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Eight we appreciate


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An outline of the history and evolution of shoes

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Eight we appreciate

  1. 1. The eight we appreciate A brief history of shoes Cameron Kippen
  2. 2. The eight we appreciate  The Moccasin (15,000 years old)  The Sandal (10,000 years old)  The Mule (6,000 years old)  The Clog (5,000 years old)  The Boot (4.500 years old)  The Monk Strap (15th Century)  The Oxford (17th Century)  The Pump (18th Century)
  3. 3. Basic Foot Cover The earliest wrap around foot protector was crudely crafted from vegetable or animal material and required to be attached to the foot and leg with twine. Sewing strengthened the crude shoe and was improved with the addition of soling (usually bark, fleece or fish skins).
  4. 4. What came first ?  Shoes occurred before written history and artefacts of pre-historic footwear are rarely, if ever, found.  Clothing made from vegetable or animal materials perish easily and when human remains are found more often than not the extremities are missing due to animal activity. Moccasins (15,000 yo ) and Sandals (10,000 yo) vie chronologically as the oldest shoes.
  5. 5. The Sandal  Sandals were worn about 10,000 years ago which coincides with the Neolithic Age (or New Stone Age).  Sandals were the preferred footwear in warmer climates and became fashioned during the Greco-Roman Period. Then were almost lost to history after the Fall of the Roman Empire.
  6. 6. Steps in shoe evolution  Craft - Needles & Leather  Heels & Horses  Sumptuary Laws  The French Revolution  War  The Industrial Revolution  Consumerism  The Space Race There are eight separate stages in the evolution of shoes that bring us from the earliest crude foot covers to the sophisticated range and variety of shoes we all enjoy today. Remember too all are variations of the eight basic shoe styles described by Rossi , and all were invented by men for men.
  7. 7. Craft Specialisation When people started living together, tasks for day to day survival were shared among the community. This also allowed our ancestors to engage in other activities to benefit the whole community, such as hunting and fishing As collectives became more complex and ranking systems developed, the ‘jack of all trade,’ approach was replaced by specialisation, where individuals were dedicated specifically to precise tasks e.g, the production of certain items like clothing . Clothing, became quite an art form and was worn for decoration as much as protection. Humans have known about weaving since Palaeolithic era (about 50,000 years ago).
  8. 8. Needles & Leather During the Upper Palaeolithic era (40k- 25k years ago), needles with eyes become precision tools used for sewing skins and furs. Moccasins can be traced back 15,000 years and the earliest archaeological finds were decorated suggesting shoes were worn for more than protection.
  9. 9. Leather In the 4th millennium BCE, the Sumerians were noted artisans and wore clothing made from treated animal skins. Flat thongs were adapted for soldiers (1370 BCE) and once the seafaring Phoenicians (1550 BCE to 300 BCE) discovered leather dyeing, colours became a badge of authority. As the Mediterranean Civilisations adopted footwear, they added to the styles and embellishments whilst keeping shoe wearing to the privileged.
  10. 10. The Roman Sandal Caligae (27 BC–AD 476)
  11. 11. Ancient Egyptian Sandals King Narmer is seen here smiting his enemies barefoot but standing behind him is his footman carrying his thongs). Sandal making was broken down into different processes
  12. 12. Ancient Egyptian Sandals
  13. 13. Ancient Silk Routes Paduka circa 3000 BCE. European clogs dated to the 13th Century
  14. 14. Mules Ancient Sumerians (c. 5500 and 4000 BC) wore a back-less leather slippers called a mulu (or mules). Similar to modern slippers these were made from sumptuous leathers and worn indoors. The hierarchy of the newly formed Christian Church indulged themselves in sumptuous dress, including ornate pontifical mules, whereas lowly clerics wore simple sandals devoid of fashion and symbolism. Monks Sandal 13th Century Pontifical Sandals
  15. 15. Heels & Horses During the Dark Ages (5th -10th century) crafts fell into abeyance & shoes became very expensive. Even those who could afford them welcomed the opportunity to have their shoes repaired. Heels were an economy measure. The invading horsemen of Genghis Khan (1162 – 1227) wore small red Cuban heels to help them become more secure in their stirrups. Moreover, this allowed the moving archer the stability necessary to fire with greater accuracy
  16. 16. Sumptuary Laws Sumptuary laws were made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, and furniture. These were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions making it easier to separate those of social rank and privilege from the hoi polloi. The laws frequently prevented commoners from imitating the appearance of aristocrats and also could be used to stigmatize disfavoured groups within society.
  17. 17. Sumptuary Laws Antiquity In Ancient Greece women were restricted to three articles of clothing in public, most chose to forgo wearing shoes. From the days of antiquity, the right to wear shoes was a privilege only afforded to the free- men and the affluent. Colour and styling, including the style of shoes became the discernible means of depicting rank in Roman times.
  18. 18. Sumptuary Laws Middle Ages As trade and commerce increased during the Middle Ages, towns became more centres of wealth and feudal lords soon found themselves in competition with a growing wealthy middle class. Once the nobility found their position of supremacy encroached upon, they passed sumptuary laws to put a check on the ostentatious display of the nouveaux riche. The Laws also allowed the upper classes to indulge themselves in grave excesses. The Poulaine – long toed shoes
  19. 19. Sumptuary Laws Elizabethan period Despite steep financial penalties many people ignored the laws because the nouveaux rich could well afford to pay them. They also found ways to circumvent the sumptuary laws. By the end of the Elizabethan period many questioned the need to enact them at all since they felt high living was advantageous to the nation. This was of course provided the luxuries were manufactured at home since it encouraged domestic manufacture and commerce. Some men supported sumptuary laws because they did not want to have their wealth squandered by wives and concubines on luxuries.
  20. 20. The French Connection Catherine Medici (1519 – 1589) Louis XIV (1638 –1715)
  21. 21. The French Revolution (1789 – 1799) Madame de Pompadour (1721- 1764) Marie Antoinette (1755 –1793) Pompadour heels
  22. 22. The French Connection II The Clog The Oxford Shoe Fashion Heels
  23. 23. The Oxford Shoe
  24. 24. War Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, (1769-1852). Napoleon I
  25. 25. The Pump Alfred d'Orsay (1801 –1852)
  26. 26. The Industrial Revolution Cordwainer Ten Foot Shoe Shop Mass Production
  27. 27. Consumerism
  28. 28. The Space Race
  29. 29. WARNING This material has been copied and communicated to you by or on behalf of Cameron Kippen pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further copying or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice Commonwealth of Australia Copyright Regulations 1969