in 622 AD Prophet Mohammad migrated to Medina along with his followers
This was known as Hijrah (the beginning of the Islamic Calendar)
Mohammad moved towards Mecca with 10,000 men in 629 AD and the battle was won without a single bloodshed
Mohmmad died in 632 A.D , at the age of 63 in the city of Medina</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> The term Caliphate (from the Arabic خليفة or khilāfa) refers to a traditional form of government based on the religion of Islam.
A single unified nation of Muslimbelievers (Ummah)
The Caliph is a successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad's political authority.
Sunni Islam dictates that the caliph should be selected by Shura, elected by Muslims or their representatives.
Followers of Shia Islam believe the caliph was an imam descended in a line from the Ahl al-Bayt(family tree).
From the time of Muhammad until 1924, successive and contemporary caliphates were held by various dynasties…</li></li></ul><li>Following Muhammad's death, a series of four Caliphs lead the Islamic Empire during this period. Starting with <br />1- Abu BakrEl Suddeek<br />2- Omar Bin el khattab<br />3- Uthman Bin Affan<br />4- Ali Bin AbiTaleb<br />The first four Caliphates were known as Al-Rashidoon- "The Rightly-Guided Khalifahs"<br />
Abbasids - "Islamic Golden Age“<br />Abbasids dynasty rose to power in 750 A.D.<br />Under the Abbasids, Islamic civilization flourished. <br />Most notable was the development of Arabic and poetry.<br />Also the commerce and industry and the Arts and Science.<br />Baghdad was made the new capital of the caliphate (moved from the previous capital, Damascus), it became one of the greatest cultural centers of the world.<br />The Abbasids were said to be descendents of Abbas the uncle of Muhammad claiming that they were the 'messiah' or saviours of the people under the Ummayad.<br />Harun El Rashid and Al Ma’moon, were great patrons of arts and Science.<br />This era also saw the rise of classical Sufism.<br />
Also the Golden Age contributed in the advance of:<br />Agricultural Revolution<br />Market economy<br />Industrial growth<br />Labour<br />Technology <br />Urbanization<br />Sciences<br />Architecture<br />Literature<br />Music<br />Philosophy<br />
End of the Golden Age<br />Mongolian invasion (1206) Direct Reason.<br />Despite a number of attempts by many writers, historical and modern, none seem to agree on the causes of decline. The main views on the causes of decline comprise the following: political mismanagement after the early Caliphs (10th century onwards), closure of the gates of ijtihad (12th century), institutionalisation of taqlid rather than bid'ah (13th century), foreign involvement by invading forces and colonial powers (11th century Crusades, 13th century Mongol Empire, 15th century Reconquista, 19th century European colonial empires), and the disruption to the cycle of equity based on IbnKhaldun's famous model of Asabiyyah (the rise and fall of civilizations) which points to the decline being mainly due to political and economic factors.<br />