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Code-switching between peers in aproject-based English for science courseat a Hong Kong universityChristoph A. Hafner and ...
Background
Context for this study• University course in English for science students  – Applied Biology  – Applied Chemistry  – Appli...
English for science project                                               A1. Reading/data                    A. Digital v...
Fostering learner autonomy                     Motivation     Peer                                         Authenticity   ...
Fostering learner autonomy                                                        What is the role of                     ...
Data sources and methods
Pilot study, two teams of‘participant observers’                            Lindsay/ChristophQuestionnaireFocus groups    ...
About the teams        TEAM 1       Gender        Age       L1       How good are your        How good are                ...
Team 1 Artifacts collected                   • Videos (2)   Files shared    • Images (150)                   • Soundtracks...
Team 2 Artifacts collected                   • Images (18)   Files shared    • Videos (10)through Facebook   • Word files ...
Data samples (1) In-class Notes   Facebook Uploads   Dropbox Uploads
Data samples (2)       Emails      WhatsApp Messages
Analysis
Code choice in project stages:Team 1Week   Course Structure         Language   Rationale                                ch...
Code choice in project stages:Team 2Week       Course         Language                                                  Ra...
Code choice in WhatsApp                                                 Team 1                   Team 2                Chi...
Chinese to Englishintrasentential switching                         你add 人ok?                     (You add ‘people’ ok?)GE...
Initiating and switching inconversations                                      Team 1        Team 2 Total Conversations    ...
Following the leaderK: I cant’ express myself in English, so I switch toChinese to make myself easier to understand. Andso...
Input and system choices1   9 月 20 日 22:07 - Willie575: 您将群组题更改为“GE2401    Project”    [You have changed the chat group ti...
Practising your EnglishW: this one it’s kind of spoken Cantonese in typing…so I tryto reply in Chinese and then suddenly s...
Team 1, Conversations 1&2 extract3   9 月 20 日 22:08 - Gwen GE: 得我地兩個好似冇開到group咁    [With only the two of us it doesn’t se...
Being a HK personW: …I am confident about speaking Cantonesebut not confident in like typing in Cantoneseway….like…so you ...
Team 2, Conversation 11 extract77 10 月 14 日 18:19 - Gwen GE: Agreed. In fact, where is the sound   track "night loud talki...
Solving problemsYou know when we use the software to editingthe video there are so many technical words thatneed to commun...
Team 2, Conversation 11 extract68 10 月 14 日 1:44 - Gwen GE: So terrible to find that no matter how   hard I tried, my voic...
Summary and implications of thispilot study
Role of Chinese (L1) or English (L2)             Chinese                       English•   Solving problems            • Pr...
Group dynamics• There is a tendency to follow initial code  selections• A strong individual can therefore lead a group  to...
Investment• Some groups appear more committed to using  English out of class than others• An unspoken agreement to operate...
Questions raised• In English language instruction, when is it  appropriate for such multilingual users of English  to swit...
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Code switching between peers in a project-based English for science course at a Hong Kong university

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This is a presentation that was given at The 18th Annual Conference of the International Association for World Englishes, held in Hong Kong and Guangzhou, China.

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Code switching between peers in a project-based English for science course at a Hong Kong university

  1. 1. Code-switching between peers in aproject-based English for science courseat a Hong Kong universityChristoph A. Hafner and Lindsay MillerDepartment of English, City University of Hong Konghttp://www1.english.cityu.edu.hk/acadlitIAWE 2012, December 5-10, 2012
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. Context for this study• University course in English for science students – Applied Biology – Applied Chemistry – Applied Physics – Architectural Studies – Computing Mathematics – Environmental Science and Management – Surveying
  4. 4. English for science project A1. Reading/data A. Digital video project collection B3. A2.Editing/proofre Scripting/stor B. Written scientific ading yboarding reportB2. Writing A3. Performing/recor English for ding science B1. project A4. EditingReading/outlin ing A5. Sharing
  5. 5. Fostering learner autonomy Motivation Peer Authenticity teaching Autonomy Independent Teamwork learning Hafner and Miller, 2011
  6. 6. Fostering learner autonomy What is the role of Motivation Chinese/English code- switching as a strategic resource to peer-teaching and Peer autonomous language Authenticity teaching learning opportunities as part of the Autonomy collaborative project process? Independent Teamwork learning Hafner and Miller, 2011
  7. 7. Data sources and methods
  8. 8. Pilot study, two teams of‘participant observers’ Lindsay/ChristophQuestionnaireFocus groups BrianReflection Project artifacts In-class discussions Project communications Team 1 Team 2 (out of class)
  9. 9. About the teams TEAM 1 Gender Age L1 How good are your How good are communication skills your in English? communication skills in Chinese? G F 20 Cantonese Good Very good W M 22 Chaozhou Very good Excellent Dialect E M 20 Cantonese Good Very Good A M 21 Cantonese Good Very Good TEAM 2 Gender Age L1 How good are your How good are communication skills your in English? communication skills in Chinese? L M 23 Cantonese Good Excellent J F 20 Cantonese Very Good Excellent K M 19 Cantonese Weak Good H M 19 Cantonese Good Very Good
  10. 10. Team 1 Artifacts collected • Videos (2) Files shared • Images (150) • Soundtracks (11)through Dropbox • Voice recordings (34) • Word files (17) [Team contacts, video structure, script/subtitles, tables] Project • Whatsapp messages (141) • Email messages (9)communicationsNotes and drafts • Handwritten notes (3)
  11. 11. Team 2 Artifacts collected • Images (18) Files shared • Videos (10)through Facebook • Word files (9) Project • Whatsapp messages (91)communications • Email (?)Notes and drafts • Notes in Chinese (2)
  12. 12. Data samples (1) In-class Notes Facebook Uploads Dropbox Uploads
  13. 13. Data samples (2) Emails WhatsApp Messages
  14. 14. Analysis
  15. 15. Code choice in project stages:Team 1Week Course Structure Language Rationale choice1 Introduction E [All in-class discussion was conducted in English]2 Planning project work E/C Right so we got a meeting and in the meeting we spoke Cantonese, but we got our agenda our plan all in English…3 Using multimedia E I have been making some videos using some other software before called moviemaker and then when I come up to this new software I just have to look at the words and I sort of know how to use it. So no need to learn it again…4 Data collection, lab work E/C Some of them (interviews) were in English, some of them in Cantonese, and even some in Mandarin depends on who we were interview…5 Storyboard and E …so we have the video in our mind so we suppose it to be English. Right, so I remember that at that time we all more communicate in English. Script Actually I just wrote it in English…yeah…because we were to speak English so I just use English…I didn’t think about the Chinese version because the thing is it doesn’t help me…6 Filming E/C …the thing is….it was easier to use Chinese because when we use English to communicate with other students and they may…go away… Video trouble shooting …sometimes we use English with WhatsApp…
  16. 16. Code choice in project stages:Team 2Week Course Language Rationale Structure choice1 Introduction E [All in-class discussion was conducted in English]2 Planning C When we start to eh… that means… when we plan the idea, we use Chinese…As it is easier for us to project work communicate as both of our mother tongue are Chinese… and it is easier for us to understand…3 Using C I think Chinese is better, because it is something very practical that we are not familiar…And maybe if multimedia we use Chinese we can really ask what we do not understand. And understand more about it…4 Data E In the lab, we use English, as you know, we all study chemistry… and the terms and the things that collection, lab we use were taught in English. We know the English name… we will not use Chinese to talk about the work apparatus and chemicals… we will not use Chinese name of iodine, we just say iodine…such as burette pipette…5 Storyboard E/C Not very difficult to use English, because we can use drawing, as we can use drawing to tell others and our ideas. But sometimes, we still use Chinese, if we think we need to explain something complicated. Then we might use Chinese. LM: So it is easier to write in English than to translate from Chinese to English? All: Yes. Script I use English because I just want to add some things to the script, as the script is all English in our video, I just use English to read it and to see if its meaningful6 Filming E/C English, because we take the film in English, we are in the environment speaking English, so we talked Video trouble through English mainly…For some instructions, ideas or movements, we may use Chinese, just need to shooting clarify the things that we need to do. It is easier…
  17. 17. Code choice in WhatsApp Team 1 Team 2 Chinese 24 (17%) 31 (34%) Mostly Chinese 6 (4%) 27 (30%) English 98 (70%) 23 (26%) Mostly English 1 (1%) 0 (0%) Other 12 (9%) 9 (10%) Total messages 141 (100%) 90 (100%)Mostly Chinese means the message is mostly in Chinese with intrasentential Chinese to English switchingMostly English means the message is mostly in English with intrasentential English to Chinese switching
  18. 18. Chinese to Englishintrasentential switching 你add 人ok? (You add ‘people’ ok?)GE2401 Project, Gwen GE, group, or, call, upload, class visit, brian,group, g, brian, msn, skype, on fb msg, 9.30ok, add, ok, sample,test, ok, 10mins, idea, email, send, sd, script, honkie, script, bud,brian, ok, youtube, blackboard, account Technology related lexis Proper nouns Project related lexis
  19. 19. Initiating and switching inconversations Team 1 Team 2 Total Conversations 14 8 Initiate in Chinese 3 5 Initiate in English 10 3 Initiate in Other 1 0 Intersentential Chinese to English 2 3 Intersentential English to Chinese 2 1
  20. 20. Following the leaderK: I cant’ express myself in English, so I switch toChinese to make myself easier to understand. Andsometimes the person above [in texting] is talkingin Chinese. So I follow him. (Laughs) (Team 2,Focus group)W: …basically, the one who start the conversationin which language then those who reply use thesame one… (Team 1, Focus group)
  21. 21. Input and system choices1 9 月 20 日 22:07 - Willie575: 您将群组题更改为“GE2401 Project” [You have changed the chat group title to “GE201 Project”+2 9 月 20 日 22:07 - Willie575: Gwen GE加入了群组 [Gwen GE was added into the chat group]3 9 月 20 日 22:08 - Gwen GE: 得我地兩個好似冇開到group咁 [With only the two of us it doesn’t seem like a group]
  22. 22. Practising your EnglishW: this one it’s kind of spoken Cantonese in typing…so I tryto reply in Chinese and then suddenly she start a sentence…G: we are suppose to use English and so I use English…W: and then we keep in English…C: when you say you were supposed to use English what doyou mean?G: because we created a group it is the GE2401 group andwe are suppose to discuss our project there in English causethis is an English course… (Team 1, Focus group)
  23. 23. Team 1, Conversations 1&2 extract3 9 月 20 日 22:08 - Gwen GE: 得我地兩個好似冇開到group咁 [With only the two of us it doesn’t seem like a group]4 9 月 20 日 22:09 - Willie575: ……5 9 月 20 日 22:09 - Willie575: 所以要叫佢地来咯 [So we have to tell them to join this group]6 9 月 21 日 14:26 - Gwen GE: Actually I have already borrowed some reference book from library. Should we really need to wait until Tuesday and start the project?7 9 月 21 日 14:26 - Willie575: No8 9 月 21 日 14:27 - Willie575: You can start reading
  24. 24. Being a HK personW: …I am confident about speaking Cantonesebut not confident in like typing in Cantoneseway….like…so you can see all theconversation…here I try to type in the Cantoneseway…so that G will know what I mean….so in mymind I might have an idea about practising typingwriting Chinese with the local people so… (Team1, Focus group)
  25. 25. Team 2, Conversation 11 extract77 10 月 14 日 18:19 - Gwen GE: Agreed. In fact, where is the sound track "night loud talking" and the scene of crowded AC1 Canteen78 10 月 14 日 18:35 - Willie575: ……Eddy!!! (Eddy is responsible for sound track recording)79 10 月 14 日 18:35 - Willie575: 你直接call佢啊 [You should call him directly]80 10 月 14 日 20:02 - Gwen GE: 尋日問咗今日再問會唔會催得太恆~ [Well, I’ve asked him yesterday about it, will I be too pushy if I ask again today?]81 10 月 14 日 20:04 - Gwen GE: 佢話拍咗但未upload~ [He said he did record it, but haven’t uploaded it yet]
  26. 26. Solving problemsYou know when we use the software to editingthe video there are so many technical words thatneed to communicate to each other so… (G, Team1, Focus group)
  27. 27. Team 2, Conversation 11 extract68 10 月 14 日 1:44 - Gwen GE: So terrible to find that no matter how hard I tried, my voice recorded using my notebook just not the same~What happened…69 10 月 14 日 9:57 - Willie575: ……70 10 月 14 日 9:57 - Willie575: What?71 10 月 14 日 9:58 - Willie575: You mean the sound?72 10 月 14 日 9:58 - Willie575: 音质or内容? [Sound quality or content?]73 10 月 14 日 17:43 - Gwen GE: I mispronounced a word…74 10 月 14 日 17:43 - Gwen GE: "canal"75 10 月 14 日 17:44 - Gwen GE: So I want to use my notebook record agaon, but my voice just not the same. Actually, there is no big deal about it
  28. 28. Summary and implications of thispilot study
  29. 29. Role of Chinese (L1) or English (L2) Chinese English• Solving problems • Practise• Specialized vocabulary • Specialized vocabulary• Efficiency and confidence • Being part of the crowd• Being part of the crowd
  30. 30. Group dynamics• There is a tendency to follow initial code selections• A strong individual can therefore lead a group to interact more in English or more in Chinese
  31. 31. Investment• Some groups appear more committed to using English out of class than others• An unspoken agreement to operate in English
  32. 32. Questions raised• In English language instruction, when is it appropriate for such multilingual users of English to switch to their mother tongue?• What are the opportunities for independent English language learning that are afforded by the project-based learning task?• How can these opportunities be promoted by the class teacher? – An implicit or explicit agreement – “*Using English at all stages is+ not easy, but we can do it” (J, Team 2, Focus group)

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