Presentation on 'The Complexities of Racisim in New Zealand' by Professor James Liu, Co-Director of the Centre for Applied Cross-cultural Research, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr
This presentation was made at the Diversity Forum at Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand on 24 August 2014: http://www.hrc.co.nz/race-relations/new-zealand-diversity-forum/
RACISM IN NEW
Professor James H. Liu
AN OPEN SOCIETY IN PRINCIPLE
Unlike many European nations, NZ visions itself as a
nation of migrants, whether these are tangata
whenua who arrived centuries ago, or more recent
Uniquely in the world, both LIBERAL & BICULTURAL
models of NZ nationhood CO-EXIST.
The expression of racism in New Zealand is limited by
these two ideals.
NZ Oz Sw Sp Nl Fr Lx UK Dn Fn It Pt Ir Bl Ge Aus Gr
IT IS A GOOD THING FOR ANY SOCIETY
TO BE MADE UP OF PEOPLE FROM
DIFFERENT RACES, RELIGIONS AND
NATIONAL CHARACTER BASED ON
LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC VALUES
Friendly & approachable Have a ‘clean & green’ attitude
Be friendly Be a hard worker
Respect other cultures & ethnic
Appreciate nature and the
Be environmentally friendly Support a nuclear-free New
Egalitarian – believe in equality Try to get ahead on own efforts
Treat all people of all races
Be innovative & creative
Be tolerant of other cultures
MIGRANTS’ EXPERIENCES OF
By region of origin – Specific Prejudices
WARMTH RATINGS OF NEW ZEALAND
EUROPEAN, MĀORI, PACIFIC AND ASIAN
PEOPLES TOWARD ONE ANOTHER: NZ
EUROPEANS AT THE HEART OF THE
HISTORICAL BASIS FOR BICULTURALISM
The basis for biculturalism arises out of the status of
Māori as tangata whenua in what is widely regarded as
the foundational document of NZ sovereignty, the
Treaty of Waitangi.
This contractual relationship between Māori and the
Crown has evolved over time, but includes provisions
for kawanatanga, rangatiratanga, equality for all
citizens, reasonable cooperation between Crown and
iwi, and redress of past injustices.
These principles are specific to NZ (whereas liberalism is
in theory universal).
HOW WELL HAVE MAORI & PAKEHA/
EUROPEANS HONOURED THE TREATY
Student Sample General Sample
SYMBOLIC ELEMENTS OF THIS
RELATIONSHIP ARE WIDELY ACCEPTED
ACCORDING TO RESEARCH USING THE
IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS TEST (IAT)
AT THE SYMBOLIC LEVEL (IAT), MAORI
ARE BOTH IMPLICITLY ASSOCIATED
WITH THE NATIONAL IDENTITY
NEW ZEALAND COAT OF ARMS:
BUT IF THE NATIONAL IS SO EQUAL WHY
IS IT THAT ….
Maori form 16% of the total population and 50%
of the prison population?
Maori die 8 years younger than everyone else?
Many Maori attend high schools where no one is
going to university?
Maori earn 16% less income than the rest?
SUPPORT FOR BICULTURALISM IN
PRINCIPLE, OR SYMBOLIC INCLUSION
OF MAORI (4.89/1-7)
Maori language should be taught in all NZ schools
The NZ national anthem should be sung in both
Maori and English.
NZ should be known and seen as a bicultural
society, reflecting an equal partnership between
Maori and Pakeha.
If NZ were to change to a republic, then the Treaty
of Waitangi should be used as a foundation for our
NZ should embrace it’s cultural diversity.
MORE SUPPORT FOR LIBERAL
DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY &
OPPOSITION TO RESOURCE SPECIFIC
We are all New Zealanders, and no one ethnic group should
get special privileges.
It is racist to give one ethnic group special privileges, even if
they are a minority
I feel that although Maori have had it rough in past years,
they should still be treated the same as everyone else.
No one group should be given privileges on the basis of
ethnic or racial background
I find the idea of giving priority or special privileges to one
group appalling, minority or otherwise
HISTORICAL NEGATION AS A
FOR NEW ZEALAND EUROPEANS
The Historical Negation Scale Loading
Grievances for past injustices should be recognized and due compensation
offered to the descendants of those who suffered from such injustices. (r)
New Zealand law needs to recognize that certain ethnic minorities have been
treated unfairly in the past. People belonging to those groups should be entitled
to certain benefits and compensation. (r)
I believe that I should take part in the efforts to help repair the damage to others
caused by earlier generations of people from my ethnic group. (r)
We as a nation have a responsibility that see that due settlement is offered to
Maori in compensation for past injustices. (r)
We should not have to pay for the mistakes of our ancestors. .81
We should all move on as one nation and forget about past differences and
conflicts between ethnic groups.
It is true that many things happened to Maori people in the past that should not
have happened, but it is unfair to hold current generations of Pakeha/NZ
Europeans accountable for things that happened so long ago.
People who weren't around in previous centuries should not feel accountable for
the actions of their ancestors.
(r) = Item is reverse scored.
MAYBE NOT RACIST (NOT BASED ON
INTERPERSONAL DISLIKE), BUT IT DOES
MAINTAIN NZ EUROPEAN PRIVILEGE
THROUGH POLICY PREFERENCES &
INSTITUTIONAL NORMS FAVOURING THE
WARMTH TOWARDS MAORI
NZ is open in principle, but prejudiced in
practice in specific situations, in places, and
against particular types of people.
NZ national identity is constructed from both
Liberal Democratic and Bicultural Principles.
The future trajectory of the nation will have to
draw from these two principles together, to
reduce prejudice and discrimination across
the different parts of the nation.