Basic ComputerHardware and Software.Prepared by: Teacher CamilleGuilford County SciVisV103.01
Input Devices Input Devices: devicesthat input information intothe computer such as akeyboard, mouse, scanner,and digital camera.
Output Devices Output: devices that outputinformation from thecomputer such as a printerand monitor.
Central Processing Unit CPU (Central Processing Unit) also called theMicroprocessor or “The Brain” of theComputer. Processor speed: The speed at which amicroprocessor executes instructions. This isusually measured in megahertz (MHz). Brands of Processors include: Pentium Celeron MAC AMD Cyrix
Central Processing Unit Computer chip: also calledthe microprocessor maycontain an entire processingunit. Computer chips containmillions of transistors. Theyare small pieces of semi-conducting material (silicon). An integrated circuit isembedded in the silicon.Computers are made ofmany chips on a circuitboard.
Data Storage Devices The hard-drive is amechanical storage devicetypically located internally. Fast recording andrecovery of data Large storage capacity Magnetic Primary storage device fordata and programs Speed is measured inR.P.M.’s
Data Storage Devices (cont’d) CD-ROM (compact diskread only memory) Approximately 600to 700 megabyte ofstorage An optical deviceread by a diode laser
Data Storage Devices (cont’d) Floppy diskette ismagnetic storagedevice for smallamounts of data(1.44MB). FLASH drive is acompact and portableelectronic storagedevice. USB (plug and play)supported
Computer Memory Computer memory is binary (0 or 1) (on or off). The byte is the standard unit of measurement. A byte is composed of 8 bits (binary digits). Typical units of measurement: 1 KB (kilobyte) = 1000 bytes 1 MB (megabyte) =1000 kilobytes or 1 millionbytes 1 GB (gigabyte) =1000 megabytes or 1 billionbytes
Computer Memory RAM (random accessmemory) stores data thatis processing. This type ofmemory is erased whenthe computer is turnedoff. ROM (read only memory)contains specialinstructions for thecomputer to operate. Cache memory increasesthe speed of the processorby recording andanticipating instructions.
Graphic User Interface (GUI) GUI (Graphic User Interface) is a set ofimages and icons seen on the desktopused to operate a program. The GUI makes the programs loadedon the computer easier to accessand use. Basic Windows GUI Icons are small pictures thatrepresent files, commands, orwindows. Windows is a GUI operatingsystem unlike UNIX, whichuses text commands.
Video Cards Video cards plug into themotherboard and areused to display video. VRAM is video memorythat enhances therefreshment rate of theimage. Video cards have chipsetsthat can increase thespeed of video display.
Ports and PeripheralsPorts are an interface between the computer andanother peripheral device such as a disk drive,mouse, printer, modem, monitor, camera, FLASHdrive or keyboard.Examples:SerialParallelhot-wireUSB
Ports and PeripheralsPeripherals are devicesthat plug into acomputer and are nothoused internally.Examples:PrintersScannersCameras
Resolution Resolution refers to thenumber of pixels (pictureelements) in the monitorimage. Increased resolution usesmore computer resourcesbut increases the visualclarity of the display.
Resolution Screen resolution is measured inpixel per inch (ppi), and printerresolution is measured in dots perinch (dpi). Computer screen resolution isapproximately 72 ppi.Width x Height (Pixels) VideoDisplay640 x 480 Low Resolution800 x 600 Medium Resolution1600 x 1200 High Resolution
LAN and WAN LAN: are networks usuallyin the same company orbuilding. The Local AreaNetwork is connected viatelephone lines or radiowaves. Most LANs connectworkstations. WAN: are systems ofLANs that are connected.(Wide-area network)
Bandwidth and Baud Rate Bandwidth is how muchinformation can becarried in a given timeperiod (usually asecond) over a wired orwirelesscommunications link. Baud rate is the rate atwhich information istransferred in acommunication channel.
Multitasking and Multiprocessing Multitasking is the abilityto execute more than onetask (program) at thesame time. Only one CPUis used but switches fromone program to another. In multiprocessing, morethan one CPU is used tocomplete a task.Example: networkrendering.
Multimedia Multimedia softwareprograms include sound,pictures, video, text, andhypertext to createpresentations.Software includes:PowerPointMacromedia DirectorFLASH
File Management Different programs have different file extensions. Naming files - avoid the following characters in namingfiles:Examples: @ * . Understand the parts of a path name.Example: C:SciVismovie.aviDrive designator Directory or folder File name Fileextension
File Management Saving files - know the differencebetween “save” and “save as”.“Save” will save the opendocument over the saveddocument while “save as” createsa new document if you renamethe document. Save often sowork will not be lost. Exporting – converts a nativeformat to a non-native file formatused in various softwareprograms. In vector programs,file types may be exported.
File Management Merging files - in 3Dgraphics, bringing anoutside file into anopen file (anothername for this may beloading or replacingobjects in theworkspace). Importing files -bringing a convertednon-native format fileinto an open file.