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  • The Heinz Dilemma is an example of a moral dilemma in which there are no clear cut right or wrong answers
  • session3-valuesand moral development

    1. 1. BEd (Secondary) ES001 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNERS AND LEARNING Session 3 Values and Moral Development
    2. 2. Session Outline • What are Morals and Values? • Moral Development – J. Piaget – L. Kohlberg – C. Gilligan • Promoting Moral Development – Values and Moral Education • The Moral Dimensions of Teaching
    3. 3. Morals and Values Include: • quality of our interaction with others • respect for the legitimate right of others • care and consideration for fellow humans and other living things
    4. 4. Moral Development • Jean Piaget – Applied stage theory to Moral Development in 1932 – Children younger than 10 or 11 years think about moral dilemmas one way; older children consider them differently. (1896 - 1980) Switzerland
    5. 5. Piaget’s Stages of Moral Development • External Morality Stage 1 (Age 4–7) – Regard rules as fixed and absolute – Strong respect for rules; they cannot be altered – Believe that rules are handed down by adults or by God and that one cannot change them. – Children comply strictly with rules and base judgements about moral issues on consequences rather than intentions • Autonomous Morality Stage 2 (Age 7–10) – View is more relativistic, they understand that it is permissible to change rules i.e., rules are arbitrary agreements that can be changed – Rules can be violated to help others – Rules are not sacred and absolute – Judgements of moral issues are based on intentions as well as consequences
    6. 6. Lawrence Kohlberg (1927, New York - 1987, Boston) Accomplishments: Major contributor to the field of moral development and reasoning; Published major work in 1981, Essays on Moral Development. Kohlberg's doctoral dissertation, published in 1958, made him psychology's newest star. In the dissertation he uncovered six stages of moral development -in contrast with Piaget's two stages - based upon interviews of 72 white boys in Chicago about the dilemma of Heinz.
    7. 7. The Heinz Dilemma A woman was near death. There was one drug the doctors thought might save her. A chemist in the same town had discovered it, but he was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together half of what it cost. The chemist refused to sell it cheaper or let Heinz pay later. So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.
    8. 8. Questions asked about the Heinz Dilemma 1. Should Heinz steal the drug? Why or why not? 2. Is it actually right or wrong for him to steal the drug? Why is it right or wrong? 3. Does Heinz have a duty or obligation to steal the drug? Why or why not? 4. If Heinz doesn't love his wife, should he steal the drug for her? Does it make a difference in what Heinz should do whether or not he loves his wife? Why or why not? 5. Suppose the person dying is not his wife but a stranger. Should Heinz steal the drug for the stranger? Why or why not? 6. Suppose it's a pet animal he loves. should Heinz steal to save the pet animal? Why or why not? 7. Is it important for people to do everything they can to save another's life? Why or why not? 8. It is against the law for Heinz to steal. Does that make it morally wrong? Why or why not? 9. In general, should people try to do everything they can to obey the law? Why or why not? 9b. How does this apply to what Heinz should do? 10. In thinking back over the dilemma, what would you say is the most responsible thing for Heinz to do? Why?
    9. 9. Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development • Preconventional • Conventional • Postconventional Moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments. Internal standards are imposed by others. Morality is internal, not based on external standards.
    10. 10. Stages of Moral Development (Adapted from Kohlberg, 1964) Stage Issue of Moral Concern Preconventional Moral Reasoning (about 4-10yrs) I Rules followed to avoid punishment; obedience and concern for physical consequences. II Doing things for others because it will result in others doing things in return; concern for reward, equal sharing and benefit to self. Conventional Moral Reasoning (about 10-13 years) III Whatever pleases the majority is considered morally right; other viewpoints can be seen, conformity is prized, desire to do things for others. IV Group authority, law, duty and rules of society prized; concern for maintaining social order for its own sake; social disapproval avoided; emphasis on the inherent 'rightness' of rules and duties. Postconventional Moral Reasoning (13 years and over) V Internal commitment to principles of personal conscience; concern with individual rights within standards set by consensus; emphasis on fair procedures for reaching consensus and for evaluating principles and rules. VI Concern with universal ethical principles and abstract morality affecting all beings regardless of conventional views; emphasize on universality, consistency, and logical comprehensiveness.
    11. 11. Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, others might also do so and this could result in disorder in the classroom. Because of this, he understands that it is his duty to follow the rules. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning?
    12. 12. Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, he will be punished. Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice
    13. 13. Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, it will displease his teacher. Q: At which of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice
    14. 14. Moral Reasoning on the Interstate (slide 1 of 2) You are driving 75 miles per hour on an interstate highway. The posted speed limit is 65. You are traveling with the flow of traffic–you are being passed by about the same number of cars as you pass. A highway patrol pulls you over and gives you a ticket for speeding. Upset, you protest that everyone else is driving the same speed. “Look,” the highway patrol responds. “I get sick of it when people do something wrong, and then they act like it's our fault when they get a ticket. My radar had you clocked at 75, and the speed limit clearly says 65.” You feel you've been dealt with unfairly. 1. Are you justified in feeling that you’ve been treated unfairly? Explain why you think so. 2. Is the highway patrol’s position more, or less, justified than yours? Explain why you think so.
    15. 15. What stage is represented by your reasoning? Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony Moral reasoning based on concern for others or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others. “Everyone else is driving the same speed,” is an example. What stage is represented by highway patrol reasoning? Stage 4: Law and Order Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, and an orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society. “My radar had you clocked at 75, and the speed limit clearly says 65,” is an example. Moral Reasoning on the Interstate (slide 2 of 2)
    16. 16. Instructions: For the following items consider a teenager who is out with her friends. She is supposed to be in by midnight. She complies. Which of Kohlberg’s stages is best illustrated by each of the reasons stated below? 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. 2. Nobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything. 3. My parents and I agreed that midnight is fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements. 4. If I stay out my parents will be worried. 5. It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight. 6. My friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then. Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 1 of 3)
    17. 17. 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. Stage 1: Her concern is about being punished. 2. Nobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything. Stage 2: The focus is on herself. An exchange isn’t evident; but her reasoning is egocentric. 3. My parents and I agreed that midnight was fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements. Stage 5: She and her parents have agreed on the time to be in. Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 2 of 3)
    18. 18. 4. If I stay out my parents will be worried. Stage 3: She is concerned about her parents’ feelings. 5.It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight. Stage 4: She is obeying the rule because it’s the rule. 6.My friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then. Stage 3: She is responding to the behavior of the group. Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 3 of 3)
    19. 19. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Age and Percentage of Individuals at Each Kohlberg Stage Percent
    20. 20. Research found that while most men reached stages 4 and 5 by adulthood, women stayed at 3
    21. 21. (1937 - present) New York Current: Professor of Gender Studies, Harvard University Education: Ph.D., Harvard University Achievements: • Challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theories of moral development on the basis of gender bias • Pioneer in the research on moral development of women • One of Time Magazine's 25 most influential people of 1996 Carol Gilligan
    22. 22. The Porcupine Dilemma A group of industrious, prudent moles have spent the summer digging a burrow where they will spend the winter. A lazy, improvident porcupine who has not prepared a winter shelter approaches the moles and pleads to share their burrow. The moles take pity on the porcupine and agree to let him in. Unfortunately, the moles did not anticipate the problem the porcupine’s sharp quills would pose in close quarters. Once the porcupine has moved in, the moles are constantly being stabbed. The question is, what should the moles do? (Meyers, 1987, p. 141, adapted from Gilligan, 1985)
    23. 23. CAROL GILLIGAN’S CRITICISM Stages 5 and 6 are biased towards male values
    24. 24. • Carol Gilligan argued that men and women use different moral criteria Males • focus on people’s individual rights and obligations • justice, rights and rules as solutions to moral dilemmas • more concerned with the abstract and impersonal aspects of the problem
    25. 25. Females •Morality based on responsibility and care for people •Emphasize altruism and self-sacrifice •more concerned with interpersonal relationships • In moral dilemmas, more likely to base their moral decisions on personal relationships, interpersonal connections and attending to human needs.
    26. 26. Women’s Stages of Moral Development • Concern for individual survival – Transition from selfishness to responsibility • Goodness equated with self-sacrifice – Transition from self-sacrifice to giving themselves permission to take care of themselves • Goodness seen as caring for both self and others – Inclusive, Nonviolent – Condemns exploitation and hurt
    27. 27. Care vs. Justice Perspective Justice perspective focuses on rights of individuals Care perspective emphasizes relationships and concern for others
    28. 28. PowerPoint 3.23 Theory to Practice: Promoting Moral Development in Your Classroom Guidelines for Promoting Moral Development 1. Model ethical thinking, behavior, and empathy in your interactions with students. 2. Use classroom management as a vehicle for promoting moral development. 3. Encourage students to understand and respect the perspectives of others. 4. Use moral dilemmas as concrete reference points for discussions of moral issues.
    29. 29. Examples of Moral Dilemmas • You found a wallet containing $50. Will you keep it? • You ordered some food and get more change than you should have. Will you give it back ? • You see your best friend cheating during a test. Your best friend looks and knows that you saw him. Will you tell the teacher?
    30. 30. • Ming came to you feeling very upset that he has no friends in class and that he is always snubbed by the others because they say he is nosy and keeps telling teachers on others’ mischievous acts. You know he has a strong belief in being honest, in telling the truth and in doing things right. How would you advise him? Examples of Moral Dilemmas 
    31. 31. Examples of Moral Dilemmas • YouTube - Million Dollar Baby (2) – about euthanasia • - The Bridge – above putting duty above self
    32. 32. Values and Moral Education “The conscious attempt to help others acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which contribute to more personally satisfying and socially constructive lives” Howard Kirschenbaum (1995)
    33. 33. Eggen & Kauchak (2007) Moral education is an essential and integral part of learner development. To become socially and emotionally healthy, learners must acquire the moral compass that values provide and the thinking capacities to apply these values in intelligent ways. Moral Education
    34. 34. Moral Education 1. Hidden Curriculum School personnel serve as models of ethical behavior. Classroom rules and peer relationships transmit positive attitudes to students. 2. Character Education Schools take a direct approach to teaching moral literacy and design an environment that rewards proper behavior.
    35. 35. Moral Education 3. Values Clarification Schools design programs that allow students to clarify their own values and understand the values of others. 4. Cognitive Moral Education Schools base programs on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as moral reasoning develops.
    36. 36. Values Clarification – An Example Which 6 of the 10 people will be admitted to a small fallout shelter during World War III. Your group has 20 minutes to decide • A 30-year-old male bookkeeper • The bookkeeper’s wife, who is 6 months pregnant • A second-year medical student who is a political activist • A 8-year-old boy with Down’s Syndrome • A female biochemist • A policeman with a gun • A Hollywood actress who is a singer and dancer • A 45-year-old famous historian-author • A 62-year-old ex-school teacher with asthmatic problems • An reformed ex-convict who is now an active volunteer in building shelters for the homeless.
    37. 37. Moral Education 5. Service Learning Schools encourage students to be involved in the community by becoming a tutor, helping the elderly, volunteering in hospitals or day care, etc. 6. Integrative Approach Schools encourage students to be reflective moral thinkers and committed to justice, and develop children’s moral character.
    38. 38. What happens if your own values are contrary to the values or messages we are teaching?
    39. 39. The Moral Dimensions of Teaching Teachers have to make decisions everyday, some of which will arise over issues which involve a conflict of interest and values. These issues are moral dilemmas because they call into question our own moral values and the kind of character we are
    40. 40. The Moral Dimensions of Teaching What are some examples of moral dilemmas you have faced/or anticipate facing as a teacher? (Choose situations in which you have difficulties in deciding the right way to act). Share these experiences with your team mates. As a team, consider the various alternatives courses of action and propose a plausible solution. As you discuss, be mindful of the different principles or considerations that guide you in the process of searching for solutions.
    41. 41. Enter the Debate Should teachers teach students values/morality? YES NO
    42. 42. What spirit do we want our intelligence to have? Do we want children to be gifted and alienated? – literate and prejudiced? – brilliant and cynical? – intelligent and materialistic? – in need of help and ashamed? …. - M.C. Richards - Unless we educate for wholeness in person and wholeness of our earth planet, we are not really intelligent…. The health and wholeness of our planet is not separable from health and wholeness of us as individuals.
    43. 43. What’s Up Next?
    44. 44. What’s Up Next? Cognitive Development • Learning Theories: An Overview Introduction to Problem-Based Learning
    45. 45. Homeplay Learning Theories: An Overview 1. Jean Piaget 2. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky 3. Burrhus Frederic Skinner 4. Albert Bandura 5. Information Processing Model