英文書報 作業二 論文寫作的結構賞析Thesis topic : DIGITAL FABRICATION(Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bendingand digital fabrication)模矩化雨水收集系統發展-利用彎版與數位構築方式 Date : 2012.5.17 Tutor : Professor Stephen Roe Student : 詹竣策(m0017106)
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Introductio Motivation , G Motivation :n oal 1.In digital design , the possibility of form blooms but when it turns to real fabrication , the wonderful form of curvature becomes pieces and is supported by additional structural elements that breaks the original beauty of form.
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Introductio Motivation , 2.The development of digitaln Goal design projects are more like works of art but not a real canopy that can support the load itself and honestly face the environmental issue like weather , rain , wind , sunshine and humidity. 3.The canopies are made most in school projects having problems of cost , members of workers and finishing time.
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Introductio Motivation , Goal:n Goal 1.To realize and measure the problems between digital design and real fabrication. 2.Finishing the methodology of fabrication 3.Correct and review the process of digital fabrication and real fabrication 4.Developing potential form and material of fabrication that can decrease the gap between digital and real fabrication.
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Body ISSUE ●ISSUE: The Problem and strategy of fabrication 1.Currently available techniques in fabrication 2. Critiques on time content 3. Critiques on cost content 4. Conclusion a. The systematic apprisal of existing fabrication techniques b. The criteria : cost c. The complexity(The amount of man hours involved)
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Body SOLUTION d. The conduct between digital design and real materiality(Issue of scaling from model to full size) ●Solution: From research to design steps 1. a. The introduction of drainage issue process b. Process : Braided river c. The extract of folding models 2.
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Body a. Rough types SOLUTION b. The mathematics of folding cases c. Systematic types 3. a. Fabrication research b. The methodology of translating from digital to fabricated
Thesis topic DIGITAL FABRICATION (Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bending and digital fabrication)Body PROCESS Process : Steps a. Design process in computer b. The interactive process : using models c. The output from computer(direct or indirect?) d. The production of parts e. Final assemblyConclusion Conclusion and following-up development 1.cocnclusion 2. following-up development
1.Tectonic: ●It is from Greek:”tekton”,meaning the carpenter or constructor. ●Afterwards , it means “the process of creation”,and roughly “the creation of art ”, even the culture , methods and concept. 2.A German Botticher(1852) started to mention tectonic in architecture territory. ●He thought that a building should have two parts- nuclear and cladding . The nuclear should reflect the intrinsic quality of nuclear. ●He also mentioned the concept ” part and whole”.
3.A German Semper(1951) classified the tectonics into four ways: ●Earthwork The harth The framing Enclosing membrane ●He emphasized that JOINT is the most important tectonics in forming a building , and also the tectonics to separate different materials in a building. Example: Tectonics of the frame Stereotomics of the earthwork (Wood,Steel) (Masonry,brick,Reinforced concrete) 4.Sekler(1957) mentioned ● the relationship among Structure , Construction and Tectonics in case study.
5.Vallhonrat(1988) mentioned ● how structures and technique influence the tectonics. 6.Gregotti(1983) thought ●detail is the principle of material and tectonics , and tectonics are the expression of a building. ●The structure is from the deliberating of materials. 7.Frampton(1990,1005) emphasized ●connection is the tiniest and most basic element in structure. ●He defined tectonics as poetics of construction.
Tectonics vs. Anti-tectonics 1.Mitchell(1998) brought up ●digital process of design and construction ●anti-tectonics 2.Leach(2004) surveyed ●the digital works by UN Studio , FOA , dECOi… ●Classical buildings is mainly about Form(a motionless state). Digital building is mainly about Formation(a active state). Conclusion: Q:Is there any possibility that whether the analysis of classical buildings in tectonics can be used in digital works? ●We need a framework of new tectonics to generalize the classical tectonics and digital tectonics.
Pre-digital , Digital and Post-digital 1.Architecutural history should be seen as the process of developing the tectonics. 2.The concepts of tectonics(view points from professor Liu) ●Micro-historical : are from prehistoric to post modern. ●Micro-historical : pre digital , digital and post digital 3.Pre-digital ●Antoni Gaudi , Rudolf Steiner , Le Corbusier and Jorn Utzon subverted traditional tectonics by challenging “making forms ” and “thinking spaces”. 4.Digital ●Because of the maturity of digital processes ,techniques development and the cooperation between architects and engineers like Ove Arup , the design of a building became less unlimited. ●Example : Frank Gehry , Peter Eisenman , Greg Lynn , UNStudio,FOA,dECOi… 5.Post-digital ●Toyo Ito,Renzo Piano, Richard Meier(Jubilee Church),Zaha hadid
Classic v.s. Digital (Research methods : The case study) Three steps ●First step: We use six classic tectonic factors (Joint , Detail,Material,Object,Strucutre,Construction) One new factor(The characteristic of sense and topogaraphy , and it is the relationship among a building , its site and people) Interaction We use these seven factors to analysis the 15 elegant works of winners in the Far East International Digital Architectural Design Award ,The Feidad Award.
●Second step: After analyzing the 15 works by using the seven elements (Joint,Detail,Material,Object,Strucutre,Construction and interaction), we discover that some concepts from the 15 digital works are more than these seven factors,so we summarize that there are four more factors that should be gained and added in the analysis. Motion ,Information,Generation and Fabrication We use these four new factors to analyse the 15 works. ●Third step: We use four digital factor(Motion ,Information , Generation and Fabrication) to analyze 15 other realistic projects by architects . These architects have the experience of post-digital and digital design , so the validation of four factor will be the help of the establishment of new theory of tectonics.
Classical Tectonic Thinking We use the theses from Boetticher(1982) , Semper(1951) , Sekler(1965) ,Gregotti(1983) ,F rascari(1983),Moneo(1988),Vallhonrat(1988) and Frampton(1995) to explain the seven classical tectonic factor. ●Joint It is the smallest and most important element in construction,and it can be seen as the generator of construction.It can connect the whole building,material and structures by different layers contacts. ●Detail It is the description of the quality of material,and also the relationship of forming the building among the scale ,placing and making.
●Material It is the element to express the forming and composition of the construction in a building. ●Object It is the parts of a building,just like columns , walls , floors , doors, windows…. The building is composited by many parts. ●Structure It is the concept,unit,or the process to deliver the power. Structure is also a keyterm to influence the tectonics.
●Construction It is the working process to achieve the concept of structure,and it also possess the the relation in layer and the process in logic. It makes the objects of a building arranging in order from small to large. ●Interactive It is the relationship between buildings and sites,people and a building. It is established in the basic of topography and perception. Digital Tectonic Thinking ●Motion Digital design is the development of motive process,just like form-making(形體操作) and form-evolution(形體推演 by morphing(形體混合).
●Information The immateriality of digital and virtuality makes the material combined with information,and it is composed into the form of a building to be a new kind of material. Information becomes the new material of surface on a building. ●Generation It is the process to automatically generate the shape and the concept of a building by using derivation systems and calculating methods. ●Fabrication It is the process to produce the objects and constructing methods by using CAD/CAM(rapid- prototyping,rp),(computer numeric control),(3d scanning).
New Tectonics? ●Because of the development of digital technique,traditional tectonics have changed dramatically. ●We need to continue on developing digital theory of architecture by systematically methods of combining digital tectonics and classical tectonics. ●How new digital tectonic factors are oriented from the classical tectonic factors? ●Is there any difference between new factors and old factors? ●How the thought of tectonics change by time passing? ●How the basic design process in the tectonics of buildings change from classical,predigital,digital to post digital?
Five elements of digital fabricationA . sectioning: Example : Space,LAN DEMOSEY&ALVIN HUANG,2008 the manufacturing: The designer cut the streamline shape into lots of projections,andthe method generates lots of sections and plans which becomes themanufacturing skeleton to be produced.B . Tessellation: Example : DeiraSphere Dubai,IwamotoScott,2008 the manufacturing: the streamline shape is constructed by slips . The slips areconnected to each other very closely to construct the planar orcurvature . The shape and density of each slip desicdes the shape ofthe whole body.
Five elements of digital fabricationc.Contouring: Example:Church in Liesing,Erwin Hauer and EnriqueRosado,1952 the manufacturing: Contouring is the techinique to re-generate the surface.Itis often used in architectural material.Is is the way likesculpture.d.Forming: Example:P_WALL ,Andrew Kudless,2009 the manufacturing:It uses economical and certainmanufacturing to produce an element with lots ofduplicated units.It is often used in the joints of a buildinglike pre-cast boards,the joints of construction,theornament,wall and even the whole building.
■Mathematical surfaces and serials What is surface and series?☆Surface-two dimensional space , less than gossamer thin Series-one dimensional idea of sequential elements that build,within a defining relationship,a changing path☆The difinition of intrinsic surface space and series governinggrowth or change are at the heart of the space-making process.☆ Surface Surface Boudaries Interface of matter of liquid,gaseous,solid and space
☆Surface are generally complex and dynamic at molecular scale.☆In architecture,surface is predominantly a geometrical idea.☆What ideas of surface excite the designer? 1.the notion of impossible thinnes(Gauss‟s disappearingdimension) 2.the qualitative differences between surface as plane,curves inone direction or warped in two. 3.self-intersection☆Some surfaces,when immersed in three dimensions,pass throughthemselves.☆The Klein Bottletopologically non-orientable example☆Ennerper minimal surfacedefined by its curvature
■TEN KINDS OF SURFACES☆Thinness The search to find a form of materiality that dematerializes andleaves the suggestion of a two-dimensional threshold between spaceand another without substance or weight.Example:1.The tensile structures of Frei Otto2.Anish Kapoor‟s Marsyas installation in Tate Mordern‟sTurbine Hall☆The planeThe surface rarely experiences in the physical world except when built.Cartesian idea spaceinfinite extension in an idealized,three-dimensional,continous,homogenous space.Example:Mies Van der roheThe preoccupation back to the Renaissance and the development ofprojective geometry.
☆Singel-curvatureDennis Shelden‟s „developable surface<that>sneak on you‟ +Frank Gehry‟s paper modeling design processTacit constraint systemPaper and its bending behavior☆Double-curvatureSlightly different Significantly differentSet of conditions,intension Mathematics OUTCOMEThin shell structures1.expoited such shapes for strength2.the geometries of tensile fabric structuredAntoni Gaudi‟developing an architectural language of ruled surfaces.Felex Candela They found surface throughHeinz Isler physical analogue modeling techniques.Lamis XankisFrei OttoGerd Fischer
To designer using digital computation,these surfaces are now availableas instant graphical representations from their algebraic descriptions. The challenge is only to consider fabrication techniques that embracethe design possibilities presented.☆Self-intersectionNon-orientable surfaces(those with no clear inside and outside)Architects engaged with them on topology. It manifests in three dimensions but disappears in the fourth. Surface is an important concept in topology A surfacetwo dimensional manifold(differential geometry for amathematical space)
Stephen Hydecurvature and non-Euclidean geometry as fundamentalto the Modelling of matter at molecular and atomic scalesCurvatures are fundamental space-makers for architectural modelers.Since curvature,surface is an idea that has grown in significance.Curvature Extrinsic Curvature Intrinsic CurvatureA straight linezero curvatureA circle constant curvature equal to the inverse of it‟sRadiusWhen radius the curvature of a larger circleWhy the curvature have to be embedded in two or three dimensions inorder to measure it?Surfaces1.It have an extrinsic curvature that is visible whenthey are embedded ina three-dimensional space.2.Curvature is also intrinsic.As we walk across a curved surface in two dimensions,the curvature isstill perceptible.
☆ Non-Eclidean geometryIt developed from 19 century.Fifth(parallel),postulate implies that for any given infinite line and pointoff that line,there is one and only one line through the point that isparallel.HyperbolicHyperbolic plane can be imagines as a saddle-shapedsurface in three dimensions.Elliptical(Riemannian)☆Minimal surfacesThe sum of curvature in two principal directions on the surface is zeromeans minimal surface.When a wire is dipped into a soap solution manifestats the familiarshape.Catenoids minimal surfaceEnneper surfaceself-intersect inthree dimensionsHelicoidsCosta Hoffman-Meeks minimal surfacethrice-punctures torus ☆Mathematical surfacesThey can be described in analytical geometry.
Topologically homologous(equivalent) surfacesmaybe very differentin shape.Mathematical surfacescan be described in analytical geometry,andbelong to generic families that vary parametrically,the characteristicsof their shape matters.☆SeriesGregory Bateson‟s „pattern that connects‟refer to the genotypical andphenotypical variations within spacies.Every crab has the same number of legs and each leg has arecognizably chrracteristic shape,no two crabs are the same size andnor are their legs the same shape.Algorithms that control the idea of series can introduce the level ofrepetition with its implicit‟genetic‟variation into architecture within ageometric schema that allows ana overall meta-level of pattern-making to be real.
1.Geometry is the best way to achieve the code and algorythm of material and nature.2.Geometry is the transcendent between digital fabrication and real manufacturing.3.Surface is the most important part in geometry research
The possiblity of digital fabrication 1.It lies new possibility since Frank Gehry used CATIA in the architectural design and construction. 2.Previously the large number of standard and modular production in construction limited the freedom of design into horizontal and vertical elements. 3.Through Parametric Design methods and CAD/CAM technique ,the design can be easier to turn from the standard and large amount into the customization , and it is more possibility to discuss the shape.
The possiblity of digital fabrication4.Parametric design could delete the digital information gapbetween the design , drawings and construction in traditionaltectonic , and it makes the designer has a good communicationwith the client , even the consumer have more choices.5.The topic of this chapter is to combine the parametric designand the digital manufacturing,and it focuses on curvature trussfrom a thesis “the parametric design and digital tectonics ofcurvature trusses” from Ms.Wang(王燕晴),2011.6.Ms.Wang‟s thesis has dicussed much in Lisa Iwamoto‟s book“Digital Fabrication,2009”.The book classifies digitalmanufacturing into five types: Sectioning,Tessellation,Folding,Contouring and Forming *the manufacturing introduction of the five elements
The establishment of a research goal-finding problems Architecture has more possibilities and imagination because of the digital software using and virtual models making . From the words be mentioned in "Digital fabrication" by Lisa Iwamoto : Digital fabrication , in particular , has spurred a design revolution , yielding a wealth of architectural invention and innovation. The cases in the book "Digital fabrication" are very innovative ones that try to challenge the form in curvature .The works are beautiful but cannot afford the loading itself . The loading are spread to the boundary or the wall . Below I mention some problems of nowadays digital fabrication:
The establishment of a research goal-finding problems 1.The Loading problem-the loading are forward the boundary that it could not bear by themself. 2.The structure are very light , using temporary material like wood and paper and it could not stand very long 3.The digital models in virtually are curvature in whole and wonderful shaping , but when they come to the real fabrication , they are separated into pieces . The joints between every single element are the problem . It could decrease the strengthen of the structure , and making the shape not the same as in the computer.
The establishment of a research goal-finding strategy 4.Just like the Taichung Metropolitan Opera House by Toyo Ito is perfect in virtually , but when it turns to the real fabrication,it is slow,having the problem of cost(including material,employees and time of finishing) 5.My research is to focus on the best way- folding from five methods of fabrication from Lisa Iwamoto(sectioning , tessellating , folding , contouring , and forming) to construct a sustainable and ecological system of canopy and surface of building. 6.The canopy and surface are devoting on the water issue when the world is facing the extreme weather.
CONCLUSION Case1,case2 use folding and tessellating to form the canopy,but they have disadvantage of: 1.Labour Intense(using school cheaper labour to finish the project,but if we have to finish it outside it could gain cost of workers a lot) 2.Not self-supporting(Like the voisour cloud designed by Iwamoto,the structure are affordance by the press from the boundary. 3.Not weather -Proof(The canopy cannot be expoesed on the outsides environment like raining day,sunshing exposing or extreme weather)
4.More like Art Installation thanbuilding(Because the tectonic of thestructure doesnt afford the wholebearing,facilities....etc.) Case 3 and Case4 are the successfuldigital fabrication canopies that not olnychallenge the possibilities of the form,butalso afford the stregthen and the weathersucessfully. In "Translations from Drawing toBuilding,"Robin Evans expands on theinevitable separation architects encounterbetween drawing,the traditional mediumof the design,and the building,the finaloutcome of their work.
2.Reference and Case study(3 cases minimun) 2.1 The definition of digital fabrication 2.2 The general descriptions of cases 2.3 The fabrication processes of cases 2.4 Similarities and differances of cases and theconclusion(What is useful for the thesis?) 3.The Problem and strategy of fabrication 3.1 Currently available techniques in fabrication 3.2 Critiques on time content 3.3 Critiques on cost content 3.4 Conclusion a. The systematic apprisal of existing fabrication techniques b. The criteria : cost c. The complexity(The amount of man hours involved) d. The conduct between digital design and real materiality(Issue of scaling from model to full size)
4.From research to design steps 4.1 a. The introduction of drainage issue process b. Process : Braided river c. The extract of folding models4.2 a. Rough types b. The mathematics of folding cases c. Systematic types 4.3 a. Fabrication research b. The methodology of translating from digital to fabricated 4.4 Steps a. Design process in computer b.The interactive process : using models c. The output from computer(direct or indirect?) d. The production of parts e. Final assembly
CASE STUDY1◆How to make the model separate and form? The three dimensional petals are formed by folding thin wood laminate along curved seams. The curve produces an inflected and dished form that relies on the internal surface tension of the wood and folded geometry of the flanges to hold its shape. At the same time, materially, the flanges want to bulge out along the curved edge. This is what allows for the structural porosity within the constraints of sheet material. The flanges of the resulting dimpled, concave petals pack together as compressive elements and press upon each other. This attribute naturally creates vaulted forms and led initially to the overall design◆How long does it take to be built? Two weeks◆How many people work on this project? : 18◆How much does it cost? Unknown◆The inner area that the canopy cover About 300 meter square◆Date . Location . Purpose . Built or destroyed . indoor or outdoor opened on 1 August and continues until 14 September. has opened at the SCI-Arc Gallery in Los Angeles.
CASE STUDY22 .Case :PET PAVILION Fabricator : Carl Christofferson 2010 Museum of Comtemporaryart,Taipei Indoor (1)He spread the graphicVoronoi on the surface of thehalf ellipse. (2)The material are PET with5mm in thickness ,and the construction is divided into 6parts .When the pet is curved and connected with eachother ,the rigitity of material getshigher (3)The joints between twoelements are spiral
CASE STUDY34.CASE:HELIOS HOUSE FABRICATOR:OFFICE DA and JOHNSTON MARKLEE &ASSOCIATES,2006-2007(1)Materials: The site utilizes farmed wood from renewable sources;bathroom tiles utilize 100 percent recycled glass; signage is madefrom stainless steel scraps from the project; all stainless steel usedon site is recyclable.(2) Using a structural bay as a starting point, the cladding systemunifies the column base, shaft, and capital with the canopy.Furthermore, the surface works parametrically to incorporatearchitectural and technical features using the same technique. Thepay kiosk, the structure, the fin panels (as signs), and the canopyare shaped from the same faceted surface. The triangulatedstainless steel panels reconcile complex, and sometimescontradictory, requirements of the site, program, codes, andzoning ordinances, and establish the site』s identity.
CASE STUDY4AlgoRhythm Technologies™ generates awide range of unique forms from its geneticcode.演算法技術產生一個很寬廣範圍的獨特造型來自於材料本身的基因特性Material flows under its own weight andother forces according to morphologic lawsthat pertain more to fluid motion than tostatic objects. By freeing the elements ofconstruction from their rigid geometries,AlgoRhythm Technologies unfolds infiniteopportunities to model a new architecture.材料的動作來自型態學的規則所造成的自身重量與力量.這依據於動態流體力學更甚於穩定物質.經由將結構的元素從剛硬幾何特性解放出來.演算式技術展現出無限構築新模型的機會
11 Digital Design Manual Marco Hemmerling CAD、Digital design DOM Publishers,Berlin/Germany12 Frank Lloyd Wright and Kevin Nute Tectonic,Oriented style、 Routledge(Taylor&Francis Group) Japan culture13 The Details of Modern Edward R. Ford Tectonics、Details、 The MIT Press Architecture Ornament14 On and By FRANK Lloyd Robert Mccarter Form Grammer,Culture Phaidon Wright(A Primer of Architecural Principles)15 The New Mathematics of Jane Burry+Mark Burry Mathematics、Tectonics Thames Architecture &Hudsin16 The Function of Ornament Farshid Tectonics、Ornament、 Harvard University,Graduate Moussavi,Michael Kubo Culture、Climate School of Design17 Precedents In Architecture- Roger H. Clark Analytic John Wiley&Sons Analytic Diagrams,Formative Michael Pause Diagrams,Formative Inc.,Hoboken,New Jersey Ideas,and Partis Ideas,and Partis18 Details in Contemporary Jennifer N. Thompson Details、Tectonics Princeton Architecture Press Architecture19 ClimateSkin-Building skin Gerhard Details、Tectonics、 Birkhauser,Germany concepts that can do more Hausladen,Michael de Climate with less energy Saldnha,Petra Liedl20 Studies in Tectonic Culture Kenneth Frampton Tectonics、Culture The MIT Press
英文書報 作業二 論文寫作的結構賞析Thesis topic : DIGITAL FABRICATION(Modular rainwater collection system using sheet-bendingand digital fabrication)數位設計與真實構築之接合可能性與落差研究(以建築皮層對應永續環境設計操作為例) Date : 2012.5.17 Tutor : Professor Stephen Roe Student : 詹竣策(m0017106)