( Creative cities The role of knowing communities in Montreal ) id Campus Emilie Pawlak - Colloque SPI+ - 13 et 14 Novembre 2011
( Economic context )⊛ The creative economy is based on a new developmental paradigm that links business, culture, Arts and technology (UN Report, 2008)⊛ New sources of value creation lie at the interface between creativity, culture and economics⊛ Creative capital: complex to deﬁne because various dimensions, no direct link between creative endeavor and economic outcomes => result from the interplay of social, cultural and institutional capital⊛ The collaboration curve surpassed the experience curve⊛ Agglomeration economies stem from diversity - there is an advantage to produce something distinctive linked to local speciﬁcities (Gertler, 2004)⊛ Creativity and innovation: situated phenomenon (time and place)
( Creative cities: some characteristics⊛ Ability to attract speciﬁc skills and not only human capital in general (“creative class”) (Florida, 2000) )⊛ Different from a cluster of economic activities (Scott, 2006) ⊛ dense networks of specialized producers vertically disintegrated that offer many options to combine and generate innovation ideas, rules, products services... ⊛ Labor market developed around groups of interrelated ﬁrms, project-oriented activities favor cross fertilization and diversiﬁcation of competencies for workers ⊛ Creative ﬁeld (urban and regional) "the locationally-differentiated web of production activities and associated social relationships that shapes geographic patterns of entrepreneurship and innovation in the new economy."(Scott)⊛ Absorptive capacities (Cohen & Levinthal, 1990); creativity and innovation in cities enable to create knowledge but also to develop a capacity to learn from external sources⊛ Different from cultural cities: ﬁrms, communities and individuals that can create new combinations, new rules...
( Creativity in cities: Dynamics )⊛ Innovation and creative intensity rely on a locally embedded dynamic process embracing knowledge, creation, innovation and markets.⊛ Individual and communities’ creative activities (cultural, technological, artistic...) nourish innovation conducted in organizations⊛ Innovative ideas, best practices developed and brought to market by organizations (ﬁrms, universities...) can be transformed, exploited, reinterpreted by knowing and creative communities Knowledge Creativity Innovation Individuals Networks Projects S&T MicroCommunities Communities Organizations Users Diversity and heterogeneity Standardization Markets Society Context Openness Appropriation (IP)
( Montreal ) Arts-Culture and Technology Connections Overall Overall OverallOverall Creativity Technology Talent Tolerance Index Ranking Ranking Ranking 1 -Seattle 1 4 1 2 -Boston 5 1 4 3 - Vancouver 3 5 3 4 - Montreal 7 8 1 5 - Los Angeles 2 7 6 6 - New York 10 2 7
( Montreal: Diversiﬁed Ecology of Knowledge ⊛ Industrial Clusters: Aeronautic, ) Biotech, IT (large ﬁrms and numerous SMEs) ⊛ Creative industries: video games, advertising, performing Arts, ﬁlmmaking, fashion ⊛ Developed Local science system (major universities, +200 R&D centers...) ⊛ developed artistic underground How do these actors connect, learn and interact?
( Places and spaces⊛ Thematic districts and places have been created to support exchange ) and cross fertilization.⊛ La Tohu: place for circus arts training, creation, production and performance; National Circus School; founded by CdS⊛ SAT (Society for Arts and Technology): transdisciplinary center dedicated to research and creation, production, education, and the dissemination of digital culture. Located in the Quartier des Spectacles⊛ e-commerce Place: building led by IBM and welcoming technology- driven businesses⊛ House of Jazz Festival: concert venue, restaurant, jazz resource center and cinematheque⊛ INGO innovation center: incubation and R&D center for high tech companies located in the innovation district close to Tech School and McGill University
( Project and events )⊛ Montreal, City of Festivals: Jazz, Humor, Circus, International Film, Fashion Week, etc⊛ Montreal Mode (fashion map, sustainable style)⊛ Culture Montreal: research, analysis and communication activities.⊛ Montreal UNESCO City of design (5th year)⊛ 1st Canada-EU Collaboration Forum (may 2011)
( Beyond traditional (locational) success factors ⊛ Montreal as a diversiﬁed ecology of knowledge ) ⊛ Numerous Relational Spaces have been created to foster innovation and cross fertilization (urbanism and interaction places ⊛ Things happen! In Montreal, numerous projects and events ⊛ favor a good circulation of knowledge and ideas; bring diversity and ⊛ contribute to City branding and promotion ⊛ Knowing communities (CoP, epistemic communities, artistic communities...) as active units and channels for creation and innovation ⊛ Strong public leadership: local and regional authorities have played a central role in the emergence of Montreal and Barcelona as major creative cities