Wireless Networks and Public Safety: Wildfires in San Diego


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Talk given on June 22nd to the California Emerging Technology Fund on Calit2's effort in partnership with SDSC to provide technology support for investigating how technology can help respond to wildfires.

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  • Harris Fire
  • Harris Fire
  • Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)
  • April 2004 Flown by Plane with four bands: RGB and infrared. Imagery flown
  • April 2004 Flown by Plane with four bands: RGB and infrared. Imagery flown fused with real time sensed data
  • Tom Porter, San Diego Unit Chief CalFire in NextCave
  • Understanding fire behavior is a huge challenge. Weather and fire behavior have coupled interactions that must be modeled appropriately. Above is the cutting edge in merging atmospheric and fire models. Lead by scientist Janice Coen at NCAR, ColoradoThe following animations show coupled weather-fire behavior model simulations of the growth of wildfires.The widely-observed "universal fire shape" evolves from the physics of fire interactions with the atmosphere.The fire starts as a line; constant easterly winds of 3 m/s are driving the fire from behind.  The fuel is "chaparral", a brush common in parts of CA, AZ, and the central Rocky Mtns.  Wildfire control in chaparral (a species that has adapted itself to recurring fires) is  notoriously difficult, because coupling Santa Ana winds, with droughts, long summers, and (often) steep terrain, creates intense, rapidly spreading fires.The misty field is smoke, denser and more red where the fire is burning most intensely.As the fire spreads, it evolves into a shape well-known to fire managers, with three parts: 1) the "head" - the leading edge of the fire where the heat is focussed, 2) two "flanks" - along the side, here the winds blow basically parallel to the edge of the fire, and 3) the "back" - the slowest moving part of the fire that creeps against the wind.  The heat from the fire rises in updrafts(s) that the winds focus at the head of the fire.  These updrafts draw warm air into their base from all directions, guiding the wind to flow along the flanks and focus the heat at the front.  In this way, the interaction of the fire with environmental winds creates a self-perpetuating, universal shape that is observed in fires in many conditions all around the world.
  • Modeling: Use LANL to validate Phoenix – leverage strengths from each
  • Wireless Networks and Public Safety: Wildfires in San Diego

    1. 1. Advanced Wireless Networks and Public Safety: A Calit2, SDSC, and San Diego Collaboration Jerry Sheehan, Chief of Staff California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology [Calit2] Presentation to California Emerging Technology Fund Board, June 22nd, 2012
    2. 2. Presentation Overview• Wildfires and San Diego• The High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network: Connectivity, Situational Awareness, and Sensing• The Future
    3. 3. San Diego Wildfires: 2003 and 2007 2003 • 384,829 acres burned • 17 deaths, 145 firefighters injured • +$2B in damages 2007 • 361, 190 acres Burned • 7 deaths, 23 civilians and 105 firefighter injured • 500,000 evacuated • +$2B in damages
    4. 4. Downtown San Diego, October 23, 2007 Photo Credit: Bill Clayton, San Diego State University
    5. 5. Climate Change and WildfiresSource: Stabilization Targets for Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas Concentrations, National Research Council, July 2010
    6. 6. Fire Hazards in San Diego
    7. 7. HPWREN Topology, December 2000 Pala Native American ReservationUC San Diego UCSD Mount Laguna Observatory Backbone/relay node Approximately 50 Miles Astronomy science site Native American site
    8. 8. Coyote Fire, IPC Deployment 2003Palomar Mountain relay Cuyamaca Mountain HPWREN backbone site Fire operations relay Operations camp
    9. 9. HPWREN, June 2012
    10. 10. Fixed and Mobile HPWREN Public Safety Deployments15 Fixed installations 8 Ad-hoc Incident Command Post deploymentsAir bases: • 2003 Coyote Fire• Fallbrook Helitac Base • 2004 Eagle Fire• Gillespie Field Helitac Base • 2004 Mataguay Fire• Ramona Air Attack Base • 2005 Volcan Fire • 2005 Border50 FireConservation Camps: • 2006 Horse Fire• La Cima • 2010 Cowboy fire• Puerta La Cruz • 2011 Eagle Fire• RainbowCal Fire Stations:• Mount Woodson Other fire-related activities• Red Mountain• Rincon • Environmental camera/animations information• Valley Center • Other sensor data• Warner Springs • Fire drill eventsSDCFA stations:• Palomar• RanchitaUSFS:• PalomarCounty:• PSC/EOC
    11. 11. Network Cameras for Environmental Observation
    12. 12. HPWREN, Lyons Peak 2007
    13. 13. NSF News Release, Oct 30, 2007
    14. 14. Virtually Observing the 2007 Fire
    15. 15. SDFireSight, Partnership with County of San Diego, 2010
    16. 16. SDSU’s San Diego GIS Force Group of Volunteers Geo-Referenced MODIS Data and Distributed Over Web “We apologize for the slow server performance in the first two days of the wildfires (Oct. 21 & 22) due to overloaded requests from Web users. Tuesday we were given access to major Intel computers at Calit2 at UCSD and special connectivity between SDSU and UCSD (OptIPuter) from which this page is now being served (special thanks to John Graham, Eric Frost, Larry Smarr, John DeNune, andOctober 23, 2007 Cristiano). It is super fast now.” -- SDSU Department of Geography, Oct. 25, 11:00am. Site organized by Dr. Ming-Hsiang Tsou, SDSU http://map.sdsu.edu/
    17. 17. HPWREN Cameras, June 2012
    18. 18. Santa Anna Weather Alerts for County Fire Personnel Lyons Peak Datalogger Lyons Peak Datalogger Lyons Peak DataloggerRelative Humidity Wind Speed Wind Direction Lyons Peak Datalogger Date: Wed, 4 Aug 2010 09:31:05 -0700 Subject: URGENT weather sensor alert LP: RH=26.1 WD=135.2 WS=1.9 FM=6.8 AT=80.7 at 20100804.093100 More details at http://hpwren.ucsd.edu/Sensors/ Fuel Moisture Trigger real-time computer-generated alerts, if: condition “A” AND condition “B” AND condition “C” OR condition “D” exists, in which case several San Diego emergency officers are being paged or emailed during such alert conditions, based on HPWREN data parameterization by a CDF Division Chief. This system has been in operation since 2004.
    19. 19. Weather Stations in San Diego, June 2012
    20. 20. NASA’s Aqua Satellite’s MODIS Instrument Provided “Situational Awareness” of the 14 SoCal Fires Calit2, SDSU, and NASA Goddard Used NASA Prioritization and OptIPuter Links to Cut time to Receive Images from 24 to 3 Hours October 22, 2007 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NASA/MODIS Rapid Response www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/lookingatearth/socal_wildfires_oct07.html
    21. 21. MODIS Images Provide Targeting Information to NASAs EO-1 Satellite Which Cuts Through Smoke Composite of the Three of the Red, Blue, and Green Channels Shortwave Infrared Channels October 23, 2007 Witch Wildfire south of Escondido, CaliforniaEO-1’s Hyperion Spectrometer Observes 220 Contiguous Wavelengths From Visible Light To Shortwave Infrared Source: NASA/EO-1 Team www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/lookingatearth/socal_wildfires_oct07.html
    22. 22. 0.5 meter image resolution. 2meter resolution elevation derived from stereo imagery
    23. 23. CAL FIRE Research and Planning
    24. 24. Coupled Weather-Fire Behavior Model “WRF-Fire” By Janice Coen, NCAR
    25. 25. Modelling & Prediction Firetec Fire Model: Los Alamos National LabsPhoenix Fire Model:Kevin Tolhurst 26