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Government and Political System in Asia

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Government and Political System in Asia

  1. 1. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL SYSTEM IN ASIA
  2. 2. The State • In studying the government of the Philippines, it is important to study the concept of a state and why the Philippines is considered as a state. • A state is a community of group of free individuals living in a particular territory. It has autonomous government whose power is recognized by the people it governs. It is a sovereign entity. It is said that the state is the most important political institution in history. Without it, there will be chaos in the world.
  3. 3. Theories on the Origin of a State • Divine Right Theory – According to this theory, the state has a divine origin since all political powers originated from God. The ruler was appointed by God. That is why, he or she had to be respected and obeyed by the citizens. • Social Contract Theory – The theory states that a state originated from a social contract made by the people living under the framework of a civil society.
  4. 4. • Force Theory – This theory states that a state was formed because of the need for protection by the citizens. Stronger tribes occupy and protect weaker tribes in exchange for protection. • Patriarchal or Matriarchal Theory – A state originated from the formation of a family which is headed by a father or a mother. When families expanded from the intermarriage of their children, the tribe was born, and from it, the state.
  5. 5. Elements of a State • People – it is the most important element of a state. Without the people, there will be no state. Despite the fact that the size and number of people vary, it is important for any state to have productive and educated citizens for it to become stable and progressive. • Government – the government implements the goals and objectives and discharges the duties and responsibilities of a state. It formulates and implements laws to maintain peace and order in a state. It also formulates foreign policies and coordinates the state’s foreign relations. In times of war, it is the duty of the government to protect the welfare of its people.
  6. 6. • Territory – it refers to a particular place where a state exercises authority and power. It is where the state exercises jurisdiction. • Sovereignty – refers to the freedom or complete autonomy of a state to implement and realize its goal and objectives. It refers to the freedom from foreign invasion and occupation.
  7. 7. • Two aspects of Sovereignty Internal Sovereignty – refers to the complete autonomy of a state to rule and govern its people. External Sovereignty – refers to the complete freedom and autonomy from foreign rule.
  8. 8. • Nation and a State  Nation – the term “nation” is derived from the Latin word natio, which means birth or race. A nation refers to a group of people bounded together by one race, language, customs, and traditions. It is a cultural concept and does not always possess all the four elements of a state. Example, Palestine is a nation but not a state for it lacks its own territory.  State – the word “state” is a political concept and has all the four elements – people, territory, government, and sovereignty.
  9. 9. Political System in Asia People’s Republic of China • On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong and his communist companions declared in historic Tiananmen Square in Peking (now Beijing) the inauguration of the People’s Republic of China. At that time, Mao and his companions had just won a war against the Kuomintang forces of Chiang Kai Shek.
  10. 10. Mao framed their government under the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Established the National People’s Congress (NPC) in 1954 National People’s Congress (NPC) – stood as the highest assembly of the government National Congress (NC) – approves the propositions of the State Council
  11. 11. Supreme People’s Court (SPC) – the highest judicial department, administers the sensitive cases and those which involve the government. • The Hundred Flowers Campaign was Mao’s answer to the heavy criticism. This method proved to be effective in identifying his enemies in politics. The campaign came from the words of Mao which were “Let a hundred flowers bloom, let a thousand schools of thought contend.”
  12. 12. Hua Guafeng – succeeded Mao Deng Xiaoping – launched the Four Modernizations Policy or the modernization of agriculture, industry, technology and defense. Capitalism or the concept of free trade enterprise reemerged in China. The number of televisions in the provinces increased. • Thousands of Chinese led by university students petitioned the CCP’s for freedom of expression.
  13. 13. • In 1989, a widespread demonstration was launched at Tiananmen Square which was participated in by students and other sectors of the society. Their demand was for good governance and for freedom of expression. The CCP cracked down on the protest and ordered the massacre or widespread killing of the protesters in Tiananmen Square. - Despite the liberation of its economy, democracy remains elusive in China. The Chinese are still denied their basic human rights.
  14. 14. Union of Myanmar  In 1989, the former name of the Union of Burma was changed to Union of Myanmar.  The government should be in the hands of the civilians, Myanmar is under military rule.  In 1997, the military changed the structure of the government, but they still remained powerful.  Established the State Peace and Development Council – the main agency of the central government ( military officers, president, vice president, secretary and 18 other members)
  15. 15.  At present, political instability continues to plague Myanmar as the military continues to rule.  U Nu was elected President of the Union of Burma from 1948 up to 1962. He failed to fulfill the dream of Aung San – the recognized Father of Burma.  In order to restore political stability, the civilian government invited General Ne Win to set-up a “Caretaker Government” from 1958 up to 1960.
  16. 16.  In 1962, Ne Win staged a coup d’état wherein the military grabbed power from U Nu. He claimed that due to bickering of political parties, the economy had slowed down. Under Ne Win and the military dictatorship, political parties were abolished and newspapers were closed. He embraced some of the features of the socialist ideology such as nationalizing the economy and state ownership of all industries. His political philosophy was enshrined in the state ideology called “Burmese Way to Socialism,” which contained features of socialism and Buddhism.
  17. 17. • This plan earned heavy criticisms and protest actions from the students of Yangon University. Ne Win persecuted them and ordered the bombing of the University Student Union building. Ne Win prohibited any interaction with other countries. Limited the duration of tourist visa – only 24 hours to visit Myanmar. Refused all foreign aid Ne Win was forced to step down from power in 1988 and he proposed a multi-party system
  18. 18.  Maung Maung – a civilian, was officially given the highest office in the government.  National League for Democracy – did not respect the victory in the May 1990 national election. It declared that no civilian should be in office until a new constitution is drafted and implemented.
  19. 19.  Daw Aung San Suu Kyi – the leader of National League for Democracy, a symbol of national protest and the continuing struggle for democracy in Myanmar. She awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 1991  The Burmese still continue the struggle to achieve political reforms so that they may finally have the right to speak out and elect the leaders of their choice. •
  20. 20. Kingdom of Thailand • The former Siam is officially known today as the Kingdom of Thailand. In contrast to Myanmar, Thailand maintains a stable and strong political system. Thailand also has a stable economy and a government that is highly regarded and respected by the people.
  21. 21.  The government of Thailand is a constitutional monarchy.  Limited the power of the King (1932)  King is the head of the state  National Assembly represents the legislative body
  22. 22.  King Bhumibol Adulyadej ascended the throne on June 9, 1946 and still reigns up to the present. • His duties include being the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces.  The Prime Minister runs the government and assisted by a Cabinet which is run by a Council of Ministers.  The Rathasapha or the National Assembly consist of the Senate or the Wuthisapha (200 members)
  23. 23.  The House of Representatives or the Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon (500 members)  The judicial system is led by the San Dika or the Supreme Court  Military of Thailand plays a big role in the establishment of a stable political system and in developing the economy of their country.
  24. 24. The Federation of Malaysia • Established in 1963, Malaysia is officially called the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia’s government is a Federal Constitutional Monarchy. This government is based on a constitution that was drafted by the Federation of Malaya in 1957. There are three branches of government under the Federal Constitutional Monarchy: executive, legislative and judicial.
  25. 25.  Executive branch – highest position is occupied by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the Head of the Federation – chosen in the line of the Sultan and has five-year term of office.  Prime Minister is usually the leader of the party with the most number of members holding positions in the House of Representatives.  Dewan Rakyat or the House of Representatives  Dewan Negara or the Senate  Judicial branch is in charge of the justice system  Malaysia is divided based on their ethnicities – Malay, Chinese and Indian
  26. 26. • In 1981, Mahathir bin Mohammad became the Prime Minister of Malaysia. He radically changed the political system of Malaysia. He launched the 2-M Government with the goal of improving the civil service. He succeeded in his goal and Malaysia is known today as one of the most progressive countries in Southeast Asia. •
  27. 27. Executive Legislative Judicial Government of the Philippines
  28. 28. Review of Previous Topic • State  a group of free individuals  living in particular territory  autonomous government  sovereign entity
  29. 29. Theories on the Origin of a State • Divine Right Theory • Social Contract Theory • Force Theory • Patriarchal or Matriarchal Theory
  30. 30. Elements of a State • People • Government • Territory • Sovereignty
  31. 31. Objectives: 1. Identify the different kinds of government of Philippines, Myanmar, Thailand, and Malaysia. 2. Appreciate the importance of government and political system in the country. 3. Analyze how independence plays an important role in molding Asian country.
  32. 32. • Answer Activity 3.2 within 10 minutes • Formulate a scenario that represent/symbolize the kind of government of each country • Answer the second activity in Activity 3.2
  33. 33. • How independence plays an important role in molding Asian countries? • What system of government do you prefer? Why? • As a student, how do you show your support to our present government?
  34. 34. When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty. Thomas Jefferson
  35. 35. Assignment On your Blank Activity Sheet, list down at least three (3) different rights of women, children, and labor groups in the Philippines.
  36. 36. Rights of Children, Women, and Labor Groups in Asia
  37. 37. Objectives: • Reflect and share the ideas regarding the video clip; • Create an imaginary drawing that showcase the rights of children; and • Appreciate the different rights of the children.
  38. 38. • While doing the activity, observe silence • Work quietly and productively • During the reporting, listen to the reporter
  39. 39. Psychological and physical abuse, neglect, cruelty, sexual abuse and emotional maltreatment.
  40. 40. Any act by deeds or words which debases, degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth and dignity of a child as a human being.
  41. 41. Unreasonable deprivation of his basic needs for survival, such as food and shelter.
  42. 42. Failure to immediately give medical treatment to an injured child resulting in serious impairment of his growth and development or in his permanent incapacity or death.
  43. 43. Being in a community where there is armed connect or being affected by armed conflict- related activities.
  44. 44. Working under conditions hazardous to life, safety and morals which unduly interfere with their normal development.
  45. 45. Living in or fending for themselves in the streets of urban or rural areas without the care of parents or a guardian or any adult supervision needed for their welfare.
  46. 46. Being a member of an indigenous cultural community and/or living under conditions of extreme poverty or in an area which is underdeveloped and/or lacks or has Inadequate access to basic services needed for a good quality of life.
  47. 47.  Why children are usually denied of their rights?  Why the family is considered an important social institution?
  48. 48. As member of the family, what traits should you develop in order that you stay and develop together as family?
  49. 49. Assignment • On your Blank Activity Sheet, define the following rights of children, women, and labor groups.  RA 6725  RA 6949  RA 6972  RA 7192  RA 7322  RA 7600  RA 7688  RA 7610  RA 8353  RA 9262
  50. 50. Objectives: • Understand the different rights of women and children • Memorize the different rights of the children and women • Answer correctly the test questions
  51. 51. • RA 6725 - An Act Strengthening the Prohibition on Discrimination Against Women with Respect to Terms and Conditions of Employment, Amending for the Purpose Article One Hundred Thirty-Five of the Labor Code
  52. 52. • Republic Act No. 6949 An act declaring March 8 of every year a working special holiday to be known as the “National Women’s Day
  53. 53. • RA 6972 An Act establishing a Day Care Center in Every Barangay Instituting Therein a Total Development and Protection of Children Program
  54. 54. RA 7192 Act Promoting the Integration of Women as Full and equal partners of Men in Development and Nation Building and for Other Purposes
  55. 55. RA 7322 An Act Increasing Maternity Benefits in Favor of Women Workers in the Private Sector, Amending for the Purpose Section 14-A of Republic Act No. 1161
  56. 56. RA 7600 An Act Requiring All Government and Private Health Institutions with Obstetrical Services to Adopt Rooming-in and Breastfeeding Practices
  57. 57. RA 7688 An Act Giving Representation to Women in Social Security Commission Amending for the Purpose Section 3(A) of Republic Act 1161
  58. 58. RA 7610 An Act Providing for Stronger Deterrence and Special Protection Against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination, and for Other Purposes
  59. 59. RA 8353 An Act Expanding the Definition of the Crime of Rape, Reclassifying the Same as a Crime Against Persons
  60. 60. RA 9262 An Act Defining Violence Against Women and Their Children, Providing Protective Measures for Victims
  61. 61. Reminders during quiz: • Answer the question quietly • No looking to your seatmates • No asking/talking to your seatmates • No standing
  62. 62. THE PRIMACY OF EDUCATION TO ASIANS
  63. 63. Asians give prime importance to education. For most of us, proper and sufficient education is integral to achieving a successful life.
  64. 64. Objectives: • Analyze the significance of education in everyday life; • Prove that education plays an important role in the development of the country
  65. 65. China Even during ancient times, the Chinese people had exhibited tremendous appreciation of proper education. As a matter of fact, aspiring officials had to pass the civil service examination before they could become civil servants. For those seeking public office, the study of Confucian classics was very important since the examination was based on the teachings of Confucius.
  66. 66. • With the passage of the law, all Chinese citizens were given equal rights to schooling. • Education was utilized by the state to maintain the prevailing system in the society • Education also played a major role in spreading nationalism in the country
  67. 67. What was the purpose of the civil service examination in traditional China?
  68. 68. Japan Japan is one of the most progressive countries in Asia and in the world. It is estimated that all Japanese are literate or could read and write. All citizens were given equal opportunity to study regardless of gender and wealth. The Japanese educational system emphasized the need to shape an individual’s character to develop competence and discipline. For most Japanese, learning does not end in schools. An individual can still learn even in simple gatherings. All things considered, knowledge and wisdom are very important in Japanese culture and society.
  69. 69. South Korea Presently, one major issue facing South Korea is the impending entry of foreign investors in the educational system of the country. The government intends to allow some foreigners to set up schools in south Korea as a result of the many problems being encountered by the Koreans in their own educational system.
  70. 70. Some Problems: • Conservatism rather than individualism • School curricula are also quite difficult. Students have to spend plenty of time studying just to pass the one examination. • Stress levels being experienced by Korean students are quite high • Suicide is the third leading cause of death for Korean teenagers. • Parents have been sending their children abroad to study. About 350,000 South Korean students were studying in abroad in 2007.
  71. 71. ` • What are some problems being faced by South Korea’s educational system? • How does the South Korean government try to address the issue at hand?
  72. 72. India The political and economic conditions of India have exerted a great influence on the educational system of the country. When India experienced a crisis 1960 and the number of the students enrollees suddenly dropped, a thorough review resulted in the establishment of advisory committees to address these pressing issues.
  73. 73. Some Problems: • India possesses an ever-expanding population (one billion people) • Poverty is prevalent in the country • Only an estimated 66% of the Indian people are literate • There are more males than females who are literate in India

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