Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumption ben gully - may 2010


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Integrating renewable energy technologies to reduce large ship fule consumption ben gully - may 2010

  1. 1. Renewable Technology Analysis to Decrease Large Ship Fuel Consumption<br />ASME ES2010-90294<br />Benjamin H. Gully, MSME<br />Dr. Michael E. Webber, Dr. Carolyn C. Seepersad<br />Richard C. Thompson, MSME<br />Center for Electromechanics<br />Webber Energy Group<br />May 19, 2010<br />
  2. 2. The Marine Transportation Industry Has a Substantial Environmental Footprint<br />90% of world’s freight is transported by ship<br />500 MMT of fuel consumed annually<br />30-100 times the sulfur content of land-use diesel<br />Other pollutants such as NOx and PM<br />645 MMT of CO2 emitted annually<br />10% savings in fuel represents ~$400,000 annually<br />
  3. 3. Interest In Reducing Energy Consumption Has Spurred Many Conceptual Designs <br />WalleniusWilhelmsen<br />E/S Orcelle<br />Nippon Yusen KK (NYK)<br />Super Eco Ship<br />SolarSailor, Soliloquy<br />
  4. 4. Designs Have Many Concepts in Common<br />Concepts all focus on Zero Emissions (Zemship)<br />Radical designs call for hydrogen fuel cells<br />Utilize Wind and Solar<br />Controllable rigid wing sails<br />Photovoltaic panels<br />Rigid wing sails with photovoltaic panels<br />Wind and solar decrease power demand, hydrogen replaces ‘fossil dependency’ or alleviates emissions<br />
  5. 5. Existing Efforts Focus on Redesign of Entire Ship and Technology Development<br />Purpose here is to develop simulation to compare conservation potential of technologies<br />Calculate energy savings<br />Can also be considered a retrofit potential analysis<br />Large (~100m) passenger ship application<br />
  6. 6. Presentation Outline<br />Rigid wing sail system definition<br />Solar power system definition<br />Simulation results of integration<br />Energy storage system potential<br />
  7. 7. Sail Propulsion System<br />
  8. 8. Sails Operate By Producing Aerodynamic Lift and Drag<br />Forward propulsion coefficient, Cx, function of lift and drag (CL, CD)<br />Sail position, α, adjusted to maximize Cx<br />Function of wind angle<br />Leeway produced by CY <br />Assume negligible due to ship size, hull design <br />Proposed fin designs can provide function of keel<br />
  9. 9. Rigid Wing Sail Design Selection<br />Comparison analysis performed by Fiorentino [1985]<br />
  10. 10. Best Performing Aerofoil Design is NACA 0018<br />NACA 0018 produces max lift<br />Symmetric profile<br />Good allowance for internal mast support<br />Flap increases lift 18-24%<br />[Fiorentino, 1985]<br />
  11. 11. Forward Propulsion Data Resolved As Function of Wind Angle<br />, <br />[Smulders, 1985]<br />
  12. 12. Forward Propulsion Data Resolved As Function of Wind Angle<br />, <br />ηprop = 0.68<br />ηmotor = 0.9<br />ηPEconv= 0.9<br />[Smulders, 1985]<br />
  13. 13. PV Solar Power System<br />
  14. 14. DOE Technology Comparison Suggests Wafer Silicon Panel – Assumed 18% Efficiency<br />
  15. 15. Solar Panel Efficiency is Also a Function of Incidence Angle<br />Efficiency is 100% when incidence is perpendicular<br />Phorizontal = Pirr(cosθ)<br />Pvertical = Pirr(1-cosθ)<br />θ is a function of time of day, 90° at noon<br />Negative regions truncated to zero<br />Assumed power electronics efficiency of 95%<br />
  16. 16. Simulation <br />
  17. 17. Load Cycle Data Taken From a Notional Yacht Configuration<br />
  18. 18. Area Available for Renewable Energy Systems Was Liberally Estimated <br />Rigid Wing Sails<br />2 ˣ 500 m2<br />PV Solar Panels<br />1070 m2horizontal surface<br />540 m2vertical surface<br />800 m2on sails<br />80% of sail area, limited to one side at a time<br />
  19. 19. Simulation Parameter Definition: Ship Power System and Wind/Solar Profile<br />Original ship power system consists of 4 gensets<br />Gensets are cycled on and off to meet power demand<br />4 Caterpillar 3516B units<br />2 ˣ 1180 kW<br />2 ˣ 1600 kW<br />Environmental conditions taken from 2008 buoy data<br />Wind speed and direction 150 NM from coast of Cape Hatteras, NC<br />Solar irradiance similarly located off Cape May, NJ<br /><br />
  20. 20. Simulation Shows Significant Fuel Savings of 18%<br />Base consumption without wind/solar: 5195 m3/yr<br />Fuel Consumption with wind/solar: 4262 m3/yr<br />18% reduction<br />Integrating power generation of each source shows small contribution of solar energy<br />
  21. 21. Solar Power Suffers Greatly From Intermittency <br />
  22. 22. Studying Cx Behavior Shows Opportunity for Increased Performance<br />
  23. 23. Utilized Wind Power is Limited To Propulsion<br />
  24. 24. Hybrid Energy Storage System Benefit is Minimal<br />Fuel consumption reduced to 4176 m2/yr – 2% savings<br />[Gully 2009]<br />
  25. 25. Load Leveling Function of Energy Storage System Has Potential Emissions Benefit<br />NOx Emissions from a conventional V8 diesel versus one with a hybrid powertrain [Filipi 2006]<br />
  26. 26. Results and Future Work<br />Solar power is only able to produce minimal benefit relative to the large power demands of ocean-going vessels<br />Wind power produces significant savings<br />Investigate alternative sail technologies<br />Potential for additional benefit of route selection<br />Energy storage as a hybrid device produces minimal increase in efficiency<br />May have benefit for emissions reduction<br />
  27. 27. Thank You<br />Questions?<br />
  28. 28. References<br />Department of Energy, “Multi-Year Program Plan 2008-2012,” Solar Energy Technologies Program, April 15 2008.<br />Filipi, Z., “Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions – HMMWV Case Study” 01-0443, SAE 2006.<br />Fiorentino, L., et al. “Proposal of a Sail System or the Propulsion of a 25,000 DWT Bulk-Carrier,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windship Technology, Southhampton, U.K., April 24-25, 1985.<br />Gully, B., Webber, M., Seepersad, C., and Thompson, R., “Energy Storage Analysis to Increase Large Ship Fuel Efficiency,” Proceedings of the ASME 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, San Francisco, CA, 2009.<br />Smulders, F., “Exposition of Calculation Methods to Analyse Wind-Propulsion on Cargo Ships” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Windship Technology, Southhampton, U.K., April 24-25, 1985.<br />
  29. 29. Supplemental Slides<br />
  30. 30. Reducing Genset Resolution Produces Same Relative Benefit of ESS<br />
  31. 31. Additional Simulation Parameters of Note<br />Ship direction selected arbitrarily as 10° East of North<br />Average solar power produced was equivalent to 15.7kW<br />
  32. 32. Fiorentino Fin Design as Keel Alternative<br />