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Storage Technologies for the Smart Grid - Bob Hebner

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Storage Technologies for the Smart Grid - Bob Hebner

  1. 1. Bob Hebner Director , Center for Electromechanics University of Texas at Austin
  2. 2. <ul><li>100+ researchers into energy </li></ul><ul><li>storage, smart grid, and energy </li></ul><ul><li>technology </li></ul><ul><li>Working for seven years on </li></ul><ul><li>“ Smart Grid” for DoD </li></ul><ul><li>Storage programs in flywheels, </li></ul><ul><li>batteries, ultracaps, </li></ul><ul><li>compressed air, and thermal </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguration approach handles: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel minimization </li></ul><ul><li>Power system protection </li></ul><ul><li>Damage mitigation </li></ul>Reconfiguration via optimization Using a power objective function Subject to:
  3. 3. <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit active participation by consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate generation and storage options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable new products, services, and markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide power quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconfigure in response to system disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional power engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Top down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale wind farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart meters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microgrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhoods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DoD facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban environments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sources connected to loads through a grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pearl Street </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operate at 60Hz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today’s grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity constrained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loads demand clean power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cascading failure </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Charge-discharge rate </li></ul><ul><li>Turnaround efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Storage losses </li></ul><ul><li>Lifecycle cost </li></ul><ul><li>Size/weight </li></ul><ul><li>High rates and depths of discharges, </li></ul><ul><li>- Flywheels have best </li></ul><ul><li> properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Long storage times and low rates and </li></ul><ul><li>depths of discharge </li></ul><ul><li>- Batteries usually are best </li></ul><ul><li>Between the extremes, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solutions </li></ul></ul>Storage Option Self Discharge time (  1 ) Round trip efficiency  Flywheel 2-12 hours 0.9 Ultracapacitor 3% per day = 1 month 0.8 Battery 3% per day = 1 month (NiCd) 0.7
  7. 7. <ul><li>Power quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase use of renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diurnal shifting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broader use of renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater return on investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency stabilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved system reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase use of renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plug-in hybrids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase effective grid capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reconfiguration support </li></ul>Flywheel – 1 MW, 3 minutes
  8. 8. <ul><li>Key technology advances for storage include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid charge/discharge batteries with long life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower loss magnetic bearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger composites to reduce windage loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative control strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced scaling approaches </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Transmission companies </li></ul><ul><li>Generating companies </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution companies </li></ul><ul><li>Regulators </li></ul><ul><li>Storage manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Microgrid developers </li></ul>Different needs for storage, different definitions of success
  10. 10. <ul><li>Focus on metering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive : Opens opportunity for innovative local storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative : May give “Smart Grid” a bad name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage Stimulus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive : Lowers the first cost barrier for innovative storage technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative : Wrong technology/application choices may poison the well </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Storage critical for “Smart Grid” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most agree, but assume different applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excellent storage choices exist today </li></ul><ul><li>With R&D, better choices will exist in the future </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of “Smart Grid” is a work in progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage can help shape the evolution </li></ul></ul>

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