Hello! Today is 12/18/13
Notebook Paper Warm Up
Headlines
h for
earc ride
“S
ing B ”
Miss nues
o n ti
C

“Bride
Missin
Gro...
Discussion
• What does each headline imply?
• If these were articles, which would you have
wanted to read first?
• Which d...
Historical Question:
What sank the U.S.S. Maine?

Timeline

• Cuba was colonized by Spain.
• Cuban rebels had been fightin...
Historical Question:
What sank the U.S.S. Maine?

Explosion of the
February 15, 1898
Maine
Explosion of the USS Maine
Havana Harbor, 1898
Historical Question:
What sank the U.S.S. Maine?

“Awake United States!”
This song was rushed into print between the sinki...
Historical Question:
What sank the U.S.S. Maine?

Discussion
• According to this song, who sunk the Maine?
• Does this pro...
Vocab for article
• Hull: The main body of a ship or other vessel,
including the bottom, sides, and deck but not
the masts...
Document A: New York Journal (Modified)
DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY
Assistant Secretary Roo...
New York Journal
Sourcing
1. How long after the explosion of the Maine
was this article written?
2. What does the headline...
Document B: New York Times (Modified)
MAINE’S HULL WILL DECIDE
Divers Will Inspect the Ship’s Hull to Find Out Whether the...
New York Times
Sourcing
1. How does the date of this article compare with
the date on the New York Journal and Advertiser
...
Articles A & B: Discussion
• Do you know what happened to the Maine?
• What evidence do you have for your answer? Give an
...
Historical Question:
Why did the U.S. invade Cuba?
In June 1898, the U.S. sent troops into Cuba.
Over the next few days, w...
Historical Question:
Why did the U.S. invade Cuba?

This time when you watch it, take notes about
anything that might help...
Now, fill in your graphic organizer for the song,

“Awake United States!”
This song was rushed into print between the sink...
Document A: Reconcentration Camps
By the late 1800s, the Spanish were losing
control of their colony, Cuba.
Concerned abou...
Guiding Questions
Document A: Reconcentration Camps
1.Sourcing: Why might Lee have chosen to send this description to
Wash...
Document B: March of the Flag
Fellow citizens, it is a noble land that God has
given us; a land that can feed and clothe t...
Document B: March of the Flag
1. Sourcing: This speech is part of a political campaign. How does that
influence what you c...
Maine explosion
Maine explosion
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Maine explosion

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Maine explosion

  1. 1. Hello! Today is 12/18/13 Notebook Paper Warm Up Headlines h for earc ride “S ing B ” Miss nues o n ti C “Bride Missin Groom g! ’ s Fa m Histor y of M ily Blame ental Illness ” • How do these headlines differ? • Consider the wording and how a reader might respond to each article.
  2. 2. Discussion • What does each headline imply? • If these were articles, which would you have wanted to read first? • Which do you think would have been the most reliable story? Why? • Why might different newspapers choose to present the same event so differently? Historical Question: What sank the U.S.S. Maine?
  3. 3. Historical Question: What sank the U.S.S. Maine? Timeline • Cuba was colonized by Spain. • Cuban rebels had been fighting for independence. • Spain was thought to be brutal in repressing the rebellion. • U.S. had business interests in Cuba. • President McKinley had sent the Maine to Cuba (Why? To protect American interests? To prepare for war? To intimidate Spain? This is debated by historians). • Maine explodes on Feb. 15, 1898.
  4. 4. Historical Question: What sank the U.S.S. Maine? Explosion of the February 15, 1898 Maine
  5. 5. Explosion of the USS Maine Havana Harbor, 1898
  6. 6. Historical Question: What sank the U.S.S. Maine? “Awake United States!” This song was rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898, and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898. Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry! And how proudly sailed the warship Maine, a Nation’s pride, without a stain! A wreck she lies, her sailors slain. By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain! Eagle soar on high, And sound the battle cry Wave the starry flag! In mud it shall not drag! Source: Marie Elizabeth Lamb, Awake  United States! (New Orleans, LA: 1898). 6
  7. 7. Historical Question: What sank the U.S.S. Maine? Discussion • According to this song, who sunk the Maine? • Does this prove the Spanish blew it up?
  8. 8. Vocab for article • Hull: The main body of a ship or other vessel, including the bottom, sides, and deck but not the masts, superstructure, rigging, engines, and other fittings • Magazine: A chamber for holding a supply of cartridges to be fed automatically to the breech of a gun
  9. 9. Document A: New York Journal (Modified) DESTRUCTION OF THE WAR SHIP MAINE WAS THE WORK OF AN ENEMY Assistant Secretary Roosevelt Convinced the Explosion of the War Ship Was Not an Accident. The Journal Offers $50,000 Reward for the Conviction of the Criminals Who Sent 258 American Sailors to Their Death. Naval Officers All Agree That the Ship Was Destroyed on Purpose. NAVAL OFFICERS THINK THE MAINE WAS DESTROYED BY A SPANISH MINE. George Bryson, the Journal’s special reporter at Havana, writes that it is the secret opinion of many people in Havana that the war ship Maine was destroyed by a mine and 258 men were killed on purpose by the Spanish. This is the opinion of several American naval authorities. The Spaniards, it is believed, arranged to have the Maine drop anchor over a harbor mine. Wires connected the mine to the magazine of the ship. If this is true, the brutal nature of the Spaniards will be shown by the fact that they waited to explode the mine until all the men had gone to sleep. Spanish officials are protesting too much that they did not do it. Our government has ordered an investigation. This newspaper has sent divers to Havana to report on the condition of the wreck. This newspaper is also offering a $50,000 reward for exclusive evidence that will convict whoever is responsible. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt says he is convinced that the destruction of the Maine in Havana Harbor was not an accident. The suspicion that the Maine was purposely blown up grows stronger every hour. Not a single fact to the contrary has been produced. Source: Excerpt from New York Journal and Advertiser, February 17, 1898. Purchased by William Randolph Hearst in 1895, the Journal published investigative and human interest stories that used a highly emotional writing style and included banner headlines and graphic images.
  10. 10. New York Journal Sourcing 1. How long after the explosion of the Maine was this article written? 2. What does the headline of the article suggest about the newspaper’s point of view? Close Reading 3. Upon what type of evidence does the New York Journal base its claims?
  11. 11. Document B: New York Times (Modified) MAINE’S HULL WILL DECIDE Divers Will Inspect the Ship’s Hull to Find Out Whether the Explosion Was from the Outside or Inside. Magazines of War Ships Sometimes Blow Up Because of Too Much Heat Inside – Hard to Blow Up the Magazine from the Outside. It has been a busy day for the Navy Department. Captain Schuley, who knows a great deal about The war ship Maine was destroyed in Havana war ships, did not entertain the idea that the Harbor last night. Officials in Washington and Maine had been destroyed on purpose. He said Havana have been sending cables all night long. that fires would sometimes start in the coal Secretary Long was asked whether he thought bunkers, and he told of such a fire on board this was the work of the enemy. He replied: “I do another war ship that started very close to the not. I am influenced by the fact that Captain magazine. The fire became so hot that the heat Sigsbee blistered the steel wall between the fire and the has not yet reported to the Navy Department. It ammunition before the bunkers and magazine seems he is waiting to write a full report. So long were flooded with water to stop the fire. He did as he has not made a decision, I certainly not believe that the Spanish or Cubans in cannot. I should think from the signs however, Havana had either the information or the that there was an accident – that the magazine equipment necessary to blow up the magazine, exploded. How that came about I do not know. while the Maine was under guard. For the present, at least, no other war ship will be sent to Havana.” Source: New York Times, February 17, 1898. Established in 1851, the New York Times provided investigative coverage of local New York issues and events, as well as national and international news.
  12. 12. New York Times Sourcing 1. How does the date of this article compare with the date on the New York Journal and Advertiser article? Close Reading 2. According to these headlines, what happened to the Maine? 3. What kinds of evidence does the New York Times include to support its account of the incident?
  13. 13. Articles A & B: Discussion • Do you know what happened to the Maine? • What evidence do you have for your answer? Give an example where the reporter uses solid evidence to support a claim made in the article. • Do you think these articles would have been received differently by their readers in 1898? How so? • What effect might the Journal article have had on its readers? • What effect might the Times article have had on its readers? • How significant do you think the Maine explosion was to the American people at this time? Why?
  14. 14. Historical Question: Why did the U.S. invade Cuba? In June 1898, the U.S. sent troops into Cuba. Over the next few days, we are going to investigate why. I will play the following movie twice. Both times, listen for all the different possible reasons why the U.S. chose to invade Cuba. The first time, just listen. http://historicalthinkingmatters.org/spanishamericanwar/
  15. 15. Historical Question: Why did the U.S. invade Cuba? This time when you watch it, take notes about anything that might help you answer the question: Why did the U.S. invade Cuba? Which hypothesis (theory) do you think is most likely?
  16. 16. Now, fill in your graphic organizer for the song, “Awake United States!” This song was rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898, and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898. Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry! And how proudly sailed the warship Maine, a Nation’s pride, without a stain! A wreck she lies, her sailors slain. By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain! Eagle soar on high, And sound the battle cry Wave the starry flag! In mud it shall not drag! Source: Marie Elizabeth Lamb, Awake  United States! (New Orleans, LA: 1898). 17
  17. 17. Document A: Reconcentration Camps By the late 1800s, the Spanish were losing control of their colony, Cuba. Concerned about guerilla warfare in the countryside, they moved rural Cubans to “reconcentration” camps, or “reconcentrados” where the Spanish claimed they would be better able to protect them. In this telegram, Fitzhugh Lee, U.S. Consul-General in Havana, describes life in the reconcentrados.” A consul-general is a government official living in a foreign city whose job is to protect U.S. citizens and promote trade. SIR: . . .[W]e will relate to you what we saw with  our own eyes:  Four hundred and sixty women  and children thrown on the ground, heaped pellmell as animals, some in a dying condition,  others sick and others dead, without the slightest  cleanliness, nor the least help… . . . Among the many deaths we witnessed  there was one scene impossible to forget.  There is still alive the only living witness, a  young girl of 18 years, whom we found  seemingly lifeless on the ground; on her righthand side was the body of a young mother, cold  and rigid, but with her young child still alive  clinging to her dead breast; on her left-hand  side was also the corpse of a dead woman  holding her son in a dead embrace… The circumstances are the following: complete  accumulation of bodies dead and alive, so that  it was impossible to take one step without  walking over them; the greatest want of  cleanliness, want of light, air, and water; the  food lacking in quality and quantity what was  necessary to sustain life... From all this we deduct that the number of  deaths among the reconcentrados has  amounted to 77 per cent. Source: Excerpt from unsigned note that was included with a telegram sent by Fitzhugh Lee, U.S. ConsulGeneral in Cuba, November 27, 1897. Fitzhugh Lee said the author of the note was “a man of integrity and character.”
  18. 18. Guiding Questions Document A: Reconcentration Camps 1.Sourcing: Why might Lee have chosen to send this description to Washington? Check his job responsibilities (see header) before writing your answer. 2. Close Reading: Notice the graphic descriptions. How do these details about the living conditions affect you as you read? Why might these descriptions be so detailed? 3. Contextualizing: If they could have seen this letter, how do you think people in the U.S. in 1897 might have reacted to this description of the reconcentration camps?
  19. 19. Document B: March of the Flag Fellow citizens, it is a noble land that God has given us; a land that can feed and clothe the world; . . . It is a mighty people that he has planted on this soil . . . It is a glorious history our God has bestowed upon his chosen people; . . .a history of soldiers who carried the flag across the blazing deserts and through the ranks of hostile mountains, even to the gates of sunset … The Opposition tells us that we ought not to govern a people without their consent. I answer: The rule of liberty that all just government derives its authority from the consent of the governed, applies only to those who are capable of self-government. I answer, We govern the Indians without their consent, we govern our territories without their consent, we govern our children without their consent. They ask us how we will govern these new possessions. I answer: If England can govern foreign lands, so can America. If Germany can govern foreign lands, so can America. If they can supervise protectorates, so can America… What does all this mean for every one of us? It means opportunity for all the glorious young manhood of the republic, the most virile, ambitious, impatient, militant manhood the world has ever seen. It means that the resources and the commerce of these immensely rich dominions will be increased . . . In Cuba, alone, there are 15,000,000 acres of forest unacquainted with the axe. There are exhaustless mines of iron…. There are millions of acres yet unexplored… It means new employment and better wages for every laboring man in the Union…. Ah! as our commerce spreads, the flag of liberty will circle the globe… And, as their thunders salute the flag, benighted peoples will know that the voice of Liberty is speaking, at last, for them; that civilization is dawning, at last, for them Liberty and Civilization, those children of Christ’s gospel… Fellow Americans, we are God’s chosen people…. Source: Excerpt from Albert J. Beveridge’s Senate campaign speech, September 16, 1898. Beveridge gave this speech while he was campaigning to become a senator for Indiana. The speech helped him win the election and made him one of the leading advocates of American expansion.
  20. 20. Document B: March of the Flag 1. Sourcing: This speech is part of a political campaign. How does that influence what you can expect of it? 2. Close Reading: What do the following phrases suggest about Beveridge’s view of Americans as compared with people of other nations? a) “noble land that God has given us” b) “applies only to those who are capable of self-government” c) “civilization is dawning, at last, for them” 3. Contextualizing: According to Beveridge, what else was going on in the U.S. and the rest of the world that made expansion a good idea?

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