will see thatthis tool is useful and can be used by anyone.
To access the properties of the CommandPrompt and customize them, right click on itswindow and select Properties.
You will notice four tabs with options that can beconfigured: Options, Font, Layout and Colors.
CUSTOMIZE THE COMMANDPROMPT CURSOR SIZE,BUFFERS AND EDIT MODES
First, you have the Options tab. It has threesections: Cursor Size, Command History and EditOptions.
For the cursor you can choose its size by using oneof the available options: Small, Medium or Large.Command History area you can customize howmany commands are retained in the buffer.The buffer serves as a historical record of thecommands you have run and you can use the upand down arrow keys to navigate through thepreviously entered commands.
Number of Buffers determines for how manyconcurrent instances of the CommandPrompt you’re having separate buffers created.Discard Old Duplicates, allows Windows toremove duplicate command entries from the buffer.Edit Options area you have only twooptions: Quick Edit Mode and Insert Mode.
A sample of how Quick Edit Mode works can beviewed in the capture below. With the mouse, Iselected the text for copying. I pressed Enter andthe text was copied to the clipboard.
The Layout tab has three simple sections whereyou can configure the size of the CommandPrompt window and of the lines of text within it.The available options are as follows:• Screen Buffer Size - allows you to configure thenumber of characters that are displayed on a linein the Command Prompt window. This isachieved by adjusting the Width value, and thenumber of lines that are stored in memory, byadjusting the Height value;
• Window Size - allows you to selectthe Width and Height of the window.• Window Position - enables you to configurethe Command Prompts window distance fromthe left and top edges of the screen. This optionworks only if the Let System PositionWindow check box is not checked.• Let System Position Window - if its checked,you won’t be able to configure the windowposition settings.
• The Colors tab is easy to configure. There arefour items that can be customized:• Screen Text - allows you to set the color of thetext displayed in the Command Prompt window;• Screen Background - enables you to choose thebackground color of the Command Promptwindow;• Popup Text - allows you to set the color of thetext displayed in a pop-up window;• Popup Background - permits you to set thebackground color of a pop-up window.
HOW TO NAVIGATE BETWEEN FOLDERSThe first command from the list is CD (ChangeDirectory). This command enables you to changethe current directory (or folder).The command CD takes you to the top of thedirectory tree.
Now you are working on the C: drive. Ifyou need to go to a specific folder from thisdrive just type CD DIRECTORYNAME.The subdirectory names are separated by .For example when you need to accessthe System32 folder that is locatedon C:Windows just type cdwindowssystem32, and then press Enter.
When you need to go to one folder up, usethe cd.. command. Lets assume that youwant to go back to the Windows folder.Type cd.. and press Enter. You will noticethat your current directory has changedto C:Windows.
To access another drive just type the driveletter followed by :. For example, wewanted to change the drive from C: to D:.We have typed d: and then pressed Enter.
To change the drive and the directory at thesame time, use the cd command followed bythe /dswitch. The parameter is used tochange the current drive to a specific folderfrom other partition. For example, now youare on the D: drive and you want to go backto the C: drive directly tothe Windows folder. Type cd/dC:Windows and press Enter, as you can seein the following image.
You can make a new directory usingthe MKDIR (Make Directory) command.The syntax of this command is MKDIRdirectory name.Lets say we need to create a new foldercalled 7tutorials_v1 that will be placed inthed:7tutorials folder. We will type mkdir7tutorials_v1 and then we press Enter.
To run a program from the CommandPrompt, you need only to navigate to thedirectory that contains the executable andsimply type in the program name.
For example, if we want to launchPaint using Command Line, we have to goto C:WindowsSystem32 and there we willfind the executable called mspaint.exe. Letssee how this operation can be done, if we areon D:7tutorials. First off all we have tochange the working directory to theapplications folder by typing cd/dc:windowsSystem32. Then we justwrite mspaint.exe and press Enter. Bothcommands can be seen in the capture below.
NOTE: When a corrupt or missing systemfile prevents the operating system frombooting normally, you need to use theWindows 7 setup DVD or a System RepairDisc to start the Command Prompt and, fromthere the System File Checker (SFC). IfWindows 7 boots, but you get messagesabout missing system files, you will be ableto fix the problem by running the SystemFile Checker (SFC) in the Command Prompt
In the Command Prompt window, usethe sfc command with two additionalparameters:/offbootdir and /offwindir.The parameter /offbootdir is used to specify theboot partition - the partition that contains the bootfiles needed for booting Windows 7.The /offwindir parameter is designed to specify thelocation of the Windows 7 directory.