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Ultra Low Emission Transit Buses - 4.27.2010 - Richard Thompson


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Ultra Low Emission Transit Buses - 4.27.2010 - Richard Thompson

  1. 1. Ultra-Low Emission Transit Buses April 27, 2010 Presented by Richard Thompson <ul><li>Heavy Vehicles – Transit Buses </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridized Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cell dominant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery dominant (plug-ins) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All-Electric </li></ul>
  2. 2. Transit Agencies are Looking for a Change <ul><li>Clean (tighter emission standards) and Quiet (public acceptance) </li></ul><ul><li>Well-publicized challenges have slowed fuel cell passenger vehicle development </li></ul><ul><li>However, USDOD and USDOT have maintained (and in some cases accelerated) hydrogen research and deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Number of commercial-ready products in the area of buses and industrial trucks (forklifts) has grown in recent years </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300 hydrogen fuel cell forklifts to be deployed in Texas in the next two years </li></ul>
  3. 3. Transit Bus Architectures of Interest Prime Mover Technology Prime Mover Efficiency Comments Diesel ICE (ref) 35 to 40% Hydrogen ICE (ref) 35 to 40% <ul><li>Never gained the attention of fuel cells </li></ul><ul><li>Low emissions, Lower cost than fuel cells </li></ul>Prime Mover Technology Prime Mover Efficiency Comments Fuel cell dominant 45 to 55% <ul><li>Zero emissions at the vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Costs are high, pre-production stage </li></ul>Battery dominant with fuel cell for range extender 75 to 95% (Efficiency is power dependent) <ul><li>Zero emissions at the vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Costs can be lower with proper balance of fuel cell and battery sizing </li></ul><ul><li>Higher efficiency yields better fuel economy </li></ul>All-electric 75 to 95% (Efficiency is power dependent) <ul><li>Zero emissions at the vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited range (~ 20 miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires expensive rapid re-charge infrastructure along the bus route </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comparison of Energy Storage for Vehicles <ul><li>Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>are suggesting </li></ul><ul><li>improved </li></ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul>Opportunities exist to blend energy of batteries with power of flywheels or capacitors
  5. 5. What We are Doing? Where are We Going?
  6. 6. Hydrogen infrastructure <ul><li>Skid-mounted hydrogen fueling station for vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Generates hydrogen from natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated system includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fuel processor, which converts natural gas to hydrogen gas, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure swing absorption unit, which purifies the hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen compressor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen dispensing system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First permanent fueling station in Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed February 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production is 40 kg/day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Submitted proposal to TCEQ in April 2010 to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess fueling station’s performance, reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify production cost of $2 to $3/kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public outreach and education </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Field Validation of a Hydrogen Plug-in Hybrid bus in Austin, TX <ul><li>Seed money from FTA (through CTE) </li></ul><ul><li>TCEQ Proposal - April 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOx reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further commercial acceptance of hydrogen bus and fueling station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Twelve month revenue service demo operated by Capital Metro </li></ul><ul><li>Proterra’s hydrogen hybrid bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines hydrogen fuel cells with a “plug-in hybrid” feature using advanced Li-Ion batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases fuel economy by 2 to 3 over conventional diesel buses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fueled at UT-CEM’s onsite station </li></ul><ul><li>UT-CEM is the prime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate both the bus and station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance and reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost effectiveness </li></ul></ul></ul>10.4 mpg (diesel energy equivalent) measured at the 2010 Winter Olympics demo (1000 miles) All-Electric Fuel Economy Hybrid Fuel Economy in Charge Sustaining Mode
  8. 8. All-Electric Transit Bus Demonstration in San Antonio, TX <ul><li>Several transit agencies beginning demonstrations of all-electric transit buses </li></ul><ul><li>USDOT/FTA Program </li></ul><ul><li>UT-CEM is a sub to Center for Transportation and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>UT-CEM’s role is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition of the bus’s battery data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling of the batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to characterize any degradation due to effects of rapid re-charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All-electric derivative of the Proterra fuel cell transit bus </li></ul><ul><li>70 kWh of li-ion batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid charge in about 8 minutes (or less), 60% to 70% SOC swing </li></ul><ul><li>Gives about 20 mile range </li></ul><ul><li>Requires on-route charging infrastructure </li></ul>
  9. 9. Phase I Program – Assess Flywheel Technology Emerging from the Formula One Racing Community and its Benefits to the US Transit Bus Market <ul><li>Current Phase I program , under USDOT/FTA with Center for Transportation and the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Goal - determine if this flywheel technology presents a lower-cost alternative for hybridized transit buses in the US </li></ul><ul><li>If Phase I answer is yes, Phase II proposal to FTA to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select mid-size transit bus for retrofit with Williams technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UT-CEM will complete the control algorithms and flywheel integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UT-CEM will evaluate vehicle during an extended demonstration in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Williams Hybrid Power Ltd, located in England, is commercializing flywheel energy storage for passenger vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in the demanding and harsh environment of Formula One racing </li></ul><ul><li>Company is now making the technology available to meet the demands of the wider transport and mobile energy storage market. </li></ul>Energy Source/Storage Type Cost per Wh Cost per kW Fuel Cell n/a $4000 WHP Flywheel (costs for prototype) $284 $1067 WHP Flywheel (1/11/2010 estimate for >1000 production cost) $44 $167 WHP Flywheel (March 2010 estimate for >>1000 production cost) $11 $42 Li-Ion Batteries $4 $500
  10. 10. Porsche 911 GT3 R Hybrid with Williams Flywheel System (Feb 11,2010) <ul><li>After its debut in Geneva the 911 GT3 R Hybrid will be tested in long-distance races on the Nürburgring </li></ul><ul><li>The highlight of this test programme will be the 24 Hours on the Nordschleife of Nürburgring on May 15th and 16 th (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is not on the 911 GT3 R Hybrid winning the race, but rather serving as a spearhead in technology and a “racing laboratory” providing know-how on the subsequent use of hybrid technology in road-going sports cars. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DOD Program on Extended Range Hydrogen Fuel Cell Utility Vehicle <ul><li>Phase II program by Defense Logistics Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime - Center for Transportation and the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DOD Program Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert all-electric utility vehicle to hydrogen fuel cell power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must provide extended range compared to all-electric version </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design has been finalized </li></ul><ul><li>Using a NI Compact RIO to control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8.5 kW fuel cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 Whr ultracap bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boost/buck converter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12.9 kW traction motor (peak) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginning in October 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles begin a 12 month demo at Warner Robins AFB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UT-CEM collects data and evaluates vehicle performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3.7 kg tank provides estimated 300 mile range </li></ul>
  12. 12. What About CNG? <ul><li>Direct CNG vehicles (ICE) are again gaining popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower emissions (NOx is lower, but still significant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low fuel cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy hybrids – buses, sanitary, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main problem for CNG is onboard storage and limited range </li></ul><ul><li>Here comes UT-CEM and GTI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submitted a joint proposal to evaluate the benefits of hybridized CNG for heavy hybrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CNG gen set </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy storage for regenerative braking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Main emphasis is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended range through increased vehicle efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess benefits of battery dominant approach (plug-in hybrid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, attempt to lower NOx emissions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>UT - Center for Electromechanics </li></ul><ul><li>PRC Mail Code #R7000 </li></ul><ul><li>Austin, TX 78712 </li></ul><ul><li>Phone:  (512) 232-1615 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>