Whose Philosophy Made the MostSense for America in the 1960s?Directions: In the late 1950s and 1960s, tworemarkable men, b...
Steps to follow1. Read the Background Essay2. Skim through the 9 documents to get a sense of what theyare about3. Organize...
The Documents1. Malcolm and Martin Meet2. King: Dreams of an Integrated Struggle3. X: Working Separately is Most Effective...
Background Essay
Document 1: Martin and Malcolm MeetKing and Malcolm X had a good deal of respect for each other,even though they often dis...
King, on the other hand, became more concernedwith economic issues and the plight of AfricanAmerican city dwellers, partic...
Document 1: Martin and Malcolm Meet
Martin Luther king and Malcolm Xat the U.S. CapitolMarch 26, 1964Source: AP/Wide World PhotosDocument 1
• King and Malcolm X did not see each other asenemies. In fact, they often remarked that themedia and the powers that be p...
Document 2: King: Dreams of anIntegrated Struggle
Document 2: King: Dreams of anIntegrated Struggle
Document 3: Malcolm X: WorkingSeparately is Most Effective
Document 3: Malcolm X: WorkingSeparately is Most Effective•How do Documents 2 &3 relate?•Should the fight for racialequali...
Document 4: Integrated SchoolsMust Be the Goal
Document 4: Integrated SchoolsMust Be the Goal
Document 5: Malcolm X: SeparateSchools Liberate Young Minds
Document 5: Malcolm X: SeparateSchools Liberate Young Minds• Both King and Malcolm X wanted to improve education for Afric...
Document 5: Malcolm X: SeparateSchools Liberate Young Minds
Document 6: King: Boycott is theWay to Open Doors
Document 6: King: Boycott is theWay to Open Doors
Document 7: Malcolm X: BlackNationalism Leads to Economic Liberation
Document 7: Malcolm X: BlackNationalism Leads to Economic Liberation
Document 8: King: Violence Murdersthe Murderer but Not Murder
Document 8: King: Violence Murdersthe Murderer but Not Murder
Document 9: Malcolm X: By AnyMeans Necessary
Document 9: Malcolm X: By AnyMeans Necessary
Document 1: Photo• Return to the photo and imagine what mighthave happened if both of these leaders hadnot been killed.• W...
Whose Philosophy Made the MostSense for America in the 1960s?• Finalize your thoughts on the two Civil Rightsleaders. Whos...
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  1. 1. Whose Philosophy Made the MostSense for America in the 1960s?Directions: In the late 1950s and 1960s, tworemarkable men, both African-American, bothrelatively young, shook the social foundations ofAmerica.In this document based exercise, read the backgroundessay and then examine each document. Finally,you will use the essay and the documents to writean answer to the above question.Focus on ideas, not men
  2. 2. Steps to follow1. Read the Background Essay2. Skim through the 9 documents to get a sense of what theyare about3. Organize the documents by categories. One or more maybe a context document that provides color or feeling.4. Read the documents slowly. On the Document AnalysisSheet, record the main idea of each document.5. Summarize each man’s ideas about each topic6. For every topic, decide which ideas made the most sensefor America in the 1960s. You might find that in severalcategories you agree with parts of both philosophies.Focus on ideas, not men
  3. 3. The Documents1. Malcolm and Martin Meet2. King: Dreams of an Integrated Struggle3. X: Working Separately is Most Effective4. King: Integrated Schools Must Be the Goal5. X: Separate Schools Liberate Young Minds6. King: Boycott Is the Way to Open Doors7. X: Black Nationalism Leads to Economic Liberation8. King: Violence Murders the Murderer but NotMurder9. X: By Any Means NecessaryFocus on ideas, not men
  4. 4. Background Essay
  5. 5. Document 1: Martin and Malcolm MeetKing and Malcolm X had a good deal of respect for each other,even though they often disagreed on goals and strategies. Thispicture was taken during their very brief and only meeting.Many historians suggest that both men were moving towardseach other’s ideas before they were assassinated. By 1964,Malcolm X was considering direct political action on manyfronts. He had developed his Organization of Afro-AmericanUnity (O.A.A.U.) in order to mobilize urban black America, inpart, to vote. He even considered running for Congress. This isstriking because, until his break with Elijah Muhammad,Malcolm avoided direct political action. His new emphasis onthe power of the ballot box coincided with the focus of themore mainstream Civil Rights Movement at the time – votingrights and voter registration.
  6. 6. King, on the other hand, became more concernedwith economic issues and the plight of AfricanAmerican city dwellers, particularly in the North. Bythe time of his assassination in 1968, King hadrefocused hi energy on gaining economic justice forworkers in the segregated cities of the North.Moreover, King began to preach that there wouldbe no economic and racial justice without areevaluation of the African American’s role inhistory. In 1967 King made these powerfulremarks:Document 1: Martin and Malcolm Meet
  7. 7. Document 1: Martin and Malcolm Meet
  8. 8. Martin Luther king and Malcolm Xat the U.S. CapitolMarch 26, 1964Source: AP/Wide World PhotosDocument 1
  9. 9. • King and Malcolm X did not see each other asenemies. In fact, they often remarked that themedia and the powers that be purposefully paintedthem as opposites.• What do you think had just happened or what hadjust been said by either man just before the picturewas taken?• Return to this photo at the end of this DBQ andimagine what might have happened if both of theseleaders had not been killed. What if a partnershiphad formed? What impact might it have had?What would it have looked like?Document 1: Martin and Malcolm Meet
  10. 10. Document 2: King: Dreams of anIntegrated Struggle
  11. 11. Document 2: King: Dreams of anIntegrated Struggle
  12. 12. Document 3: Malcolm X: WorkingSeparately is Most Effective
  13. 13. Document 3: Malcolm X: WorkingSeparately is Most Effective•How do Documents 2 &3 relate?•Should the fight for racialequality be doneseparately or together?•Make a list of pros andcons for each strategy•Is this still a debatetoday?•In the 1960s, was integration or racial separation in thebest interest of Black Americans? Of White Americans?Of the national good?
  14. 14. Document 4: Integrated SchoolsMust Be the Goal
  15. 15. Document 4: Integrated SchoolsMust Be the Goal
  16. 16. Document 5: Malcolm X: SeparateSchools Liberate Young Minds
  17. 17. Document 5: Malcolm X: SeparateSchools Liberate Young Minds• Both King and Malcolm X wanted to improve education for AfricanAmerican Students. Should America strive for integration or shouldblack America strive for separate schools of high quality, controlledlocally by black parents and teachers?• Make a list of pros and cons: Integrate vs. Separate schoolingexperiences. Reflect upon your own experiences.• There is a difference between integrated and desegregated schools.Many schools have multiracial student bodies and are thereforedesegregated, but within the schools students often do not mix inacademic or social settings. Therefore, the schools are not trulyintegrated.• Some schools are experimenting with single-gender public schooling.What are the pros and cons to such forms of schooling?
  18. 18. Document 5: Malcolm X: SeparateSchools Liberate Young Minds
  19. 19. Document 6: King: Boycott is theWay to Open Doors
  20. 20. Document 6: King: Boycott is theWay to Open Doors
  21. 21. Document 7: Malcolm X: BlackNationalism Leads to Economic Liberation
  22. 22. Document 7: Malcolm X: BlackNationalism Leads to Economic Liberation
  23. 23. Document 8: King: Violence Murdersthe Murderer but Not Murder
  24. 24. Document 8: King: Violence Murdersthe Murderer but Not Murder
  25. 25. Document 9: Malcolm X: By AnyMeans Necessary
  26. 26. Document 9: Malcolm X: By AnyMeans Necessary
  27. 27. Document 1: Photo• Return to the photo and imagine what mighthave happened if both of these leaders hadnot been killed.• What if a partnership had formed?• What impact might it have had?• What would it have looked like?
  28. 28. Whose Philosophy Made the MostSense for America in the 1960s?• Finalize your thoughts on the two Civil Rightsleaders. Whose philosophy made the mostsense for America in the 1960s?• Support your answer using at least onedocument from each topic.

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