Constructivism Theory


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Constructivism Theory

  1. 1. Constructivism Rachel, Stephanie, Callie, Cara, Caitlyn
  2. 2. Key People • Jean Piaget (Cognitive Learning Theory) • Jerome Bruner (Learning based on previous knowledge) • Lev Vygotsky (Zone of Proximal Development) • John Dewey (Child- centered instruction)
  3. 3. Key Points • Jean Piaget • Jerome Bruner • Cognitive Learning Theory • Learning based on previous knowledge • Adaptation, Assimilation, • Cognition and Accommodation • The Socratic Method • Four Cognitive Stages • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete Operational • Formal Operational
  4. 4. • Lev Vygotsky • Social Cognition • Zone of Proximal Development • Collaborative Learning • Scaffolding and Schemata • John Dewey • Child- centered instruction • University Elementary School also called Laboratory School • Progressive Education and Pragmatism
  5. 5. Teachers • In the sensorimotor stage the teacher is going to most likely be the parent or whichever adult the child lives ages birth to two with, because that person is using positive and negative voices with the child, which is rewarding/disciplining good and bad behavior of the child. The child knows that if he cries then an adult will come and help. The child is reacting to stimuli and using memory, so anything, including technology, that the adult uses with the child with repetition the child would understand the basics of how to act. The child also imitates from the adult, so if the child is praised he knows to do it again, and over time if the child does something wrong and repetitively is reprimanded by an adult for it he knows to stop it. • With the preoperational stage, the child begins going to preschool and off to kindergarten, and in between those times the parent is having the child watch interactive television such as Sesame Street, or the teacher is allowing the student to work on the computer with interactive games. • In the concrete stage the teacher is possibly using a smart board and allowing the student to come up to the board, see objects and questions for problem solving. Doing this would establish that understanding of reversibility with basic math topics. • In the formal stage the teacher will be using technology to integrate the lessons. Any technology can be used if the student has reached the abstract and mental thinking level.
  6. 6. Students • 1. Sensorimotor stage:
-80% of learning done between birth to two years
-child learns how to respond to voices
understands crying
-reacts to stimuli
-use of memory (understands positive/negative voice tones)
-will imitate parents
able to recognize objects
-child makes sense of world around him
-uses reflexes
-everything is goal directed behavior (response--->do it again)
-with addressing technology, the child reacts to sounds in this stage, so things such as having music in the crib would go in this stage. For example with the use of memory the child may associate going in a crib with listening to music while falling asleep. Also addressing technology in this stage, parents may put toys in the child's crib that play different sounds and light up with pressed, and that is associated with this stage because that is one way the child is reacting to stimuli. The child knows if he pushes those buttons in the crib he gets a certain sound, and because nothing bad happens it is associated with "good" in the child's brain, and over time uses memory. • 2. Preoperational 
-from ages 2-7
-child develops language
-ability to think logically
-ability to think in one direction (child is focused on self, "me!" phrases used, lack of responsibility)
-***one direction thinking will end around age seven
difficulty of seeing the views of others in this stage
-using technology in this stage: the thing I automatically think of would be the "abcmouse" commercials. The online games and activities that speak to the child and get the child interacting with a certain language(s) help them with thinking logically.
  7. 7. • 3. concrete operational
-from ages 7-11
-child starting to grow
-ability to solve problems using concrete objects
-understanding reversibility (in math, that would be with addition and subtraction, and then also when the child does tasks and there's an opposite)
-here with technology the child is able to learn and comprehend with concrete, or physical objects. The child must physically see and touch the object to understand the concept. But it can also work if the teacher is possibly using technology to project ideas to the whole class. So if the child is able to interact with a smart board and see the real objects that could probably count as this stage. Also just the class being able to talk with their peers and see the question they're being asked in front of them on the board with pictures they can associate and understand in their mind of that object, then technology could be used in this stage. • 4. formal operational
-from ages 11-adult
-use of abstract reasoning
-mental thinking
-some people will never mentally reach this development in thinking and understanding
-In this stage, people who are able to mentally reach this level can be given pieces of technology and just by playing around with it can understand how to use it and see why they would want to use it. This can be seen with new websites, as well as physical items such as when new phones come out or when people use tablets for the first time. At this stage the person is able to explore the technology and because of the mental level they're on, they can understand the piece.
  8. 8. Teaching • The theory would definitely influence the way I teach because it would help me to understand which activities would be age appropriate. It is a good base line to follow when planning a lesson since I would be informed of what my students are capable of doing. When integrating technology into the classroom it may be tricky to judge the appropriateness of an activity based on the child's skills. Separating certain aged children by cognitive development groups is a great guideline on what stage of learning they are in and how to teach them the most effective way. So I would have to say that this theory would most certainly influence my decisions in regards to my classroom teaching style. Of course there are exceptions to every rule so if I notice a student that is exceeding the expectations then I may very well have them work on items that are more challenging then their cognitive level should be. Overall, it would be a very helpful guideline to follow.
  9. 9. Works Cited • "The Early Years." N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <>. • "Jerome Bruner." Dr. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <>. • "John Dewey Biography." A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <>. • "Lev Vygotsky." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Nov. 2013. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <>.