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IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 11M. TorresM. Torres
What MUST we do?What MUST we do?
Ethics: philosophicalEthics: philosophical
study of moral values.study of moral values.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 22
Ethics: index.Ethics: index.
• Some basic questions.Some basic questions.
• Basic definitions.Basic definitions.
• History of ethical perspectives:History of ethical perspectives:
– Plato and Aristotle on virtue ethics.Plato and Aristotle on virtue ethics.
– Aquinas Christian version of virtue ethics: natural law andAquinas Christian version of virtue ethics: natural law and
revelation.revelation.
– Kant’s categorical imperative.Kant’s categorical imperative.
– Utilitarianism and BenthamUtilitarianism and Bentham
– Existentialism and J.P. Sartre.Existentialism and J.P. Sartre.
• Conclusion:Conclusion:
– A philosophical and personal task, What is right and wrong?A philosophical and personal task, What is right and wrong?
– Human Rights: Minimal and universal ethics, a international andHuman Rights: Minimal and universal ethics, a international and
personal compromise.personal compromise.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 33
Morality vs. ethics: a philosophical distinction.Morality vs. ethics: a philosophical distinction.
• MoralityMorality is about personal valuesis about personal values
that guide our actions andthat guide our actions and
decisions. Morality is generallydecisions. Morality is generally
under the influence of the culture,under the influence of the culture,
society and religion.society and religion. Morality: first-Morality: first-
order set of beliefs and practicesorder set of beliefs and practices
about how to live a good lifeabout how to live a good life
• AA moral statementmoral statement (phrase)(phrase)
reflects my conception of what isreflects my conception of what is
good for me. A moral statement isgood for me. A moral statement is
always from the particular point ofalways from the particular point of
view of my society or religion.view of my society or religion.
• EthicsEthics is the second-order,is the second-order,
reflective consideration of ourreflective consideration of our
moral beliefs and practices. Ethicsmoral beliefs and practices. Ethics
is the explicit, philosophicalis the explicit, philosophical
reflection on moral beliefs andreflection on moral beliefs and
practices.practices.
• Ethics is a conscious steppingEthics is a conscious stepping
back and reflecting on morality,back and reflecting on morality,
just as musicology is a consciousjust as musicology is a conscious
reflection on music. Ethicsreflection on music. Ethics
includes taking into account notincludes taking into account not
only my own values but the valuesonly my own values but the values
of OTHERS inside my ownof OTHERS inside my own
perspective.perspective.
• AnAn ethical statementethical statement must respectmust respect
the morality and RIGHTS of thosethe morality and RIGHTS of those
that are around me. In general anthat are around me. In general an
ethical statement includes theethical statement includes the
respect of the Human Rights.respect of the Human Rights.
• Ethics: a second-order, consciousEthics: a second-order, conscious
reflection on the adequacy of ourreflection on the adequacy of our
moral beliefs.moral beliefs.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 44
Some basic questions about ethics.Some basic questions about ethics.
• How do you know what to do?How do you know what to do?
• What do you think is right and wrong? Your opinion,What do you think is right and wrong? Your opinion,
where does come from?where does come from?
• When you do something, which values are you using?When you do something, which values are you using?
Are you aware of the values you follow when acting?Are you aware of the values you follow when acting?
• Are you free? Or do you follow what you were told byAre you free? Or do you follow what you were told by
mama, your teacher… ?mama, your teacher… ?
• When someone acts wrongly, is his or her intentionWhen someone acts wrongly, is his or her intention
important or not?important or not?
• Are ethical and morality values guiding your life? Do theyAre ethical and morality values guiding your life? Do they
give sense to your life? Are aware of those values?give sense to your life? Are aware of those values?
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 55
Basic definitions: ethics and morality.Basic definitions: ethics and morality.
• AA moralmoral is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from ais a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a
story or event.story or event.
• MoralityMorality refers to the concept of human matters of right and wrongrefers to the concept of human matters of right and wrong
—"good and evil" — used within three contexts:—"good and evil" — used within three contexts:
– systems of principles and judgments —moral values —shared within asystems of principles and judgments —moral values —shared within a
cultural, religious, secular or philosophical community; andcultural, religious, secular or philosophical community; and
– codes of behavior or conduct morality.codes of behavior or conduct morality.
– individual conscience; Personal morality defines and distinguishesindividual conscience; Personal morality defines and distinguishes
among right and wrong intentions, motivations or actions, as these haveamong right and wrong intentions, motivations or actions, as these have
been learned, engendered, or otherwise developed within eachbeen learned, engendered, or otherwise developed within each
individual.individual.
• EthicsEthics (from Greek ἠθικός(from Greek ἠθικός ēthikosēthikos, ἤθος, ἤθος ēthosēthos "custom, habit"), a"custom, habit"), a
major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of amajor branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a
person or group. It covers the analysis and employment of conceptsperson or group. It covers the analysis and employment of concepts
such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. It issuch as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. It is
divided into three primary areas:divided into three primary areas:
– meta-ethicsmeta-ethics (the study of the concept of ethics),(the study of the concept of ethics),
– normative ethicsnormative ethics (the study of how to determine ethical values), and(the study of how to determine ethical values), and
– applied ethicsapplied ethics (the study of the use of ethical values).(the study of the use of ethical values).
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 66
Plato and Aristotle: “Be a goodPlato and Aristotle: “Be a good
person” Virtue Ethicsperson” Virtue Ethics
..Plato (428-347)Plato (428-347)
• ““Good people do notGood people do not
need laws to tell them toneed laws to tell them to
act responsibly, while badact responsibly, while bad
people will find a waypeople will find a way
around the laws”.around the laws”.
• ““If a man neglectsIf a man neglects
education, he walks lameeducation, he walks lame
to the end of his life”.to the end of his life”.
• ““Knowledge becomes evilKnowledge becomes evil
if the aim be not virtuous”.if the aim be not virtuous”.
• ““The most virtuous areThe most virtuous are
those who contentthose who content
themselves with beingthemselves with being
virtuous without seekingvirtuous without seeking
to appear so”.to appear so”.
Aristotle (384-322)Aristotle (384-322)
• ““Happiness dependsHappiness depends
upon ourselves”upon ourselves”
• ““Dignity consists not inDignity consists not in
possessing honors, but inpossessing honors, but in
the consciousness thatthe consciousness that
we deserve them”.we deserve them”.
• ““Men acquire a particularMen acquire a particular
quality by constantlyquality by constantly
acting a particular way...acting a particular way...
you become just byyou become just by
performing just actions,performing just actions,
temperate by performingtemperate by performing
temperate actions, bravetemperate actions, brave
by performing braveby performing brave
actions”.actions”.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 77
Aquinas natural law and revelation.Aquinas natural law and revelation.
Do what the Bible tells youDo what the Bible tells you
• ““Because of the diverse conditions of humans, itBecause of the diverse conditions of humans, it
happens that some acts are virtuous to somehappens that some acts are virtuous to some
people, as appropriate and suitable to them,people, as appropriate and suitable to them,
while the same acts are immoral for others, aswhile the same acts are immoral for others, as
inappropriate to them” .inappropriate to them” .
• ““Better to illuminate than merely to shine, toBetter to illuminate than merely to shine, to
deliver to others contemplated truths thandeliver to others contemplated truths than
merely to contemplate”.merely to contemplate”.
• ““Human salvation demands the divine disclosureHuman salvation demands the divine disclosure
of truths surpassing reason”.of truths surpassing reason”.
• ““If, then, you are looking for the way by whichIf, then, you are looking for the way by which
you should go, take Christ, because He Himselfyou should go, take Christ, because He Himself
is the way”.is the way”.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 88
Kant’s categorical imperative.Kant’s categorical imperative.
Do the right thing: The Ethics ofDo the right thing: The Ethics of DutyDuty
• ““A categorical imperative would be one whichA categorical imperative would be one which
represented an action as objectively necessary in itself,represented an action as objectively necessary in itself,
without reference to any other purpose.”without reference to any other purpose.”
• ““Always recognize that human individuals are ends, andAlways recognize that human individuals are ends, and
do not use them as means to your end.”do not use them as means to your end.”
• ““So act that your principle of action might safely be madeSo act that your principle of action might safely be made
a law for the whole world.”a law for the whole world.”
• ““It is not necessary that whilst I live I live happily; but it isIt is not necessary that whilst I live I live happily; but it is
necessary that so long as I live I should live honourably.”necessary that so long as I live I should live honourably.”
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 99
Bentham and utilitarianism.Bentham and utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism: Make the world a better place.Utilitarianism: Make the world a better place.
• ““It is the greatest good to the greatest number of peopleIt is the greatest good to the greatest number of people
which is the measure of right and wrong”.which is the measure of right and wrong”.
• ““It is vain to talk of the interest of the community, withoutIt is vain to talk of the interest of the community, without
understanding what is the interest of the individual”.understanding what is the interest of the individual”.
• ““The greatest happiness of the greatest number is theThe greatest happiness of the greatest number is the
foundation of morals and legislation”.foundation of morals and legislation”.
• ““Every law is an infraction of liberty”.Every law is an infraction of liberty”.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1010
DeterminismDeterminism
• Determinism is the view that an individual'sDeterminism is the view that an individual's
behavior is shaped or controlled by internal orbehavior is shaped or controlled by internal or
external forces rather than an individual's will toexternal forces rather than an individual's will to
do something.do something.
• ““Life is like a game of cards. The hand you areLife is like a game of cards. The hand you are
dealt is determinism; the way you play it is freedealt is determinism; the way you play it is free
will.” Jawaharlal Nehru quotes (Indian Primewill.” Jawaharlal Nehru quotes (Indian Prime
Minister; 1889-1964)Minister; 1889-1964)
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1111
Existentialism and J.P. Sartre.Existentialism and J.P. Sartre.
• ExistentialismExistentialism is a philosophical movement in whichis a philosophical movement in which
individual human beings are understood as having fullindividual human beings are understood as having full
responsibility for creating the meanings of their ownresponsibility for creating the meanings of their own
lives.lives.
• J.P. Sartre (1905 – 1980):J.P. Sartre (1905 – 1980):
– Sartre accepts the premise that something in the "Facticity" (i.e.,Sartre accepts the premise that something in the "Facticity" (i.e.,
the properties of an object or person as traditionally conceivedthe properties of an object or person as traditionally conceived
and experienced) of an individual is valuable because theand experienced) of an individual is valuable because the
individual consciousnessindividual consciousness chooseschooses to value it. Sartre denies thatto value it. Sartre denies that
there are any objective standards on which to base values.there are any objective standards on which to base values.
– The individual consciousness is responsible for all the choices itThe individual consciousness is responsible for all the choices it
makes, regardless of the consequences. Condemned to be freemakes, regardless of the consequences. Condemned to be free
because man's actions and choices are his and his alone,because man's actions and choices are his and his alone, he ishe is
condemnedcondemned to be responsible for his free choices.to be responsible for his free choices.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1212
Ethics: a personal andEthics: a personal and
philosophical task.philosophical task.
• After all these different ethical approaches: whatAfter all these different ethical approaches: what
do you think: what it is right and wrong? Fromdo you think: what it is right and wrong? From
where comes what you think is right and wrong?where comes what you think is right and wrong?
• In our days an ethical compromise is asked toIn our days an ethical compromise is asked to
each citizen, you included:each citizen, you included:
– To vote in a democracyTo vote in a democracy
– To behave equally with any other human beingTo behave equally with any other human being
– To denounce any behavior against the laws and civilTo denounce any behavior against the laws and civil
rights.rights.
M. TorresM. Torres
IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D.
Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1313
Human rights: universal and minimalHuman rights: universal and minimal
ethics.ethics.
• Human Rights: 1948 and UN.Human Rights: 1948 and UN.
– State and Nations compromise.State and Nations compromise.
– Personal day by day compromise.Personal day by day compromise.
– Universal ethical agreement.Universal ethical agreement.
– Minimal ethical agreement.Minimal ethical agreement.
– Intention, goal not medium.Intention, goal not medium.
– International agreement to educate humanInternational agreement to educate human
beings within a ethical living.beings within a ethical living.

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What must we_do

  • 1. IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 11M. TorresM. Torres What MUST we do?What MUST we do? Ethics: philosophicalEthics: philosophical study of moral values.study of moral values.
  • 2. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 22 Ethics: index.Ethics: index. • Some basic questions.Some basic questions. • Basic definitions.Basic definitions. • History of ethical perspectives:History of ethical perspectives: – Plato and Aristotle on virtue ethics.Plato and Aristotle on virtue ethics. – Aquinas Christian version of virtue ethics: natural law andAquinas Christian version of virtue ethics: natural law and revelation.revelation. – Kant’s categorical imperative.Kant’s categorical imperative. – Utilitarianism and BenthamUtilitarianism and Bentham – Existentialism and J.P. Sartre.Existentialism and J.P. Sartre. • Conclusion:Conclusion: – A philosophical and personal task, What is right and wrong?A philosophical and personal task, What is right and wrong? – Human Rights: Minimal and universal ethics, a international andHuman Rights: Minimal and universal ethics, a international and personal compromise.personal compromise.
  • 3. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 33 Morality vs. ethics: a philosophical distinction.Morality vs. ethics: a philosophical distinction. • MoralityMorality is about personal valuesis about personal values that guide our actions andthat guide our actions and decisions. Morality is generallydecisions. Morality is generally under the influence of the culture,under the influence of the culture, society and religion.society and religion. Morality: first-Morality: first- order set of beliefs and practicesorder set of beliefs and practices about how to live a good lifeabout how to live a good life • AA moral statementmoral statement (phrase)(phrase) reflects my conception of what isreflects my conception of what is good for me. A moral statement isgood for me. A moral statement is always from the particular point ofalways from the particular point of view of my society or religion.view of my society or religion. • EthicsEthics is the second-order,is the second-order, reflective consideration of ourreflective consideration of our moral beliefs and practices. Ethicsmoral beliefs and practices. Ethics is the explicit, philosophicalis the explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs andreflection on moral beliefs and practices.practices. • Ethics is a conscious steppingEthics is a conscious stepping back and reflecting on morality,back and reflecting on morality, just as musicology is a consciousjust as musicology is a conscious reflection on music. Ethicsreflection on music. Ethics includes taking into account notincludes taking into account not only my own values but the valuesonly my own values but the values of OTHERS inside my ownof OTHERS inside my own perspective.perspective. • AnAn ethical statementethical statement must respectmust respect the morality and RIGHTS of thosethe morality and RIGHTS of those that are around me. In general anthat are around me. In general an ethical statement includes theethical statement includes the respect of the Human Rights.respect of the Human Rights. • Ethics: a second-order, consciousEthics: a second-order, conscious reflection on the adequacy of ourreflection on the adequacy of our moral beliefs.moral beliefs.
  • 4. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 44 Some basic questions about ethics.Some basic questions about ethics. • How do you know what to do?How do you know what to do? • What do you think is right and wrong? Your opinion,What do you think is right and wrong? Your opinion, where does come from?where does come from? • When you do something, which values are you using?When you do something, which values are you using? Are you aware of the values you follow when acting?Are you aware of the values you follow when acting? • Are you free? Or do you follow what you were told byAre you free? Or do you follow what you were told by mama, your teacher… ?mama, your teacher… ? • When someone acts wrongly, is his or her intentionWhen someone acts wrongly, is his or her intention important or not?important or not? • Are ethical and morality values guiding your life? Do theyAre ethical and morality values guiding your life? Do they give sense to your life? Are aware of those values?give sense to your life? Are aware of those values?
  • 5. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 55 Basic definitions: ethics and morality.Basic definitions: ethics and morality. • AA moralmoral is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from ais a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.story or event. • MoralityMorality refers to the concept of human matters of right and wrongrefers to the concept of human matters of right and wrong —"good and evil" — used within three contexts:—"good and evil" — used within three contexts: – systems of principles and judgments —moral values —shared within asystems of principles and judgments —moral values —shared within a cultural, religious, secular or philosophical community; andcultural, religious, secular or philosophical community; and – codes of behavior or conduct morality.codes of behavior or conduct morality. – individual conscience; Personal morality defines and distinguishesindividual conscience; Personal morality defines and distinguishes among right and wrong intentions, motivations or actions, as these haveamong right and wrong intentions, motivations or actions, as these have been learned, engendered, or otherwise developed within eachbeen learned, engendered, or otherwise developed within each individual.individual. • EthicsEthics (from Greek ἠθικός(from Greek ἠθικός ēthikosēthikos, ἤθος, ἤθος ēthosēthos "custom, habit"), a"custom, habit"), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of amajor branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. It covers the analysis and employment of conceptsperson or group. It covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. It issuch as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. It is divided into three primary areas:divided into three primary areas: – meta-ethicsmeta-ethics (the study of the concept of ethics),(the study of the concept of ethics), – normative ethicsnormative ethics (the study of how to determine ethical values), and(the study of how to determine ethical values), and – applied ethicsapplied ethics (the study of the use of ethical values).(the study of the use of ethical values).
  • 6. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 66 Plato and Aristotle: “Be a goodPlato and Aristotle: “Be a good person” Virtue Ethicsperson” Virtue Ethics ..Plato (428-347)Plato (428-347) • ““Good people do notGood people do not need laws to tell them toneed laws to tell them to act responsibly, while badact responsibly, while bad people will find a waypeople will find a way around the laws”.around the laws”. • ““If a man neglectsIf a man neglects education, he walks lameeducation, he walks lame to the end of his life”.to the end of his life”. • ““Knowledge becomes evilKnowledge becomes evil if the aim be not virtuous”.if the aim be not virtuous”. • ““The most virtuous areThe most virtuous are those who contentthose who content themselves with beingthemselves with being virtuous without seekingvirtuous without seeking to appear so”.to appear so”. Aristotle (384-322)Aristotle (384-322) • ““Happiness dependsHappiness depends upon ourselves”upon ourselves” • ““Dignity consists not inDignity consists not in possessing honors, but inpossessing honors, but in the consciousness thatthe consciousness that we deserve them”.we deserve them”. • ““Men acquire a particularMen acquire a particular quality by constantlyquality by constantly acting a particular way...acting a particular way... you become just byyou become just by performing just actions,performing just actions, temperate by performingtemperate by performing temperate actions, bravetemperate actions, brave by performing braveby performing brave actions”.actions”.
  • 7. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 77 Aquinas natural law and revelation.Aquinas natural law and revelation. Do what the Bible tells youDo what the Bible tells you • ““Because of the diverse conditions of humans, itBecause of the diverse conditions of humans, it happens that some acts are virtuous to somehappens that some acts are virtuous to some people, as appropriate and suitable to them,people, as appropriate and suitable to them, while the same acts are immoral for others, aswhile the same acts are immoral for others, as inappropriate to them” .inappropriate to them” . • ““Better to illuminate than merely to shine, toBetter to illuminate than merely to shine, to deliver to others contemplated truths thandeliver to others contemplated truths than merely to contemplate”.merely to contemplate”. • ““Human salvation demands the divine disclosureHuman salvation demands the divine disclosure of truths surpassing reason”.of truths surpassing reason”. • ““If, then, you are looking for the way by whichIf, then, you are looking for the way by which you should go, take Christ, because He Himselfyou should go, take Christ, because He Himself is the way”.is the way”.
  • 8. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 88 Kant’s categorical imperative.Kant’s categorical imperative. Do the right thing: The Ethics ofDo the right thing: The Ethics of DutyDuty • ““A categorical imperative would be one whichA categorical imperative would be one which represented an action as objectively necessary in itself,represented an action as objectively necessary in itself, without reference to any other purpose.”without reference to any other purpose.” • ““Always recognize that human individuals are ends, andAlways recognize that human individuals are ends, and do not use them as means to your end.”do not use them as means to your end.” • ““So act that your principle of action might safely be madeSo act that your principle of action might safely be made a law for the whole world.”a law for the whole world.” • ““It is not necessary that whilst I live I live happily; but it isIt is not necessary that whilst I live I live happily; but it is necessary that so long as I live I should live honourably.”necessary that so long as I live I should live honourably.”
  • 9. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 99 Bentham and utilitarianism.Bentham and utilitarianism. Utilitarianism: Make the world a better place.Utilitarianism: Make the world a better place. • ““It is the greatest good to the greatest number of peopleIt is the greatest good to the greatest number of people which is the measure of right and wrong”.which is the measure of right and wrong”. • ““It is vain to talk of the interest of the community, withoutIt is vain to talk of the interest of the community, without understanding what is the interest of the individual”.understanding what is the interest of the individual”. • ““The greatest happiness of the greatest number is theThe greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation”.foundation of morals and legislation”. • ““Every law is an infraction of liberty”.Every law is an infraction of liberty”.
  • 10. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1010 DeterminismDeterminism • Determinism is the view that an individual'sDeterminism is the view that an individual's behavior is shaped or controlled by internal orbehavior is shaped or controlled by internal or external forces rather than an individual's will toexternal forces rather than an individual's will to do something.do something. • ““Life is like a game of cards. The hand you areLife is like a game of cards. The hand you are dealt is determinism; the way you play it is freedealt is determinism; the way you play it is free will.” Jawaharlal Nehru quotes (Indian Primewill.” Jawaharlal Nehru quotes (Indian Prime Minister; 1889-1964)Minister; 1889-1964)
  • 11. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1111 Existentialism and J.P. Sartre.Existentialism and J.P. Sartre. • ExistentialismExistentialism is a philosophical movement in whichis a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having fullindividual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their ownresponsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives.lives. • J.P. Sartre (1905 – 1980):J.P. Sartre (1905 – 1980): – Sartre accepts the premise that something in the "Facticity" (i.e.,Sartre accepts the premise that something in the "Facticity" (i.e., the properties of an object or person as traditionally conceivedthe properties of an object or person as traditionally conceived and experienced) of an individual is valuable because theand experienced) of an individual is valuable because the individual consciousnessindividual consciousness chooseschooses to value it. Sartre denies thatto value it. Sartre denies that there are any objective standards on which to base values.there are any objective standards on which to base values. – The individual consciousness is responsible for all the choices itThe individual consciousness is responsible for all the choices it makes, regardless of the consequences. Condemned to be freemakes, regardless of the consequences. Condemned to be free because man's actions and choices are his and his alone,because man's actions and choices are his and his alone, he ishe is condemnedcondemned to be responsible for his free choices.to be responsible for his free choices.
  • 12. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1212 Ethics: a personal andEthics: a personal and philosophical task.philosophical task. • After all these different ethical approaches: whatAfter all these different ethical approaches: what do you think: what it is right and wrong? Fromdo you think: what it is right and wrong? From where comes what you think is right and wrong?where comes what you think is right and wrong? • In our days an ethical compromise is asked toIn our days an ethical compromise is asked to each citizen, you included:each citizen, you included: – To vote in a democracyTo vote in a democracy – To behave equally with any other human beingTo behave equally with any other human being – To denounce any behavior against the laws and civilTo denounce any behavior against the laws and civil rights.rights.
  • 13. M. TorresM. Torres IES Campo San Alberto, D.IES Campo San Alberto, D. Philosophy; 2008-2009Philosophy; 2008-2009 1313 Human rights: universal and minimalHuman rights: universal and minimal ethics.ethics. • Human Rights: 1948 and UN.Human Rights: 1948 and UN. – State and Nations compromise.State and Nations compromise. – Personal day by day compromise.Personal day by day compromise. – Universal ethical agreement.Universal ethical agreement. – Minimal ethical agreement.Minimal ethical agreement. – Intention, goal not medium.Intention, goal not medium. – International agreement to educate humanInternational agreement to educate human beings within a ethical living.beings within a ethical living.