Intellectual DisabilityDefinition in IDEA: ".. .significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existingconcurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, thatadversely affects a childs educational performance." [34 CFR §300.8(c)(6)]In 2010, President Obama signed Rosas Law, which replaced the stigmatizing label "MentalRetardation" with the more acceptable term "Intellectual Disability" Low lQ: Between 70-75 or below! ntellectua l Significant Onset before limitations in age 18 adaptive behavior
IDs are the most common form of developmental disability 1-3% of Americas general population and 10% of students requiring SPED have an IDCauses: Genetic conditions (e.g. Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Williams syndrome),problems during pregnancy (e.g. mother who used alcohol during pregnancy, improper cell division),problems at birth (e.g. lack of oxygen), and health problems (e.g. malnutrition, lack of appropriatemedical care, contact with poisons, and diseases like whooping cough, meningitis, or the measles)Characteristics: * Variety of physical markers depending on cause of the disability * Below average intelligence ranging in incidence rate and severity o For a mild diagnosis, students IQ scores will be between 70-75 or below o For a moderate to severe diagnosis, students IQ scores will be approximately 55 or below * Slower learning rate and greater difficulty retaining information * May reach a point where learning levels off * Difficulty generalizing skills learned in one context to another * Trouble solving problems/thinking logically * Difficulty with social and daily living skills * Developmental delaysSuggested Teaching Strategies: * Treat students appropriately according to their chronological age * Carefully follow the strategies outlined in the students IEP * Break large concepts down into smaller steps and include breaks * Teach one subject or idea at a time * Supply manipulatives to concretely represent concepts * Provide opportunities for continued practice in a variety of settings * Teach social and daily living skills * Match expectations to instruction (i.e. accommodations and modifications) * Use peer-tutoring, inclusive methods, and family involvementAdditional Resources:The Archttp://www.thearc.org/page.aspx?pid+2335The Arc is a community-based organization that advocates and serves those with intellectual anddevelopmental disabilities and their families. The site includes various fact sheets on intellectualdisabilities detailing everything from the causes of these disabilities to criminal justice issuesregarding these disabilities.The Utah Association for Intellectual Disabilities (UIAD)http: / /www.uaidutah.org/homeThe UIADJs a relatively new non-profit organization that formed in 2008 after The Arc of Utah
closed due t® financial reasons. UIAD took over some of the services the local Arc chapter provided,including the "Holiday Gift Box Program, Bridge to the Future, Connections to Computers, andsocialization projects." The Bridge to the Future is a particularly beneficial resource for parents andeducators alike, outlining the services a person with an intellectual disability may require throughoutstages of his or her life. People interested in supporting UIADs mission are welcome to volunteer.Project Idealhttp://www.projectidealonline.org/index.phpProject Ideal is part of a teacher preparation program meant to prepare teachers to work withstudents with disabilities. It provides helpful resources such as tips for classroom management andmanaging student behavior along with descriptions of disability categories and disability law.The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commissionhttp: / /www. eeoc.gov / facts /intellectual disabilities .htmlThe EEOC provides information on employment opportunities and the rights of workers withintellectual disabilities. EEOC is an important resource for educators to gain knowledge on how toprepare students with disabilities for future jobs and opportunities. This resource would beespecially applicable for secondary teachers.American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)http: / /www.aamr. org /index, cfmThe AAIDD offers links to national disability organizations focusing on specific disabilities.