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C.Smith IER Lesson

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Lesson designed to explain ion exchange resin technology to fellow students in a class on masonry.

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C.Smith IER Lesson

  1. 1. Chemistry 101: Utilizing Ion Exchange Resins to Chemically Clean Masonry<br />HSPV 743 - Conservation Seminar: Masonry Caitlin Smith Spring 2009<br />Disclaimer: I am not now, nor have I ever been, a chemist…<br />
  2. 2. Ion Exchange Resins  Introduction<br />Natural Ion-Exchangers have been around since the dawn of time...<br />Source: Robert Kunin, Ion Exchange Resins(New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1958), 2-3.<br />
  3. 3. Ion Exchange Resins  Chemistry <br /><ul><li>Ions are just electrically charged atoms!</li></ul>Three Types of Resins:<br />Cationic<br />Anionic <br />Mixed<br />It’s All Even Stevens<br />Source: Robert Kunin, Ion Exchange Resins (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1958), 328;Andrei A. Zagorodni, Ion Exchange Materials Properties and Applications (Oxford, UK: Elsevier BV, 2007), 223.<br />
  4. 4. Ion Exchange Resins  Chemistry <br />Basic polymeric chain matrix<br />Fixed ionic groups and exchangeable counterions<br />Water activates ionisation<br />Structure makes it INSOLUBLE in water!!!<br />Cation Exchange<br />– R–A- H+ + Cation+ -> – R–A- Cation+ + H+<br />Anion Exchange<br />– R–C+ OH- + Anion- -> – R–C+ Anion- + OH-<br />E = What?!<br />Source: Andrei A. Zagorodni, Ion Exchange Materials Properties and Applications (Oxford, UK: Elsevier BV, 2007), 20.<br />
  5. 5. Ion Exchange Resins  Chemistry<br />Show and Tell<br />Source: Andrei A. Zagorodni, Ion Exchange Materials Properties and Applications (Oxford, UK: Elsevier BV, 2007), 84, 155.<br />
  6. 6. Ion Exchange Resins  Masonry Trends<br />1940s – Synthetic Resins<br />1970s – Adapted for Conservation<br />Expanding the technology<br />Focus on improving field applications<br />Development of commercial industry<br />I &lt;3 Chemistry <br />Source: Robert Kunin, Ion Exchange Resins (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1958), 83; IN SITU Conservation Restoration & Preservation Materials & Equipment, http://www.insituconservation.com/catalog/advanced_search_result.php?osCsid=615d56153b725c042caace82fd01187 5&keywords=ion+exchange&categories_id=&inc_subcat=1&x=0&y=0 (accessed April 13, 2009).<br />
  7. 7. Ion Exchange Resins  Advantages<br />Requires less water than other cleaning treatments<br />Does not alter morphology (no mechanical action)<br />Does not alter porosity of entire material, only acts on surface<br />Replaces harmful ions with inocuous ones<br />Can act as a natural consolidant<br />Can be regenerated and reused<br />Cleaning action easily controlled by operator<br />Easy application<br />A +<br />Source: Robert Kunin, Ion Exchange Resins (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1958), 86, 328, 329.<br />
  8. 8. Ion Exchange Resins  Disadvantages<br />Can be damaging to surface of calcareous stones<br />Could cause alternation and dissolution of rock-forming minerals<br />May not be able to contain ions of a certain size<br />May not be cost effective<br />May require multiple applications to remove high concentrations<br />Could be too acidic<br />D-<br />Source: Nicola Berlucchi, Ricardo GinanniCorradini, Roberto Bonomi, EdoardoBemporad, and Massimo Tisato, “’La Fenice’ Theatre – Foyer and Apollinee Rooms – Consolidation of Fire-Damaged Stucco and Marmorino Decorations by Means of Combined Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins and Barium Hydroxide,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Venice, June 19-24, 2000, vol. 2, ed. Vasco Fassina (Amsterdam, <br /> The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B.V., 2000), 27.<br />
  9. 9. Ion Exchange Resins  Cleaning<br />Desulfation/Encrustation Removal<br />Target calcium-containing salts<br />2R+––OH- + Ca SO4 -> R+2 ––SO42- + Ca ( OH )2<br />Target calcareous crusts, including gypsum<br />Focus on calcareous substrates: limestone, marble, and gypsum<br />Source: VivianaGuidetti and MaciejUminski, “Ion exchange resins for historic marble desulfatation and restoration,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Venice, June <br />19-24, 2000, vol. 2, ed. Vasco Fassina (Venice: Elsevier Inc., 2000), 331.<br />
  10. 10. Ion Exchange Resins  Cleaning<br />Source: VivianaGuidetti and MaciejUminski, “Ion exchange resins for historic marble desulfatation and restoration,” in Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, Venice, June <br />19-24, 2000, vol. 2, ed. Vasco Fassina (Venice: Elsevier Inc., 2000), 332.<br />Consolidation/Stabilization<br />Calcium carbonate forms a natural consolidant when:<br />Ca ( OH )2 + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H2 O<br />Stabilization of clay minerals by replacing ions reduces swelling capacity<br />
  11. 11. Ion Exchange Resins  Cleaning<br />Removal of Biological Growth<br />Target and remove water soluble phosphates in an effort to remove biological growth and prevent re-growth<br />Source: Caitlin Smith, April 9, 2009.<br />Source: Andrei A. Zagorodni, Ion Exchange Materials Properties and Applications (Oxford, UK: Elsevier BV, 2007), 48.<br />
  12. 12. Ion Exchange Resins  Evaluation<br />Properties: <br />Rheological<br />Adhesion to substrate<br />Fissuration on drying<br />Water retention<br />Quantity of ions removed<br />Tests run:<br />Ion chromatography<br />EDS/SEM<br />Water absorption<br />Morphology<br />Thin-section light microscopy<br />CIELab<br />Source: Robert Kunin, Ion Exchange Resins (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,1958), 86, 328, 329.<br />
  13. 13. Ion Exchange Resins  Questions?<br />I will not run over my time…<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run over my time<br />I will not run o…<br />The End<br />

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