<ul><li>Fuel Cell Vehicle Projects in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>October 21, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Richard Thom...
Presentation Topics <ul><li>Hydrogen Fuel Cell 22’ Shuttle Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle Computer Modeling and Perform...
PEM Fuel Cell Plug-In Hybrid Bus Specifications Ballard 19 kW Fuel Cell Stack Ni-Cad Batteries Overnight Battery Charger –...
Completed a Nine Month Test Program <ul><li>Ebus 22’ Shuttle Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hydrogen tanks  </li></ul></ul>...
Vehicle Evaluation funded by USDOT  <ul><li>Bus operated over 3 different routes in Austin, TX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRC C...
How Efficient are Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles? <ul><li>Fuel cells are > 50% efficient, compared to < 40% for diesel ...
Recorded Evaluation Data <ul><li>Daily Manual Logs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mileage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambient temper...
Vehicle Modeling using PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit) <ul><li>All electric vehicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep c...
Modeling goal was to be able to predict vehicle performance for any given route <ul><li>Matched vehicle’s net energy consu...
Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure in Austin, TX <ul><li>Skid-mounted hydrogen fueling station for vehicles </li></ul><ul><li...
DOD Extended Range Utility Vehicle Program <ul><li>DOD requested extended range capability on a single tank of hydrogen ga...
Utility Vehicle Layout with H 2  Storage
DOD Extended Range Utility Vehicle Program <ul><li>Extended range testing was completed </li></ul><ul><li>309 miles on one...
Proterra Bus to Begin Passenger Service in Austin/Cap Metro - Early 2011 (Currently in Columbia, SC) 35’ Transit Bus Fuel ...
Proterra Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid Bus
Sponsors and Supporting Partners <ul><li>US Department of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>US Department of Transportation </li></...
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Fuel cell vehicle projects in texas richard thompson - oct 2010

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Fuel cell vehicle projects in texas richard thompson - oct 2010

  1. 1. <ul><li>Fuel Cell Vehicle Projects in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>October 21, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by Richard Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>UT – Center for Electromechanics </li></ul>
  2. 2. Presentation Topics <ul><li>Hydrogen Fuel Cell 22’ Shuttle Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle Computer Modeling and Performance Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure in Austin, TX </li></ul><ul><li>DOD Hydrogen Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Upcoming program - Hydrogen Fuel Cell 35’ Transit Bus Demostration in Austin, TX </li></ul>
  3. 3. PEM Fuel Cell Plug-In Hybrid Bus Specifications Ballard 19 kW Fuel Cell Stack Ni-Cad Batteries Overnight Battery Charger – automatically controlled by vehicle computer Vehicle Fuel Cell Shuttle Bus Bus Manufacturer Ebus Year Model 2007 Hybrid Type Series - Charge depleting Length/Width/ Height 6.7m / 2.3 m / 2.8 m Ground Clearance 20 cm Wheel Base 3.7 m GVWR 8845 kg Passengers 22 seated Power Plant and Manufacturer 19.1 kW PEM Fuel Cell / Ballard Fuel 12 kg - 350 Bar Hydrogen Fuel Storage 2X 5000 psi Roof Mounted Tanks Energy Storage Saft / STM5-100MRE NiCD Batteries - 60 kWh Propulsion Motor/Manufacturer Induction Motor / Reliance Electric Nominal/Peak power 75 kW / 130 kW for 1 min Nominal/Peak torque 400 Nm / 700 Nm for 1 min Transmission Chain Drive/rear differential Regenerative Braking yes
  4. 4. Completed a Nine Month Test Program <ul><li>Ebus 22’ Shuttle Bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hydrogen tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 kWh NiCD Batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19.1 kW Ballard Fuel Cell Stack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 mile range on batteries alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>180 to 200 mile range with fuel cell and batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has regenerative braking for improved fuel economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitored vehicle performance, for example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen consumption and fuel cell power output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>battery’s charge/discharge energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitored maintenance issues </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Vehicle Evaluation funded by USDOT <ul><li>Bus operated over 3 different routes in Austin, TX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PRC Campus Route: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flat, Low speed (<25 mph) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Hills Route: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very hilly (10%+ grades), medium speed (25 – 35 mph) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jollyville Parmer Route: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate grades, high speed (35 – 45 mph) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Covered 8000 miles over nine months </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Efficient are Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles? <ul><li>Fuel cells are > 50% efficient, compared to < 40% for diesel engines </li></ul><ul><li>We averaged about 22 mpg (diesel equivalent energy) </li></ul><ul><li>With batteries only we got over 35 mpg, but limited range </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline engines can also be converted to run on Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Cost less than FCs </li></ul><ul><li>38% - 40% efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Very low emissions </li></ul><ul><li>HICE vehicles/engines are available, but limited </li></ul>
  7. 7. Recorded Evaluation Data <ul><li>Daily Manual Logs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mileage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambient temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen pressure and temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traction battery voltage and SOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliary battery voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driver efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle faults and maintenance items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traction Battery Recharging Manual Log </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage and SOC (before and after) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration of charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amp-hours into each battery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Refueling Manual Log </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus tank pressure and temperature (before and after) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure of temperature of each tube (before and after) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of hydrogen used to refuel is then calculated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data acquisition monitors 164 parameters onboard the bus categorized as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traction System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item (On/Off) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trip Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliary 12 V Battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overnight Charger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulated amp-hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charge States and Codes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical performance criteria of the Ebus are computed and logged into a daily demo and analysis spreadsheet. These criteria include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mileage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery energy usage (including recharging events) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traction motor propulsion and regenerative energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cell energy output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cell run time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cell, traction motor, and battery efficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall vehicle fuel economy (kWh/km) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Vehicle Modeling using PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit) <ul><li>All electric vehicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep cycle lead-acid batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced state of the art batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel cell vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel cell hybrid vehicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug-in fuel cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel cell dominant hybrid </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Modeling goal was to be able to predict vehicle performance for any given route <ul><li>Matched vehicle’s net energy consumption within 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Approach helps others make better choices on emerging vehicle technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids the “build and test” approach </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure in Austin, TX <ul><li>Skid-mounted hydrogen fueling station for vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Generates hydrogen from natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated system includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fuel processor, which converts natural gas to hydrogen gas, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure swing absorption unit, which purifies the hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen compressor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage tanks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen dispensing system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First permanent fueling station in Texas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public outreach and education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides excellent learning platform </li></ul><ul><li>Provides High-purity H 2 for additional vehicles (50 kg/day) </li></ul>
  11. 11. DOD Extended Range Utility Vehicle Program <ul><li>DOD requested extended range capability on a single tank of hydrogen gas </li></ul><ul><li>Surpass the range of vehicles with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>current lead-acid batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advanced state-of-the art batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vehicle platform for the hydrogen propulsion retrofit is the all-electric, Columbia ParCar SUV-LN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.7 kg of hydrogen in a 5 ksi (350 bar) composite tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.5 kW fuel cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultracapacitors for improved acceleration and vehicle efficiency, regenerative braking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vehicle takes advantage of readily available, commercial components </li></ul>
  12. 12. Utility Vehicle Layout with H 2 Storage
  13. 13. DOD Extended Range Utility Vehicle Program <ul><li>Extended range testing was completed </li></ul><ul><li>309 miles on one fueling of H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Average fuel economy of 90 mpg – gasoline equivalent </li></ul><ul><li>(same as mi/kg-hydrogen) </li></ul>All-Electric (40 mile range) To Hydrogen Fuel Cell (> 300 mile range) Date Trip Distance [mi] AVG Economy [mi/kg] AVG Fuel Cell Efficiency    [%] 10/07/10 1 15.10 79.16 41.20% 10/08/10 2 14.70 79.60 41.70% 10/08/10 3 12.04 79.16 42.53% 10/08/10 4 15.59 81.67 41.40% 10/11/10 5 45.14 88.15 42.23% 10/11/10 6 52.90 95.35 40.86% 10/12/10 7 42.44 94.95 42.54% 10/12/10 8 30.83 94.25 41.37% 10/13/10 9 41.70 91.93 42.66% 10/13/10 10 38.96 87.81 41.58% Motor Power (continuous/peak) 6.7 kW/12.9 kW Motor Current (continuous/peak) 150 Amps/500 Amps Drive Ratio 10.35 Fuel Cell Power 8.5 kW Fuel 3.7 kg H2 @ 350 Bar Energy Storage System 4 x 16V 500F Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Voltage Range 58V - 42V Delivered Energy from UC ESS 27.8 Whr
  14. 14. Proterra Bus to Begin Passenger Service in Austin/Cap Metro - Early 2011 (Currently in Columbia, SC) 35’ Transit Bus Fuel Cell / Plug-in Battery Hybrid Bus Ground-up Design Regenerative Braking 37 Passengers Up to 10 mpg diesel energy equivalent
  15. 15. Proterra Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid Bus
  16. 16. Sponsors and Supporting Partners <ul><li>US Department of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>US Department of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Texas H2 Coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Technology Institute </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Texas at Austin </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia Parcar </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogenics </li></ul>

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