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Grammar handbook for spanish


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Grammar handbook for spanish

  1. 1. Spanish 3 Grammar Handbook<br />Anthony Armando Cali<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />El Preterito<br />Preterite Triggers<br />Cars Gars and Zars<br />Spock Verbs<br />Snake and Snakey Verbs<br />Cucaracha Irregulars<br />El Imperfecto<br />Imperfect Triggers<br />Imperfect Irregulars<br />Preterite vs. Imperfect<br />VerboscomoGustar<br />Comparatives y Superlatives<br />Comparative/Superlative irregulars<br />Estar<br />Ser<br />Transition Words<br />El Futuro<br />Future Triggers<br />Future Irregulars<br />Por<br />Para<br />
  3. 3. El Preterito<br />A definite time in the past<br />Has a beginning and or ending<br />The recent past<br />Indicates an interrupting action<br />Perfected Time<br />Trigger words<br />Ayer, Anoche, El Anopasado, La semanaPasada, Ante ayer, have que<br />Ar verbs: e, amos, aste, o, asteis, aron<br />Er verbs: i, imos, iste, isteis, io, ieron<br />Ir verbs: I, imos, iste, isteis, io, ieron<br />
  4. 4. Trigger Palabras<br />Preterito:<br />Ayer, ante ayer, anoche, el anopasado, el mespasado, la semanapasada, have (tiempo) que (conjugated verb)<br />
  5. 5. Car Gar and Zar<br />Car:<br />Que, , caste, camos, co, casteis, caron<br />Gar:<br />Gue, , , gamos, gaste, gasteis, go, garon<br />Zar:<br />Ce, , zaste, zamos, zasteis, zo, zaron<br />
  6. 6. Spock Verbs<br />Ir – to go, ser- to be: fui, fuimos, fuiste, fuisteis, fue, fueron<br />Dar- to give, ver- to see: I, imos, iste, isteis, io, ieron<br />Hacer: to make or do: hice, hicimos, hiciste, hicisteis, hito, hicieron<br />
  7. 7. Irregular Preterites<br />Snake verbs: only changes in 3rd person, e>i: pedir, preferir, competir, repetir, servir, sentir, venir. A>u: dormir, and morir<br />Snakey verbs: Only changes in 3rd person, i>y: oir, e> y: leer, creer<br />
  8. 8. Cucaracha Irregular Preterites<br />Andar- anduv<br />EstarEstuv<br />PoderPud<br />Poner Pus<br />Quererquis<br />Saber Sup<br />Tenertuv<br />Venirvin<br />conducirconduj<br />Producirproduj<br />Traducirtraduj<br />Decirdij<br />E<br />Iste<br />O<br />Imos<br />Isteis<br />ieron<br />
  9. 9. El Imperfecto<br />The very distant past<br />Indicates a continuous action<br />Imperfected time<br />Trigger words: frecuentamente, siempre, a veces, a menudo, de vez en cuando, mientras, muchasveces, los lunas, cadadia, todos los dias<br />
  10. 10. Trigger Palabras<br />Imperfecto: Frecuemente, muchasveces, siempre, los lunes, a veces, cadadia, a menudo, todos los dias, de vez en cuando, mientras<br />
  11. 11. Los imperfectorsirregulares<br />Ir: iba, ibamos, ibas, ibais, iba, iban<br />Ser: era, eramos, eras, erais, era, eran<br />Ver: veia, veiamos, veias, veiais, veia, veian<br />
  12. 12. Preteritevs, Imperfect<br />Preterite: a definite time in the past.<br />Has a beginning and or endiing<br />The most recent past<br />Perfected time<br />Indicates an interrupting action (snapshot)<br />Irregular: The very distant past<br />No definite beginning or ending<br />Imperfected time<br />Indicates a continuous action (movie)<br />
  13. 13. Verbos Como Gustar<br />When followed by 1 or more infinitives, singular is used<br />Gustar is often used in the conditional tense to softena request<br />
  14. 14. Verboscomogustar continued<br />Aburrir, to bore<br />Encantar, to love<br />Faltar, to fail<br />Fascinar, to fascinate<br />Importar, to be important<br />Interesar, to interest<br />Molestar, to bother<br />Quedar, to be<br />Caerbien/mal, to fall<br />Dolar, to hurt<br />Disgustar, to disgust<br />Preocupar, to preoccupy,<br />Aprecer, to wish for<br />Gustar, to like<br />
  15. 15. Comparatives y superlatives<br />Comparatives<br />Mas + adjectivo + que<br />Menos + adjectivo + que<br />Superlatives<br />El/la mas + adjectivo + de<br />El menos + adjectivo + de<br />
  16. 16. FormasIrregulares<br />Bueno, Malo, Viejo, y joventieneformas de comparativos, y superlativosirregulares<br />Bueno > mejor<br />Malo > peor<br />Viejo > mayor<br />Joven> menor<br />
  17. 17. Estar (to be)<br />Health<br />Emotions<br />Location<br />Present condition<br />I<br />N<br />G<br />
  18. 18. Ser (to be)<br />Description<br />Origin<br />Characteristics<br />Time<br />Occupation<br />Relation<br />Physical Characteristics<br />Event<br />Date<br />
  19. 19. Transition Words<br />A pasar de: in spite of<br />Por lo tanto: therefore<br />Aunque: even though<br />Sin embargo: nevertheless<br />Mientras: while<br />No obstante: nevertheless<br />Pero: but<br />Tambien: also<br />
  20. 20. El futuro<br />I/you/he/she/they/we/y’all will<br />Infinitive + ending<br />Endings are same for –ar, -er, and –ir<br />E<br />As<br />Amos<br />A<br />Eis<br />
  21. 21. Trigger Palabras<br />Futuro:<br />El proximo (dia, semana, hora, ano, …)<br />Manana<br />En (dos, tres) (dias, semanas, horas, anos)<br />
  22. 22. Future Irregulars<br />Caber cabr<br />Decir dir<br />Haber habr<br />Hay habra<br />Poderpodr<br />Ponerpondr<br />Quererquerr<br />Saber sabr<br />Salirsaldr<br />Tenertendr<br />Valervaldr<br />Venirvednr<br />
  23. 23. Por (for)<br />General, not specific<br />Location: portugal<br />Passing through: portal<br />Cause of something: porpuse<br />How long something lasts: porever<br />An exchange: import export<br />Means of transportation<br />Doing something for something else: I’m por pay for me<br />
  24. 24. Para (for)<br />Destination: paraguay<br />For whom something is done: surprise paratay<br />Purpose for which something is done: parasite<br />To express an opinion: paradon me, but<br />To express a deadline: paramedic<br />Compara contrast<br />