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Energy non renewable-and_climate_change_


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Energy non renewable-and_climate_change_

  1. 1. • Almost ALL energy ultimately comes from the sun, either directly or indirectly
  2. 2. Carbon cycle
  3. 3. Fig 15.3—Fossil fuel formation
  4. 4. Alberta tar sands
  5. 5. Fig 15.10—Alberta tar sands
  6. 6. Keystone XL pipeline
  7. 7. Petroleum/Crude Oil• Oil in mud or clay (oil shale) difficult to remove; clay particles so close together• Oil in sandstone easier to extract; sand particles not held as closely together as clay• Ample supply for at least 40 years
  8. 8. Petroleum/Crude Oil—Pros• oil is relatively cheap• easily transported• high net energy yield• efficient distribution system
  9. 9. Petroleum/Crude Oil—Cons• dependence on oil• waste• discourages use and exploration of alternative sources of energy• releases CO2 and other pollutants
  10. 10. Fig 15.9—Hubbert’s prediction
  11. 11. Fig 15.7—distillation of petroleum products
  12. 12. Fig 15.8—uses of petroleum products
  13. 13. Natural Gas• composed mainly of methane• should last at least 50 years, depending on Marcellus shale estimates• one of the cleanest burning of all fossil fuels• often found together with oil
  14. 14. Marcellus shale
  15. 15. Hydraulic fracturing• Also called “fracking”• Concerns about contamination of ground water and other types of pollution
  16. 16. Natural Gas—Pros• as cheap as oil• easily transported• high net energy yield• burns cleaner
  17. 17. Natural Gas—Cons• must be converted to liquid form for transport (reduces net energy yield)• methane leaks
  18. 18. Coal—Pros• known reserves should last at least 200 years at current rate of use• high net energy yield
  19. 19. West Virginia strip mine
  20. 20. Coal—Cons• accidents and diseases• harms land• dirtiest fossil fuel to burn• high in CO2 and other pollutants
  21. 21. Electricity generation in the US
  22. 22. Fig 15.12—carbon capture
  23. 23. Is there such a thing as “clean coal”?• Involves carbon capture and sequestration• Other impurities like sulfur, which contributes to acid rain, must be removed• Still need to dispose of ash
  24. 24. Fig 15.18—Nuclear fission
  25. 25. Nuclear power—Pros• no air pollutants• much less CO2 than fossil fuels• water pollution and land disruption are minimal
  26. 26. Nuclear power—Cons• uranium remains suitable for about 3 years, then needs to be replaced• fuel rods are highly radioactive and few waste facilities exist• low net energy yield but improving• terror, nuclear weapons threat
  27. 27. Fig 15.19—light water reactor
  28. 28. Greenhouse effect• Main greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide
  29. 29. Fig 14.10a—global temp change
  30. 30. Fig 14.10b—Northern Hemisphere temp changes
  31. 31. Climate change—what we know• Carbon dioxide levels have fluctuated; these levels correlate well with changes in surface temps
  32. 32. Fig 14.7—CO2, methane, temps
  33. 33. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)• Established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program• IPCC does not conduct research but assesses available peer reviewed and published scientific/technical literature on climate change• Produces reports about every 5 years
  34. 34. IPCC reports• 2001 report: In the light of new evidence and taking into account the remaining uncertainties, most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is likely (66-90% chance) to have been due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations• 2007 report: Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely (90-99% chance) due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations