Jorge Cardoso (1,2), Tobias Binz (3), Uwe Breitenbucher (3), Oliver Kopp (3) Frank Leymann (3)
(1) CISUC/Dept. Informatics...
Standardization
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 2
See also http://cloud-standards.orgBMWi: T...
Interoperability
• Standards are being
developed in isolation
• It is not clear to which
extend they can be
integrated
• L...
Motivation (1)
• Discovery, Selection and
Customization
– Done manually by consumers
• Keyword querying
– No advanced mech...
Motivation (2)
• After a purchase decision...
– Customization
– Deployment
– Management
• No …
• Formalization of the
exec...
BMWi: The standardisation environment for cloud computing. Technical report, Germany
Federal Ministry of Economics and Tec...
Research Question
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 7
When used in conjunction, can they autom...
Approach
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 8
DISCOVERY
AND
SELECTION
DEPLOYMENT
AND
MANAGEMENT...
Describes the structure of an
application and its management
(which is executable)
Goal >>
Portability and full-automated
...
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 10
USDL:Core
Master Schema
Linked USDL
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 11
http://www.linked-usdl.org/ https://github.co...
TOSCA
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 12
OsApache
(OperatingSystem)
VmApache
(VirtualMachine...
Solution
• How to access service descriptions in a dynamic world?
– Global service identification and service description ...
Service Cloud
USDL-based Marketplace
USDL-based Service Offerings
Billing / CRM System
UI
…
Service 1
Service N
TOSCA-base...
Service Identification & Access
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research
15
Cloud
USDL-compliant
http...
Benefits
• Global service identification and remote description access
– Unique service identification schema using Linked...
Intelligent Routing of Service
Requests
• Separation of Concerns (routing logic)
– GRL -- high level information
• e.g., i...
Intelligent Routing of Service
Requests
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 20
20
TOSCA-based Pr...
Benefits
• Global service identification and remote description access
– Unique service identification schema using Linked...
Performance
• Settings
– Win7-64bit, JRE 1.7, Intel i5-2410M, 2,3GHz.
– GRL: hash table with 500,000 entries and looked up...
Limitations
• Scalability
– Adopt a peer-to-peer architecture using an overlay network
• e.g., use the Simple Knowledge Or...
Conclusion
• We explored the interoperability of two cloud specifications
– Linked USDL and TOSCA
• Solution
– Open and de...
Thank You
for Listening
References
• 10. Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U.Towards a Unified Service
Description Language for the Inte...
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 28
BMWi: The standardisation environment for cloud computing. Technical report, Germany
Federal Ministry of Economics and Tec...
Lifecycle
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 30
12 steps towards creating a cloud service
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 31
challengers leaders
niche players visionaries
Complexity ...
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 32
Complexity vs Acceptance
http://craft.de/simplizitaet/
WO...
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 33
Classes
Properties
LINKED USDL MODULES
• USDL-Core
• USDL-Pricing
• USDL-SLA
22.05.2013 Service Oriented Computing II – SS 2013
• Additional ...
TOSCA
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 35
Service Structure Service Orchestration for
Deploym...
TOSCA Topology Concepts
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 36
Application
(WAR)
OperatingSystem...
SugarCRM/Use Case/Silver
2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 37
OperatingSystem
(OperatingSystem...
Intelligent Routing
• Listing 1.3 shows an example of an
input message used by the build plan to
deploy SugarCRM on Amazon...
Intelligent Routing
• Listing 1.4 shows the SPARQL
query used by the build plan
to inquire about the options
which are att...
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Jorge cardoso caise-usdl-tosca-2013-06-18c

  1. 1. Jorge Cardoso (1,2), Tobias Binz (3), Uwe Breitenbucher (3), Oliver Kopp (3) Frank Leymann (3) (1) CISUC/Dept. Informatics Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal (2) Karlsruhe Service Research Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany jorge.cardoso@kit.edu jcardoso@dei.uc.pt (3) Institute of Architecture of Application Systems, University of Stuttgart, Germany {lastname}@iaas.uni-stuttgart.de Cloud Computing Automation: Integrating USDL and TOSCA Departamento de Engenharia Informática FCTUC FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS E TECNOLOGIA da UNIVERSIDADE DE COIMBRA Institute of Architecture of Application Systems (IAAS) Universität Stuttgart, Germany Cloud Computing Automation: Integrating USDL and TOSCA, J. Cardoso,T. Binz, U. Breitenbucher, O. Kopp, F. Leymann, CAiSE 2013, Springer, LNCS 7908, pp. 1—16.
  2. 2. Standardization 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 2 See also http://cloud-standards.orgBMWi: The standardisation environment for cloud computing. Technical report, Germany Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Feb. 2012)
  3. 3. Interoperability • Standards are being developed in isolation • It is not clear to which extend they can be integrated • Lack of certainty as to which standards can inter-operate • Streamline the lifecycle of cloud applications 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 3 Standardization does not imply interoperability Definition (Interoperability): the ability of various systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate)
  4. 4. Motivation (1) • Discovery, Selection and Customization – Done manually by consumers • Keyword querying – No advanced mechanism • Multiple queries – Different marketplaces use different query interfaces 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 4 AppDirect Google
  5. 5. Motivation (2) • After a purchase decision... – Customization – Deployment – Management • No … • Formalization of the executables • Management best practices • Etc. • Problem – Manual – Error-prone 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 5 Exceptions: Saleforce, Google Apps, Microsoft Office 365, etc.
  6. 6. BMWi: The standardisation environment for cloud computing. Technical report, Germany Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Feb. 2012) “In the course of the six months in which the study was produced, a lot of new publications appeared, not all of which could be taken into account” (e. g. TOSCA, http://www.oasis- open.org/committees/tosca/) 6
  7. 7. Research Question 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 7 When used in conjunction, can they automate parts of the lifecycle of cloud applications, namely discovery, selection, deployment, and management? Can USDL and TOSCA be integrated seamlessly? How can interoperability be achieved? What are the challenges?
  8. 8. Approach 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 8 DISCOVERY AND SELECTION DEPLOYMENT AND MANAGEMENT USDL/Service Description TOSCA/Service Management Use Case
  9. 9. Describes the structure of an application and its management (which is executable) Goal >> Portability and full-automated management of applications Describes the functional and non- functional requirements, capabilities, and interactions of a service Goal >> Description of a cloud service to make it searchable, comparable, and tradable Topology Management Plans … Interaction & functional capabilities Offerings Interactions Providers … Non-functional capabilities Pricing Legal Service Level Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications
  10. 10. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 10 USDL:Core Master Schema
  11. 11. Linked USDL 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 11 http://www.linked-usdl.org/ https://github.com/linked-usdl/
  12. 12. TOSCA 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 12 OsApache (OperatingSystem) VmApache (VirtualMachine) ApacheWebServer (ApacheWebServer) (HostedOn)(InstalledIn) SugarCrmApp (SugarCrmApp) PhpModule (PhpModule) (DependsOn) OsMySql (OperatingSystem) VmMySql (VirtualMachine) MySql (MySqlRDBMS) SugarCrmDb (SugarCrmDb) (HostedOn) (DbConnection) Acquire VM Install OS on VM Install & Start Web Server Install PHP Module Deploy PHP App Establish DB ConnectionInstall OS on VM Install & Start MySQL RDBMS Create SugarCRM DB Module Build Plan Topology Acquire VM SugarCRM
  13. 13. Solution • How to access service descriptions in a dynamic world? – Global service identification and service description access using Linked USDL • What if the provider has ceased its operations and transferred its obligations to some other provider? Who still handle the original functions? • Intelligent routing of service requests • What would happen if the TOSCA descriptor associated with a USDL description would no longer be valid? – Dynamic binding of deployment descriptors 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 13 WWW + Semantic web = Distributed, scalable, reliable, extensible, …[11]
  14. 14. Service Cloud USDL-based Marketplace USDL-based Service Offerings Billing / CRM System UI … Service 1 Service N TOSCA-based Provider TOSCA Service Archives T T … Service 1 Service N TOSCA Runtime Environment Global Routing Layer Local Routing Layer Cloud Management System USDL URI … Provider Endpoint http://sugarcrm.org?enterprise … 192.182.1.3 http://redmine.org?professional … 147.11.4.79 TOSCA Routing Layer USDL URI … Plan Endpoint http://sugarcrm.org?enterprise … 111.121.12.1/SugarCRMPlan http://redmine.org?professional … 111.121.12.1/RedminePlan SIOPP Architecture Reasoning Engine Reasoning Engine Routing Table Routing Table 5 4 32 1 6 7 14
  15. 15. Service Identification & Access 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 15 Cloud USDL-compliant http://rdfs.genssiz.org/SugarCRM? pricePlan=pricing_SugarCRM_Ultimate 5 4 3 2 1 Query strings are a W3C recommendation Service offerings are modeled with Linked USDL A. Simple way to create unique global identifiers for services. Compared to, e.g., a universally unique identifier (UUID), Linked USDL URIs are more adequate to service distribution networks since they are managed locally by service providers B. The HTTP URI also serves as endpoint to provide uniform data access to the service description. A Linked USDL URI can be used by, e.g., RDF search engines, and web query agents looking for cloud service descriptions 6
  16. 16. Benefits • Global service identification and remote description access – Unique service identification schema using Linked USDL URIs – Uniform data access [12] to service descriptions using Linked USDL HTTP URIs – Decentralized management of unique service identifiers is scalable • Intelligent routing of service requests – SPARQL for the content-based routing [14] – Flexible querying mechanism (cf. web APIs) – Full access to the service specifications is possible remotely • Dynamic binding of deployment descriptors – Publish-subscribe pattern [15] – Scalable by distributing USDL requests to TOSCA Runtime Environments – Higher degree of decoupling (cf. BPM or integration by web services) 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 16
  17. 17. Intelligent Routing of Service Requests • Separation of Concerns (routing logic) – GRL -- high level information • e.g., information about the country of the provider for legal aspects – LRL -- lower level aspects • e.g., load balancing information – TRL -- management actions • e.g., implementing security aspecTOSCA ts directly in management plans 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 19 Runtime Environment TOSCA Routing Layer Marketplace Global Routing Layer Provider Local Routing Layer Service 1 Service 2 …
  18. 18. Intelligent Routing of Service Requests 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 20 20 TOSCA-based Provider TOSCA Service Archives T T … Service 1 Service N TOSCA Runtime Environment Local Routing Layer TOSCA Routing Layer USDL URI … Plan Endpoint http://sugarcrm.org?enterprise … 111.121.12.1/SugarCRMPlan http://redmine.org?professional … 111.121.12.1/RedminePlan Reasoning Engine Routing Table 5 4 6 7 Acquire VM Install OS on VM Install & Start Web Server Install PHP Module Deploy PHP App Establish DB Connection Install OS on VM Install & Start MySQL RDBMS Create SugarCRM DB Module Build Plan Acquire VM A SPARQL query to inquire about the options input message used by the build plan to deploy SugarCRM on Amazon EC2
  19. 19. Benefits • Global service identification and remote description access – Unique service identification schema using Linked USDL URIs – Uniform data access [12] to service descriptions using Linked USDL HTTP URIs – Decentralized management of unique service identifiers is scalable • Intelligent routing of service requests – SPARQL for the content-based routing [14] – Flexible querying mechanism (cf. web APIs) – Full access to the service specifications is possible remotely • Dynamic binding of deployment descriptors – Publish-subscribe pattern [15] – Scalable by distributing USDL requests to TOSCA Runtime Environments – Higher degree of decoupling (cf. BPM or integration by web services) 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 21
  20. 20. Performance • Settings – Win7-64bit, JRE 1.7, Intel i5-2410M, 2,3GHz. – GRL: hash table with 500,000 entries and looked up 5,000 entries – LRL: hash table with 10,000 entries and looked up 1,000 entries • GRL: 3 ms • LRL: 2 ms • Build plan adaptation: 289 ms (σ = 76) • Deployment: 4-7 min – Depends on the provisioning time of the VMs at Amazon EC2 • Conclusions – In our scenario, the overhead, even for peak demands, is negligible 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 23
  21. 21. Limitations • Scalability – Adopt a peer-to-peer architecture using an overlay network • e.g., use the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) – Network partitioned according to service domains • e.g., healthcare, finance, and logistics – Route requests domain to domain/subdomains using SKOS • e.g., skos:narrower and skos:member • Customization – The customization string works well with simple customization – Inadequate for condition-based based customization • i.e. if logical conditions need to be sent along with service requests • Inputs to build plans – Associating USDL URIs with concrete input values for build plans has been found to be difficult if there is no description on how the values affect the deployment 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 24
  22. 22. Conclusion • We explored the interoperability of two cloud specifications – Linked USDL and TOSCA • Solution – Open and decentralized – Semantic web and Linked Data technologies – Link description/customization with deployment/management • Results – Interoperability is possible – End-to-end solutions can be developed – Engineered solution – Support the lifecycle of cloud services 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 25
  23. 23. Thank You for Listening
  24. 24. References • 10. Cardoso, J.; Barros, A.; May, N. and Kylau, U.Towards a Unified Service Description Language for the Internet of Services: Requirements and First Developments. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing, IEEE Computer Society Press, Florida, USA, 2010. • 11. Hors, A.L., Nally, M.: Using read/write Linked Data for Application Integration: Towards a Linked Data Basic Profile. In: Linked Data on the Web (2012) • 12. Ziegler, P., Dittrich, K.:Three decades of data intecration – all problems solved? In: Jacquart, R. (ed.) Building the Information Society. IFIP, vol. 156, pp. 3–12. Springer, Boston (2004) • 14. Carzaniga, A., Rutherford, M.J.,Wolf, A.L.: A routing scheme for content-based networking. In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM 2004, Hong Kong, China (2004) • 15. Hohpe, G.,Woolf, B.: Enterprise Integration Patterns: Designing, Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions. Addison-Wesley, Boston (2003) 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 27
  25. 25. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 28
  26. 26. BMWi: The standardisation environment for cloud computing. Technical report, Germany Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Feb. 2012) Standardization Fig 7. Involvement of the standardisation organisations in cloud computing 29
  27. 27. Lifecycle 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 30 12 steps towards creating a cloud service
  28. 28. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 31 challengers leaders niche players visionaries Complexity of the model Completenessofthemodel OWL-S WSDL SAWSDL hREST WSMO-Lite USDL v1 USDL v2 Linked USDL USDL v3 microWSMO REST
  29. 29. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 32 Complexity vs Acceptance http://craft.de/simplizitaet/ WO IST WAS? WSDL OWL-S WSMO SAWDL WSMO Lite REST hREST microWSMO „Ok, but I need more…“ „Nice improvement.“ „Cool“ „I‘m a hero“ „I have to look it up in the manual…“ „Where the heck do I find it?“ „I can‘t even do the simplest things….“ I‘m a looser Maximum Customer Satisfaction COMPLEXITY ACCEPTANCE
  30. 30. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 33 Classes Properties
  31. 31. LINKED USDL MODULES • USDL-Core • USDL-Pricing • USDL-SLA 22.05.2013 Service Oriented Computing II – SS 2013 • Additional modules – USDL-Legal • Domain specific – USDL-EDU – USDL-Logistics
  32. 32. TOSCA 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 35 Service Structure Service Orchestration for Deployment & Management Start VM Install Tomcat OperatingSystem (Ubuntu 12.04 LTS) VirtualServer (AWS EC2 Server) WebServer (Tomcat) EC2
  33. 33. TOSCA Topology Concepts 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 36 Application (WAR) OperatingSystem (Ubuntu 12.04 LTS) VirtualServer (AWS EC2 Server) WebServer (Tomcat) EC2 Node Template Relationship Template Node Type hosted-on ubuntu.amiubuntu.ami app.war Deployment Artifacts AppSpecific Deploy Start, Stop installPkg Terminate CreateVM execScript Management Operations
  34. 34. SugarCRM/Use Case/Silver 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 37 OperatingSystem (OperatingSystem) VirtualMachine (VirtualMachine) (HostedOn) ApacheWebServer (ApacheWebServer) (HostedOn) SugarCrmApp (SugarCrmApp) (HostedOn) PhpModule (PhpModule) (InstalledIn) (DependsOn) MySql (MySqlRDBMS) (HostedOn) SugarCrmDb (SugarCrmDb) (HostedOn) (MySqlDbConnection)
  35. 35. Intelligent Routing • Listing 1.3 shows an example of an input message used by the build plan to deploy SugarCRM on Amazon EC2 (described in Section 3.4). • The message contains credentials of the Amazon account to be used (line 2 and 3), the geographic region where the virtual machines should be located (line 4), and a pointer to the USDL offering (line 5). • The USDL URI is used by the plan to query the Linked USDL offering by using SPARQL and adjust the deployment. • In our prototype, deciding between the deployment options enterprise or ultimate is done based on the selected USDL pricing plan. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 38 Acquire VM Install OS on VM Install & Start Web Server Install PHP Module Deploy PHP App Establish DB Connection Install OS on VM Install & Start MySQL RDBMS Create SugarCRM DB Module Build Plan Acquire VM
  36. 36. Intelligent Routing • Listing 1.4 shows the SPARQL query used by the build plan to inquire about the options which are attached to the pricing plan included by the (customized) USDL URI. • The options are then installed automatically. 2013 Genessiz: Center for Large-Scale Service System Research 39

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