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Construction of marine and offshore structures(2007)

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Construction of marine and offshore structures(2007)

  1. 1. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  2. 2. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  3. 3. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  4. 4. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  5. 5. To the great pioneers in Marine and Offshore Construction who were undeterred by violent storms and massive ice. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  6. 6. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  7. 7. Preface This third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latest developments in this rapidly expanding field. The intensified search for oil and gas, the catastrophic flooding of coastal regions and the demands for transportation, bridges, sub- merged tunnels and waterways have led to the continuing innovation of new technology which is now available for use on more conventional projects as well as those at the frontiers. This text is intended as a guide and reference for practicing engineers and constructors for use in the marine environment. It is also intended as a text for graduate engineering students interested in this highly challenging endeavour. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  8. 8. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  9. 9. Acknowledgments I wish to acknowledge the help of many members of our company, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. making available information on the current construction of marine and offshore projects, also the willing responses to my queries from other sources in the industry. I would like to thank my administrative assistant, Michelle Yu, for her word-processing of the manuscript. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  10. 10. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  11. 11. Author Ben C. Gerwick, Jr. is the author of Construction of Prestressed Concrete, first, second, and third editions, and the first and second editions of Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures. He was born in Berkeley, California, in 1919. He received his B.S. in civil engineering from the University of California at Berkeley in 1940. He joined the U.S. Navy the same year and served until 1946. He was assigned as commanding officer of the USS Scania (AK 40) in 1945. He has worked in marine and offshore construction, or taught about it, for most of the time since his discharge from the navy. He worked in Marine Construction from 1946 to 1967 and from 1967 to 1971 in Offshore Construction, ending as President of Ben C. Gerwick, Inc., and Manager of Offshore Construction for Santa Fe International. From 1971 to 1989, he served as Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Construction, and an honorary member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, which awarded him their Outstanding Engineering Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002. He has been named a fellow of the International Association of Structural and Bridge Engineers and has served as president of the International Federation of Prestressing. He was awarded the Berkeley Fellow Medal in 1989. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  12. 12. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  13. 13. Contents Introduction 0.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 1 0.2 Geography ............................................................................................................................ 3 0.3 Ecological Environment ..................................................................................................... 4 0.4 Legal Jurisdiction................................................................................................................. 4 0.5 Offshore Construction Relationships and Sequences.................................................... 5 0.6 Typical Marine Structures and Contracts........................................................................ 8 0.7 Interaction of Design and Construction .......................................................................... 9 Chapter 1 Physical Environmental Aspects of Marine and Offshore Construction 1.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 15 1.2 Distances and Depths ....................................................................................................... 15 1.3 Hydrostatic Pressure and Buoyancy.............................................................................. 16 1.4 Temperature ....................................................................................................................... 17 1.5 Seawater and Sea–Air Interface Chemistry .................................................................. 18 1.5.1 Marine Organisms ................................................................................................ 18 1.6 Currents .............................................................................................................................. 20 1.7 Waves and Swells.............................................................................................................. 25 1.8 Winds and Storms ............................................................................................................. 31 1.9 Tides and Storm Surges.................................................................................................... 34 1.10 Rain, Snow, Fog, Spray, Atmospheric Icing, and Lightning ...................................... 36 1.11 Sea Ice and Icebergs .......................................................................................................... 37 1.12 Seismicity, Seaquakes, and Tsunamis............................................................................. 42 1.13 Floods .................................................................................................................................. 43 1.14 Scour.................................................................................................................................... 44 1.15 Siltation and Bed Loads ................................................................................................... 44 1.16 Sabotage and Terrorism.................................................................................................... 45 1.17 Ship Traffic.......................................................................................................................... 45 1.18 Fire and Smoke .................................................................................................................. 46 1.19 Accidental Events.............................................................................................................. 46 1.20 Global Warming................................................................................................................. 47 Chapter 2 Geotechnical Aspects: Seafloor and Marine Soils 2.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 49 2.2 Dense Sands ....................................................................................................................... 52 2.3 Liquefaction of Soils.......................................................................................................... 52 2.4 Calcareous Sands............................................................................................................... 53 2.5 Glacial Till and Boulders on Seafloor............................................................................. 53 2.6 Overconsolidated Silts ..................................................................................................... 54 2.7 Subsea Permafrost and Clathrates.................................................................................. 55 q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  14. 14. 2.8 Weak Arctic Silts and Clays............................................................................................. 55 2.9 Ice Scour and Pingos......................................................................................................... 56 2.10 Methane Gas....................................................................................................................... 56 2.11 Muds and Clays................................................................................................................. 56 2.11.1 Underwater Slopes in Clays ............................................................................. 57 2.11.2 Pile Driving “Set-Up” ........................................................................................ 58 2.11.3 Short-Term Bearing Strength ............................................................................ 58 2.11.4 Dredging .............................................................................................................. 58 2.11.5 Sampling .............................................................................................................. 58 2.11.6 Penetration........................................................................................................... 59 2.11.7 Consolidation of Clays; Improvement in Strength ....................................... 59 2.12 Coral and Similar Biogenic Soils; Cemented Soils, Cap Rock ................................. 59 2.13 Unconsolidated Sands ...................................................................................................... 60 2.14 Underwater Sand Dunes (“Megadunes”) ..................................................................... 62 2.15 Bedrock Outcrops.............................................................................................................. 62 2.16 Cobbles................................................................................................................................ 63 2.17 Deep Gravel Deposits....................................................................................................... 64 2.18 Seafloor Oozes.................................................................................................................... 64 2.19 Seafloor Instability and Slumping; Turbidity Currents............................................... 64 2.20 Scour and Erosion ............................................................................................................. 65 2.21 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................................................ 66 Chapter 3 Ecological and Societal Impacts of Marine Construction 3.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 69 3.2 Oil and Petroleum Products ............................................................................................ 69 3.3 Toxic Chemicals ................................................................................................................. 70 3.4 Contaminated Soils ........................................................................................................... 71 3.5 Construction Wastes.......................................................................................................... 71 3.6 Turbidity ............................................................................................................................. 71 3.7 Sediment Transport, Scour, and Erosion ....................................................................... 72 3.8 Air Pollution....................................................................................................................... 72 3.9 Marine Life: Mammals and Birds, Fish, and Other Biota .......................................... 73 3.10 Aquifers............................................................................................................................... 74 3.11 Noise.................................................................................................................................... 74 3.12 Highway, Rail, Barge, and Air Traffic ............................................................................ 75 3.13 Protection of Existing Structures .................................................................................... 75 3.14 Liquefaction........................................................................................................................ 77 3.15 Safety of the Public and Third-Party Vessels................................................................ 77 3.16 Archaeological Concerns................................................................................................. 78 Chapter 4 Materials and Fabrication for Marine Structures 4.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 79 4.2 Steel Structures for the Marine Environment............................................................... 79 4.2.1 Steel Materials....................................................................................................... 80 4.2.2 Fabrication and Welding ..................................................................................... 80 4.2.3 Erection of Structural Steel ................................................................................. 85 4.2.4 Coatings and Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures.................................. 88 4.2.5 High Performance Steels..................................................................................... 91 4.3 Structural Concrete ........................................................................................................... 91 q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  15. 15. 4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................... 91 4.3.2 Concrete Mixes and Properties .......................................................................... 91 4.3.2.1 High Performance Concrete— “Flowing Concrete”...................... 95 4.3.2.2 Structural Low-Density Concrete...................................................... 96 4.3.2.3 Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC)..................................... 97 4.3.3 Conveyance and Placement of Concrete.......................................................... 97 4.3.4 Curing..................................................................................................................... 98 4.3.5 Steel Reinforcement.............................................................................................. 98 4.3.6 Prestressing Tendons and Accessories............................................................ 102 4.3.7 Embedments........................................................................................................ 105 4.3.8 Coatings for Marine Concrete .......................................................................... 106 4.3.9 Construction Joints............................................................................................. 106 4.3.10 Forming and Support ....................................................................................... 107 4.3.11 Tolerances............................................................................................................ 108 4.4 Hybrid Steel–Concrete Structures................................................................................. 108 4.4.1 Hybrid Structures............................................................................................... 109 4.4.2 Composite Construction.................................................................................... 109 4.5 Plastics and Synthetic Materials, Composites ............................................................ 111 4.6 Titanium............................................................................................................................ 113 4.7 Rock, Sand, and Asphaltic-Bituminous Materials ..................................................... 114 Chapter 5 Marine and Offshore Construction Equipment 5.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 117 5.2 Basic Motions in a Seaway............................................................................................. 118 5.3 Buoyancy, Draft, and Freeboard ................................................................................... 120 5.4 Stability.............................................................................................................................. 121 5.5 Damage Control............................................................................................................... 124 5.6 Barges ................................................................................................................................ 126 5.7 Crane Barges .................................................................................................................... 130 5.8 Offshore Derrick Barges (Fully Revolving)................................................................. 134 5.9 Semisubmersible Barges................................................................................................. 137 5.10 Jack-Up Construction Barges......................................................................................... 140 5.11 Launch Barges.................................................................................................................. 144 5.12 Catamaran Barges ........................................................................................................... 146 5.13 Dredges ............................................................................................................................. 147 5.14 Pipe-Laying Barges ......................................................................................................... 152 5.15 Supply Boats..................................................................................................................... 155 5.16 Anchor-Handling Boats.................................................................................................. 156 5.17 Towboats ........................................................................................................................... 156 5.18 Drilling Vessels ................................................................................................................ 157 5.19 Crew Boats........................................................................................................................ 158 5.20 Floating Concrete Plant .................................................................................................. 158 5.21 Tower Cranes ................................................................................................................... 159 5.22 Specialized Equipment................................................................................................... 160 Chapter 6 Marine Operations 6.1 Towing............................................................................................................................... 161 6.2 Moorings and Anchors................................................................................................... 169 6.2.1 Mooring Lines..................................................................................................... 169 q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  16. 16. 6.2.2 Anchors................................................................................................................ 170 6.2.2.1 Drag Anchors ..................................................................................... 170 6.2.2.2 Pile Anchors........................................................................................ 174 6.2.2.3 Propellant Anchors............................................................................ 174 6.2.2.4 Suction Anchors................................................................................. 175 6.2.2.5 Driven-Plate Anchors........................................................................ 175 6.2.3 Mooring Systems ................................................................................................ 175 6.3 Handling Heavy Loads at Sea....................................................................................... 183 6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................. 183 6.4 Personnel Transfer at Sea ............................................................................................... 190 6.5 Underwater Intervention, Diving, Underwater Work Systems, Remote-Operated Vehicles (ROVs), and Manipulators ............................................ 194 6.5.1 Diving................................................................................................................... 194 6.5.2 Remote-Operated Vehicles (ROVs).................................................................. 201 6.5.3 Manipulators....................................................................................................... 203 6.6 Underwater Concreting and Grouting ........................................................................ 203 6.6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 203 6.6.2 Underwater Concrete Mixes............................................................................. 204 6.6.3 Placement of Tremie Concrete.......................................................................... 205 6.6.4 Special Admixtures for Concreting Underwater .......................................... 209 6.6.5 Grout-Intruded Aggregate................................................................................ 212 6.6.6 Pumped Concrete and Mortar ......................................................................... 213 6.6.7 Underbase Grout ................................................................................................ 213 6.6.8 Grout for Transfer of Forces from Piles to Sleeves and Jacket Legs ........................................................................................................... 215 6.6.9 Low-Strength Underwater Concrete............................................................... 215 6.6.10 Summary............................................................................................................ 215 6.7 Offshore Surveying, Navigation, and Seafloor Surveys............................................ 216 6.8 Temporary Buoyancy Augmentation........................................................................... 223 Chapter 7 Seafloor Modifications and Improvements 7.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 225 7.2 Controls for Grade and Position................................................................................... 226 7.2.1 Determination of Existing Conditions............................................................. 226 7.3 Seafloor Dredging, Obstruction Removal, and Leveling.......................................... 227 7.4 Dredging and Removal of Hard Material and Rock ................................................ 235 7.5 Placement of Underwater Fills...................................................................................... 240 7.6 Consolidation and Strengthening of Weak Soils........................................................ 245 7.7 Prevention of Liquefaction............................................................................................. 248 7.8 Scour Protection............................................................................................................... 248 7.9 Concluding Remarks ...................................................................................................... 252 Chapter 8 Installation of Piles in Marine and Offshore Structure 8.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 255 8.2 Fabrication of Tubular Steel Piles ................................................................................. 259 8.3 Transportation of Piling.................................................................................................. 260 8.4 Installing Piles.................................................................................................................. 262 8.5 Methods of Increasing Penetration............................................................................... 285 8.6 Insert Piles ........................................................................................................................ 290 q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  17. 17. 8.7 Anchoring into Rock or Hardpan................................................................................. 291 8.8 Testing High Capacity Piles........................................................................................... 292 8.9 Steel H Piles...................................................................................................................... 293 8.10 Enhancing Stiffness and Capacity of Piles .................................................................. 293 8.11 Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Piles............................................................................. 294 8.12 Handling and Positioning of Piles for Offshore Terminals ...................................... 296 8.13 Drilled and Grouted Piles.............................................................................................. 297 8.14 Cast-in-Drilled-Hole Piles, Drilled Shafts ................................................................... 302 8.15 Other Installation Experience........................................................................................ 312 8.16 Installation in Difficult Soils .......................................................................................... 312 8.17 Other Methods of Improving the Capacity of Driven Piles..................................... 313 8.18 Slurry Walls, Secant Walls, and Tangent Walls .......................................................... 315 8.19 Steel Sheet Piles ............................................................................................................... 316 8.20 Vibratory Pile Hammers................................................................................................. 317 8.21 Micropiles ......................................................................................................................... 317 Chapter 9 Harbor, River, and Estuary Structures 9.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 319 9.2 Harbor Structures............................................................................................................ 319 9.2.1 Types..................................................................................................................... 319 9.2.2 Pile-Supported Structures ................................................................................. 319 9.2.2.1 Steel Piles ............................................................................................. 319 9.2.2.2 Concrete Piles...................................................................................... 320 9.2.2.3 Installation ........................................................................................... 320 9.2.2.4 Batter (Raker) Piles............................................................................. 322 9.2.2.5 Pile Location ........................................................................................ 323 9.2.2.6 Jetting.................................................................................................... 323 9.2.2.7 Driving Through Obstructions or Very Hard Material................ 323 9.2.2.8 Staying of Piles.................................................................................... 324 9.2.2.9 Head Connections .............................................................................. 325 9.2.2.10 Concrete Deck ..................................................................................... 326 9.2.2.11 Fender System ..................................................................................... 327 9.2.3 Bulkheads, Quay Walls...................................................................................... 327 9.2.3.1 Description........................................................................................... 327 9.2.3.2 Sheet Pile Bulkheads .......................................................................... 327 9.2.3.3 Caisson Quay Walls............................................................................ 330 9.3 River Structures ............................................................................................................... 331 9.3.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 331 9.3.2 Sheet Pile Cellular Structures........................................................................... 331 9.3.3 “Lift-In” Precast Concrete Shells—“In-the-Wet” Construction .................. 335 9.3.4 Float-In Concrete Structures............................................................................. 336 9.3.4.1 General ................................................................................................. 336 9.3.4.2 Prefabrication ...................................................................................... 337 9.3.4.3 Launching ............................................................................................ 338 9.3.4.4 Installation ........................................................................................... 339 9.3.4.5 Leveling Pads ...................................................................................... 339 9.3.4.6 Underfill ............................................................................................... 340 9.4 Foundations for Overwater Bridge Piers .................................................................... 343 9.4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 343 9.4.2 Open Caissons .................................................................................................... 344 q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  18. 18. 9.4.3 Pneumatic Caissons ........................................................................................... 345 9.4.4 Gravity-Base Caissons (Box Caissons)............................................................ 346 9.4.5 Pile-Supported Box Caissons............................................................................ 357 9.4.6 Large-Diameter Tubular Piles .......................................................................... 360 9.4.6.1 Steel Tubular Piles .............................................................................. 360 9.4.6.2 Prestressed Concrete Tubular Piles.................................................. 367 9.4.7 Connection of Piles to Footing Block (Pile Cap) ........................................... 370 9.4.8 CIDH Drilled Shafts (Piles)............................................................................... 371 9.4.9 Cofferdams........................................................................................................... 371 9.4.9.1 Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdams............................................................... 372 9.4.9.2 Liquefaction During Cofferdam Construction............................... 375 9.4.9.3 Cofferdams on Slope .......................................................................... 376 9.4.9.4 Deep Cofferdams ................................................................................ 376 9.4.9.5 Portable Cofferdams........................................................................... 378 9.4.10 Protective Structures for Bridge Piers............................................................ 378 9.4.11 Belled Piers ........................................................................................................ 379 9.5 Submerged Prefabricated Tunnels (Tubes).................................................................. 381 9.5.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 381 9.5.2 Prefabrication of Steel–Concrete Composite Tunnel Segments.................. 382 9.5.3 Prefabrication of All-Concrete Tube Segments.............................................. 383 9.5.4 Preparation of Trench ........................................................................................ 384 9.5.5 Installing the Segments ..................................................................................... 385 9.5.6 Underfill and Backfill......................................................................................... 386 9.5.7 Portal Connections ............................................................................................. 386 9.5.8 Pile-Supported Tunnels ..................................................................................... 386 9.5.9 Submerged Floating Tunnels............................................................................ 387 9.6 Storm Surge Barriers....................................................................................................... 387 9.6.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 387 9.6.2 Venice Storm Surge Barrier............................................................................... 388 9.6.3 Oosterschelde Storm Surge Barrier ................................................................. 389 9.7 Flow-Control Structures ................................................................................................. 397 9.7.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 397 9.7.2 Temperature Control Devices........................................................................... 397 Chapter 10 Coastal Structures 10.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 399 10.2 Ocean Outfalls and Intakes.......................................................................................... 399 10.3 Breakwaters .................................................................................................................... 408 10.3.1 General.............................................................................................................. 408 10.3.2 Rubble-Mound Breakwaters ......................................................................... 408 10.3.3 Caisson-Type Breakwaters and Caisson-Retained Islands ...................... 414 10.3.4 Sheet Pile Cellular Breakwaters.................................................................... 415 10.4 Offshore Terminals ........................................................................................................ 416 Chapter 11 Offshore Platforms: Steel Jackets and Pin Piles 11.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 433 11.2 Fabrication of Steel Jackets........................................................................................... 434 11.3 Load-Out, Tie-Down, and Transport.......................................................................... 435 11.4 Removal of Jacket from Transport Barge; Lifting; Launching ............................... 444 q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  19. 19. 11.5 Upending of Jacket........................................................................................................ 452 11.6 Installation on the Seafloor .......................................................................................... 455 11.7 Pile and Conductor Installation .................................................................................. 458 11.8 Deck Installation ............................................................................................................ 461 11.9 Examples......................................................................................................................... 464 11.9.1 Example 1—Hondo ........................................................................................ 464 11.9.2 Example 2—Cognac........................................................................................ 472 11.9.3 Example 3—Cerveza ...................................................................................... 476 Chapter 12 Concrete Offshore Platforms: Gravity-Base Structures 12.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 479 12.2 Stages of Construction.................................................................................................. 483 12.2.1 Stage 1—Construction Basin ........................................................................ 483 12.2.2 Stage 2—Construction of Base Raft ............................................................ 487 12.2.3 Stage 3—Float-Out ......................................................................................... 490 12.2.4 Stag