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Phrases <ul><li>A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and does not contain a verb a...
Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition and usually ends wi...
Adjective Phrases <ul><li>An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul><ul><...
Adverb Phrases <ul><li>An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. </li><...
Verbals and Verbal Phrases <ul><li>A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb but it is used in a sentence as a noun, a...
Participles and Participial Phrases <ul><li>A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><l...
Gerunds and Gerund Phrases <ul><li>A gerund is a verb form ending in  –ing  that is used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>A ge...
Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases <ul><li>An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an ad...
Appositives and Appositive Phrases <ul><li>An appositive is a noun or pronoun that explains the noun or pronoun it follows...
Phrases Phrases Appositive Prepositional Verbal Adjective Adverb Infinitive Gerund Participial
Clauses <ul><li>A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb which forms part of a sentence. </li></ul><ul...
Independent and Dependent Clauses <ul><li>An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a ...
Adjective Clauses <ul><li>An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun. ...
Adverb Clauses <ul><li>An adverb clause is a subordinate clause used as an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><...
Noun Clauses <ul><li>A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as a subject, a c...
Clauses Clauses Independent Dependent Adjective Noun Adverb
<ul><li>Questions??? </li></ul>
Grammar Books <ul><li>Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar Usage  (5 th  Ed.)  By:  Muriel Harris </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
More Grammar Books <ul><li>Painless Grammar  By: Rebecca Elliott, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitty-Gritty Grammar  &  More Ni...
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Phrases And Clauses Grammar1.15

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Phrases And Clauses Grammar1.15

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Phrases And Clauses Grammar1.15

  1. 1. Phrases <ul><li>A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and does not contain a verb and its subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Five kinds: prepositional, adjective, adverb, verbal, and appositive </li></ul>
  2. 2. Prepositional Phrases <ul><li>A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition and usually ends with a noun or pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Please put the paper in the basket . </li></ul><ul><li>2. I found ten apples under the tree . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Adjective Phrases <ul><li>An adjective phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That girl in the car is my sister. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The disk on the table is his. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Adverb Phrases <ul><li>An adverb phrase is a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The pine tree was planted in the back yard . </li></ul><ul><li>2. I ran from the dog . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Verbals and Verbal Phrases <ul><li>A verbal is a word that is formed from a verb but it is used in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>A verbal phrase is a group of related words that contains a verbal. </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds: participles, gerunds and infinitives </li></ul>
  6. 6. Participles and Participial Phrases <ul><li>A participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>A participial phrase is a group of related words that contains a participle and that acts as an adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Running through the forest , the girl enjoyed the crisp air. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Swimming to the surface , the fish swallowed the worm. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gerunds and Gerund Phrases <ul><li>A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>A gerund phrase is a group of related words that includes the gerund. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Swimming is my favorite thing to do in the summer. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Washing the dishes is my daily chore. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases <ul><li>An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive has the word to directly before the base form of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive phrase is a group of related words that includes the infinitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. I would like to go to Europe . </li></ul><ul><li>2. He needs to read the whole book by tomorrow . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Appositives and Appositive Phrases <ul><li>An appositive is a noun or pronoun that explains the noun or pronoun it follows. </li></ul><ul><li>An appositive phrase is made up of an appositive and its modifiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the time set apart from the rest of the sentence with commas, but if the appositive is necessary to the meaning of the sentence or is closely related to the word it follows, no commas are necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Susan, the girl in the front row , is reading a book. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The movie Lord of the Rings is his favorite. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Phrases Phrases Appositive Prepositional Verbal Adjective Adverb Infinitive Gerund Participial
  11. 11. Clauses <ul><li>A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb which forms part of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent or dependent (subordinate) </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds: adjective, adverb, and noun </li></ul>
  12. 12. Independent and Dependent Clauses <ul><li>An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>A dependent clause or subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adjective Clauses <ul><li>An adjective clause is a subordinate clause used as an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>An adjective clause almost always begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, what, and that) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The girl who is sitting in the front row is my best friend. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The car that is bright red is speeding. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adverb Clauses <ul><li>An adverb clause is a subordinate clause used as an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. When I smiled at him he waved. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Because she wakes up early , she is always on time. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Noun Clauses <ul><li>A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as a subject, a complement, or an object of the preposition </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. They asked who won . </li></ul><ul><li>2. My friend asked whoever was able to please stand. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Clauses Clauses Independent Dependent Adjective Noun Adverb
  17. 17. <ul><li>Questions??? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Grammar Books <ul><li>Prentice Hall Reference Guide to Grammar Usage (5 th Ed.) By: Muriel Harris </li></ul><ul><li>The Writer’s Pocket Handbook By: Alfred Rosa and Paul Eschholz </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to Rapid Revision (8 th Ed.) By: Daniel Pearlman and Paula Pearlman </li></ul><ul><li>English Grammar: Language as Human Behavior (2 nd Ed.) By: Anita K. Barry </li></ul>
  19. 19. More Grammar Books <ul><li>Painless Grammar By: Rebecca Elliott, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitty-Gritty Grammar & More Nitty-Gritty Grammar By: Edith H. Fine & Judith P. Josephson </li></ul><ul><li>Essentials of English Grammar (2 nd Ed.) By: L. Sue Baugh </li></ul>

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