Advanced Rotating Machines - Mike Werst

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Advanced Rotating Machines - Mike Werst

  1. 1. Advanced Rotating Machines<br />Mike Werst<br />m.werst@cem.utexas.edu<br />April 27, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Topics<br />Flywheel Energy Storage<br />Motors & Generators<br />CEM Advanced Rotating Machines<br />Past Programs <br />Current Programs<br />
  3. 3. Flywheel Energy Storage<br />Wikipedia definition: “A flywheel is a mechanical device with a significant moment of inertia used as a storage device for rotational energy.”<br />*Holm et. al., “A Comparison of Energy Storage Technologies as Energy Buffer in Renewable Energy Sources with respect to Power Capability.”<br />Flywheels have a much broader range of usage than given credit for <br />
  4. 4. Kinetic Energy<br />Specific Strength of Selected Materials<br />*Burr, “Mechanical Analysis and Design, 1981<br />Flywheel energy storage efficiency is dependent on material and mass distribution<br />
  5. 5. Kinetic Energy Storage<br />Application dictates rotating machine topology that meets energy and power requirements<br />Partially-Integrated Topology<br />Non-Integrated Topology<br />Fully-Integrated Topology<br />
  6. 6. Flywheel Highlights<br />Backup Bearings<br />• Conducted flywheel tests, including<br />– Flywheel only tests to identify failure modes and structural margins<br />– Flywheel burst tests to test candidate containment designs<br />• Demonstrated life of more than 110,000 cycles with a 50% DOD<br />Magnetic<br />Bearings<br />Motor Generator<br />Gimbal Shaft<br />Composite Flywheel<br />Containment System<br />
  7. 7. Flywheel Enabling Technologies<br />Loss Management<br />Vacuum air gap operation<br />Bearings<br />Magnetic bearings<br />Superconducting bearings<br />Carbon fiber availability and manufacturing cost reductions<br />Demand for high modulus/high strength carbon fiber<br />Industrial participation/competitiveness bringing mfg cost down<br />Advancements in Flywheel safety<br />Well defined protocol for determining composite rotor design margins<br />Flywheel health monitors/fault protection<br />Containment<br />
  8. 8. Flywheel Spin Tests<br />• Flywheel tests to-date:<br />– Numerous burst tests (modified design for containment proof tests)<br />– Loss of vacuum test<br />– Over-speed “As Built” Test<br />- Preload loss<br />- 1120 m/s<br />- Benign and recoverable<br />– Coupon/Fatigue tests<br />Multi-ring preloaded flywheel<br />Hydroburst test coupon<br />High temperature & <br />pressure autoclave<br />4-axis filament winder<br />
  9. 9. Technical Successes - Flywheel <br />• Record tip speed for composite<br />flywheel/arbor assembly (1.34 km/s)<br />• Key features<br />– Composite structural arbor design<br />– Detailed material and<br />manufacturing process QA<br />
  10. 10. Basic Energy Conversion Concepts<br />Generator power is given by<br />P = kD2LBAfm<br />k = constant<br />D = Air gap diameter<br />L = Active length<br />B = magnetic flux density in the air gap<br />A = line current density<br />fm = mechanical frequency of machine<br />
  11. 11. Advanced Motor & Generator Enabling Technologies<br /><ul><li>Advanced composites
  12. 12. High mechanical strength over expanded thermal range
  13. 13. Electrical insulation
  14. 14. Doping insulation to achieve better thermal conductivity
  15. 15. Magnetic materials
  16. 16. Reduced losses above power frequencies with high mechanical strength
  17. 17. Advanced superconductors
  18. 18. Improved mechanical/structural behavior
  19. 19. Trapped Field Magnets</li></li></ul><li>Flywheel Energy Storage System for the International Space Station (FESS)<br />• Operations advantages<br />– Higher round trip efficiency<br />– Known state-of-charge<br />– Offer more flexibility in<br />charge/discharge profiles<br />– Doubled contingency power<br />(energy)<br />• Significant life cycle cost savings<br />– Reduced logistics (up-mass & down-mass)<br />– Reduced maintenance (EVA- IVA Hr/Yr)<br /> FW Battery<br /> (+ Electronics) (+ Electronics)<br />Nominal Power 4.1 kW 4.1 kW <br />Peak Power 6.6 kW 6.6 kW<br />Energy Delivered 5.6 kW-hr 4.6 kW-hr<br />Contingency Power 2 orbits 1 orbit<br />Life Expectancy >15 years 5-6 years<br />
  20. 20. Backup Bearings<br />Radial Bearing<br />Stator Winding<br />Permanent Magnet Rotor<br />Composite Flywheel<br />Materials<br />Aluminum<br />Ceramic<br />Permanent Magnet<br />Windings<br />Titanium<br />Inconel<br />Composite<br />Stainless Steel<br />Steel<br />Combo Bearing<br />Transit Bus Flywheel<br />Energy Storage:<br />Power:<br />2 kWhr stored, 1 kWhr delivered<br />150 kW peak, 110 kW cont.,<br />Between 30,000 and 40,000 RPM<br />Composite tip speed:<br />Application:<br />930 m/s at 40,000 rpm<br />Power averaging for 15 ton<br />Hybrid Electric Bus<br />
  21. 21. Advanced Locomotive Propulsion (ALPS) Program Flywheel<br />• Electrical load leveling for hybrid electric locomotive <br />• Flywheel stores 480 MJ<br />• @ 15,000 rpm<br />• 2 MW motor/generator<br /> – ~3 min discharge<br />• Testing with high input and output power<br />
  22. 22. Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS)<br /><ul><li>Better Control of Applied Forces
  23. 23. Improved Reliability and</li></ul> Maintainability<br /><ul><li>Reduced Manning Workload
  24. 24. Increased Operational Availability</li></ul>Prototype Energy Storage System (ESS) designed and built by UT-CEM<br />ESS Characteristics:<br /><ul><li> Integrated Induction Motor
  25. 25. Integrated Exciter
  26. 26. Laminated Shell Rotor for
  27. 27. Max Energy Density
  28. 28. Minimal Losses
  29. 29. Air-Cooled
  30. 30. Compact Topology Meets Navy Mass and Volume Requirements
  31. 31. Designed for Shipboard Environment
  32. 32. Designed for Cyclic Operation</li></li></ul><li>CEM Flywheel Energy Storage Systems for Military Applications<br />S 4101.0607<br />Composite Rotor Pulse Alternator<br />664 MW, 2.5 kW-h<br />(1991)<br />Iron Core Pulse Alternator<br />800 MW, 10.5 kW-h<br />(1987)<br />Composite Rotor Pulse Alternator<br />2.4 GW, 11 kW-h<br />(1995)<br /> ?<br />S 3010.1993<br />S 3910.1748<br />Composite Rotor & Stator Pulse Alternator<br />3 GW, 6.4 kW-h<br />(1997)<br />Current EM Gun Power Supply<br />Research is Ongoing at CEM<br />(2010)<br />Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch <br />System (EMALS) Energy Storage System<br />(2006)<br />
  33. 33. Homopolar Generator (HPG) Flywheels<br />Faraday disks<br />1/10s to 10s of second discharge rates<br />Very high current/low voltage machines<br />CEM HPGs used for variety of applications<br />Large x-section resistive welding—12” sch. 60 pipe welds<br />Railguns—90mm, 9MJ muzzle energy <br />High-field, single-turn magnets—9MA, 20T toroidal magnet <br />All Iron Rotating (AIR) HPG<br />6.2 MJ, 50 V, 750 kA<br />60 MJ HPG Set—6 ea, 100V, 1.5MA/gen<br />
  34. 34. Flywheel vs. Electrochemical Energy Storage <br />13<br />12<br />11<br />2<br />5<br />10<br />1<br />7<br />3<br />6<br />9<br />4<br />8<br />100,000<br />1,000,000<br />
  35. 35. CEM Rotating Machine Programs2009-2010<br />Pulsed Power (EM Gun)<br />Development of Gigawatt generator <br />Materials and structures for pulsed power supplies <br />Materials and components for high power systems <br />Wind<br />Evaluation of a 1 MW HTS motor <br />Evaluation of 2MW PM generator cooling sys<br />Design, develop 2 MW magnetic gearbox<br />Hybrid Vehicle—design & develop 50kW motor<br />Vehicle Suspension—develop EM rotary to linear actuator <br />Flywheel Battery—develop flywheel energy storage for space station<br />Crane Motors/Flywheels—motor controller development<br />Large Telescope—precision rotary to linear motion actuators<br />Rotor Testing & Evaluation<br />Dynamic analysis, evaluation and recommendation for facility upgrade <br />Spin test of HTS generator rotor<br />Failure forensics in high speed, high power machines<br />Insulation system design<br />
  36. 36. Future Activities<br />Strongly encouraged by ARPA-E to submit proposal<br />Utility scale flywheels<br />Focus on rotor dynamics<br />Passed first gate<br />NASA re-emphasizing space flywheels<br />Extended negotiations<br />Offering technical information to help frame program<br />Proposal to Global Climate and Energy Project, Stanford<br />Flywheel improvements to permit 50% penetration of electricity from renewables<br />Novel superconducting motor<br />ONR funding appears imminent<br />
  37. 37. Summary<br />Advanced materials and manufacturing methods enable<br />Energy densities comparable to chemical storage devices<br />Extremely high power densities for pulsed power applications<br />Lower manufacturing costs, higher efficiencies, and long life in everyday applications<br />Flywheels capable of wide range of energy storage applications: 0.01 s to 1800 s<br />Losses less than 1%/hr - Boeing<br />Significant advances made in last 20 years<br />Innovation design and new uses for rotating machines far from exhausted<br />

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