A&p chapter 1 pp

519 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
519
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Major Themes
    Life is defined by specific characteristics.
    Form and function are intimately related at every level of life.
    Life is sustained by specific things in the external environment.
    Life is maintained by strict, automatic reactions that adjust the internal environment.
    Precise communication is a key attribute of science and requires specialized descriptive language.
  • Notes:
    Types of anatomy:
    Gross anatomy: structures seen with naked eye
    Microscopic anatomy: invisible to naked eye
    Three states:
    Life: form and function combine to produce biologic activity
    Illness: abnormal form or function
    Death: end of biologic activity
  • Characteristics of life: all living things share four functions:
    - Organization
    - Metabolism
    - Adaptation
    -Reproduction
    Question: We shiver when it is cold to generate more heat. Which function of life does this represent?
    Answer: Adaptation
    Notes:
    Organism: complete life form that can function independently of other life forms
    Organization is maintained by boundaries that separate the internal environment from the external environment.
    Metabolism involves anabolism and catabolism.
  • The human hand, with thumb rotated at 90°, is capable of a pincer grip.
    The monkey hand, with thumb parallel to other fingers, only allows a less precise (but stronger) palmar grip.
    Question: True or false: the structure of the monkey’s hand refers to its physiology.
    False; structure refers to anatomy
  • Question: Which is the smallest building block illustrated in this figure?
    Answer: atoms
  • Astronauts carry their life-sustaining environment with them.
    Question: Which necessities of life are illustrated?
    Answer: Pressure, oxygen, temperature
    Notes:
    Elements we normally get from our environment include pressure, oxygen, heat, water, and nutrients.
    Pressure includes static pressure (such as atmospheric pressure) and dynamic pressure (e.g., strong wind, blood pressure). Blood pressure is controlled by volume, heart activity, blood vessel diameter
    Oxygen is about 20% of air. Absorbed by the lungs, it unlocks chemical nutrients from food and keeps cells alive.
    Body temperature must be maintained within extremely narrow limits, but livable environmental temperature can vary widely. Heat is generated by metabolism, dissipated by radiation, increased when cold by shivering, and decreased when hot by sweating.
    Nutrients are burned for energy and used as building blocks.
    Water is a solvent for chemical reactions, smoothes movements of various body parts, carries nutrients to cells and removes wastes, transports messenger and regulatory molecules.
  • Altitude gradient of a roof
    Pressure gradient in a blood vessel
    Concentration gradient in a cell
    Question: In part B, where is the pressure greatest—inside or outside the blood vessel?
    Answer: Inside
    Notes:
    Gradient: difference in the quantity or concentration of a physical value between two areas
  • Negative feedback restores homeostasis. Negative feedback is used to maintain a constant temperature in a room (inner circle) and in a person (outer circle).
    Question: Name the effectors that respond to a change in body temperature.
    Answer: Sweat glands and blood vessels in skin
    Notes:
    Homeostasis depends on negative feedback: process that reflexively keeps systems tightly regulated near their set point and thus promotes stability
    Set point is optimum range (e.g., 98.6 °F)
    Sensor detects deviations from set point
    Deviations trigger opposing (negative) response to return to set point.
  • The disruptions in homeostasis caused by the bullet are shown in red. Homeostatic adjustments and medical interventions are in yellow.
    Question: Why was Reagan’s blood pressure low?
    Answer: Because he lost blood volume
    Notes:
    Homeostasis: body’s collective communication and control effort to maintain internal conditions within a narrow, stable physiologic range
    Example: Cardiovascular system increases blood flow if blood pressure falls.
    Analogy: Body’s systems work like a symphony.
    Negative feedback controls thousands of functions, including levels of sodium and potassium in blood, weight, and blood pressure.
    Homeostasis keeps body stable.
    Failure of homeostasis causes illness and even death.
  • Positive feedback reinforces a condition. Positive feedback loops often terminate in cataclysmic events, such as childbirth or death.
    Question: Would uterine contractions increase or decrease the activation of the cervical nerve endings (the sensors)?
    Answer: Increase
    Notes:
    Positive feedback: increases intensity of effect
    Unlike negative feedback, positive feedback:
    - Controls only a few functions
    - Enhances rather than reduces change
    - Does not stabilize, but pushes reactions to an ending or to exhaustion
    Example: childbirth
  • Directional terms refer to the body in the anatomic position.
    Question: Which part is more lateral—the ears or the nose?
    Answer: Ears
    Notes:
    Directional terms: describe the position of a part relative to another part or a subdivision of a part
    Example:Inferior sternum (lower part of breastbone)
    Example: Incision superior to (above) the fifth rib
    Based on standard anatomic position
  • Notes:
    Medical terms often come from Greek or Latin roots.
    Prefixes precede the root.
    Suffixes follow the root.
  • Transverse plane: one parallel to the horizon that divides structures into superior and inferior parts.
  • Planes divide the body in specific ways. Cuts along these planes result in different sections.
    Question: Which plane divides the body into right and left halves?
    Answer: Sagittal
  • Regional terms and surface landmarks describe important areas and points on the surface of a body in the anatomical position.
    Question: What is the adjective describing the entire foot?
    Answer: Pedal
    Notes:
    Surface anatomy:
    -head: skull and face
    -neck
    -trunk or torso: chest, abdomen, pelvis
    -upper limb: shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, hand
    -lower limb: buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, foot
  • Body organs exist in hollow spaces lined by membranes.
    Question: Which cavity is superior—pelvic or abdominal?
    Answer: abdominal
    Notes:
    Dorsal cavities:
    Cranial cavity: contains the brain
    Spinal cavity: contains the spinal cord
    Formed of bone and lined with membranes
    Ventral cavity:
    Thoracic cavity: lies above the diaphragm; contains the heart, lungs, and large vessels
    Abdominopelvic cavity: lies below the diaphragm
    -Abdominal cavity: contains most of the digestive organs and abdominal glands, such as the stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and most of the intestines
    -Pelvic cavity: contains part of the large intestine and reproductive organs
  • Minute cavities separate the two layers of the pericardium and the two pleurae.
    The double-layered thoracic membranes formed when the heart and lungs pushed their way into fetal cavities.
    Question: Name the membrane in contact with the heart wall.
    Answer: Visceral pericardium
    Notes:
    Membranes in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities:
    Pericardium: covers the heart
    Pleurae: cover the lungs
    Peritoneum: covers abdominal and pelvic organs
    Membrane layers:
    Visceral attaches to organs
    Parietal attaches to cavity walls
  • A. Abdominal quadrants
    Notes:
    Upper right quadrant: liver
    Right lower quadrant: appendix
    Peritoneum: covers abdominal and pelvic organs
  • B. Abdominal regions
    Question: Which region is inferior—the iliac or hypochondriac region?
    Answer: Iliac
    Notes:
    Abdominal regions:
    -Two horizontal lines below ribs and above hip bones
    -Two vertical lines near nipples
  • Notes:
    Remember—both acute and chronic diseases can range in severity from mild to life-threatening.
  • A&p chapter 1 pp

    1. 1. Chapter 1: Form, Function, and Life Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    2. 2. Anatomy vs. Physiology • Anatomy: form of things – Goal: study how structure relates to function • Physiology: function (activity) of things – Goal: study how the body works Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    3. 3. Organisms: Characteristics Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    4. 4. Form and Function Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    5. 5. Building Blocks of Life Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    6. 6. Environment and Life Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    7. 7. Gradients Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    8. 8. Homeostasis Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    9. 9. Homeostasis and President Reagan Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    10. 10. Remember This • Negative feedback keeps systems tightly regulated near their set point and thus promotes stability. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    11. 11. Positive Feedback Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    12. 12. Directional Terms Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    13. 13. Remember This • You can remember the order of word parts by the mnemonic PRS: • Prefix • Root • Suffix • Example: pericarditis • peri– = around (prefix) • cardia = heart (root) • –itis = meaning inflammation (suffix) Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    14. 14. Planes and Sections • Frontal plane: any plane that runs vertically (straight up and down) from superior (above) to inferior (and divides structures into anterior and posterior parts • Also called coronal plane—cuts along this plane are called frontal or coronal sections • Sagittal plane: vertical plane that divides structures into right and left parts. It runs from superior to inferior and is perpendicular to a frontal plane. • Sagittal sections: cross-sections cut by this plane • Mid-sagittal sections: cuts right down the middle Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    15. 15. Planes and Sections (cont’d) • Transverse plane: one parallel to the horizon that divides structures into superior and inferior parts. It runs from anterior (front) to posterior (rear) and is perpendicular to both frontal and sagittal planes. • Also called horizontal plane—cuts along this plane are called transverse sections • Oblique plane: any plane not perpendicular to a frontal, sagittal, or transverse (horizontal) plane Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    16. 16. Planes and Sections (cont’d) Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    17. 17. Body Regions Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    18. 18. Body Cavities Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    19. 19. Thoracic Membranes and Cavities Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    20. 20. Abdominal Quadrants Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    21. 21. Abdominal Regions Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    22. 22. Language of Disease • Disease: an unhealthful state of abnormal form and function due to the effects of injury • Acute disease (e.g., ear infection) – Arises quickly – Lasts a short time – Has specific symptoms • Chronic disease (e.g., arthritis) starts slowly with nonspecific symptoms and may last a lifetime Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    23. 23. Language of Disease (cont’d) • Signs are direct, measurable observations by an examiner (nurse, physician assistant, physician, etc.) such as body temperature and heart rate. • Symptoms are complaints reported by the patient or by someone else on behalf of the patient and are a part of the medical history. • A syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms. – sunburn: skin that is red (sign), painful (symptom), and swollen (sign) Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    24. 24. Language of Disease (cont’d) • Pathology: study of changes in bodily structure and function that occur as a result of disease • Etiology: cause of the injury or disease – Idiopathic: of unknown cause – Iatrogenic: byproduct of medical diagnosis or treatment Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    25. 25. Language of Disease (cont’d) • Pathogenesis: natural history and development of a disease • Pathophysiology: abnormal manner in which the incorrect function is expressed • Lesion: the structural (anatomic) abnormality produced by injury Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    ×