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Biology laboratory technique best edited by Chala Dandessa

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Biology laboratory technique best edited by Chala Dandessa

  1. 1. 1 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 JIMMA TEACHERS COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY MANUAL OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY TECHNIQUE SAFETY AND ORGANIZATION OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY PREPARED BY: CHALA DANDESSA JTC November 2013
  2. 2. 2 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Page 1 Importance Of Biology Laboratory............................................................................................................4 2 PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF LABORATORY .......................................................................................5 2.1 LAY OUT FOR A BIOLOGY LAB.......................................................................................................7 3 BIOLOGY LABORATORY APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS ...........................................................8 3.1 KEEPING YOUR LAB FUNCTIONAL................................................................................................9 3.2 LIST OF CONSUMABLE ARTICLES REQUIRED IN BIOLOGY LAB ...........................................9 3.3 LIST OF NON CONSUMABLE ARTICLES WITH PROPOSED LIFE............................................11 3.4 PERMANENT SLIDES........................................................................................................................13 3.5 CHARTS...............................................................................................................................................15 3.6 LIST OF THE APPARATUS TO BE INCLUDED IN ACCOUNTS CODE......................................16 3.7 APPARATUS LIFE FIXED BY YEARS ............................................................................................16 3.8 LIST OF ARTICLES OF BIO LAB TO BE CHANGED FROM NONCONSUMABLE TO CONSUMABLE.........................................................................................................................................18 4 BIOLOGY LABORATORY MANAGEMENT......................................................................................19 4.1 GENERAL LABORATORY MANAGEMENT RULES ....................................................................19 4.2 ARRANGEMENT OF EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS ...............................................................20 4.2.1 ARRANGING AND STORING EQUIPMENT................................................................................20 4.2.2 ARRANGING AND STORING CHEMICALS................................................................................22 5 SAFETY RULES IN BIOLOGY LABORATORY ................................................................................24 5.1 SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY .....................................................................................................24 6 LABORATORY SAFETY SYMBOLS AND THEIR DEFINITION ....................................................28 7 CHECKLIST OF NEWLY BUILDING LABORATORY......................................................................43 7.1 New Biology Laboratory Equipment Checklist....................................................................................43
  3. 3. 3 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 8 PREPARATION OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS..............................................................................................................................................49 8.1 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................49
  4. 4. 4 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 Chapter One 1 Importance Of Biology Laboratory A Biology Lab is a resource site for biology science teachers and students. A well equipped Biology lab with traditional as well as latest technological devices is an important part of every school. Biology Lab is a place where different types of experiments and activities concerning all the disciplines of life sciences take place. Therefore biology lab should have comprehensive range of latest lab equipments and other facilities where students can work comfortably with maximum interest pushing forward the boundaries of knowledge. Details of different types of basic physical facilities, equipments, usability/usage, lists of consumable and non consumable items with their fixed life, and safety rules essential for Biology Lab are given below. “Scientific principles and laws do not lie on the surface of nature. They are hidden and must be wrested from nature by an active and elaborate technique of inquiry.” John Dewey Even if we say we are teaching effectively, biology is not complete without the support of laboratory. The goals of the laboratory are:- 1. Provide the services of a general lab, with basic equipment and chemicals for standard analytical and biological tests. 2. Ensure access to basic and safe working spaces for all users of the laboratory facility. 3. Provide access to workplace/desk space to researchers that need them. 4. Provide the services of a library. 5. Facilitate the tools and services required by the researchers to do their studies.
  5. 5. 5 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 CHAPTER TWO 2 PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF LABORATORY Laboratory is not room is not simply as a class room. Because, it needs some structures and physical facilities to give function. Some requirements of laboratory. 1 Standard room size /Dimension/ Lab size has to be 12 meter x 6 meter with capacity to accommodate a group of 25 students in a practical class or as specified by kvs/cbse for classes. 2. Store Must have sufficient no. Of almirahs as per plan of the lab and no. Of students . 3. Teachers room for biology department teacher to study and keep records and books well equipped with al mirah and furniture 4. Light Laboratory must receive ample day light in order to make the observation etc. Of the materials easily visible especially needed for light view microscope. 5. Design of students table Must be along the 3 sides of lab (leaving space in the centre for lectures/use of lcd projector). Worktop: acid proof anticorrosive surface. To resist strong acid, alkali scratch fading ageing high temperature stain resistant free from solvent and non-toxic. Height to be comfortable to manage the microscope. Attached with small cupboard with easily cleanable sinks and water supply. Ample space must be free for students to move. Proper drainage with covered dustbins, proper electric points. 6. Lab stools/stackable chairs Lab stools atleast 25 Stackable seminar chairs should be of suitable height to provide ample leg space under the table and should have broad leg area for stability. 7. Floor Floor with non-skid tiling resist strong acid and alkali,but also resist scratch, fading, ageing, and strain resistant. It is free from solvent and non-toxic. 8. Teacher table and chair
  6. 6. 6 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 These must be slightly higherin height than routine school furniture for better monitoring and demonstrations. U shaped/straight . Worktop:marble plate and ceramic plate not only resist strong acid and alkali but also resist starch,fading, ageing, high temperature(below1200c) and stain resistant. Attached with drawers and on both sides to keep teaching materials such aschalks, markers, dusters, cds etc.cupboard on both sides with easily cleanable sinks and water supply. Proper drainage with covered dustbins below the table with proper electric points, fitted with water supply. 9. Power supply Regular power supply with sufficient no. Of power points around each table for viewing electricity operated microscopes. separate power supply for fans and tube lights/equipment. 10. Water supply Lab must have atleast four outlets and four wash basins. 11. Fire Extinguisher At least one meant for all types of fires. 12. Exhauts and ventilators  Exhaust-minimum 2 which can be increased as per volume of lab  Ventilators-3 of size 1.5ftx3ft.for maximum light. 13. White boards Magnetic white boards located at suitable height to be easily visible By the students. 14. Mini subject library Must be maintained so that students may refer to the books of their taste. Must include reference books, generals, magazines on biology notices of varios olympiads. 15. Display boards (covered) Minimum two in number. One fixed outside the lab to display articles related to biology and other fixed inside the lab to display information related to practicals the number can be increased depending on availability. 16. First aid kit A first aid kit with burnol mild antiseptic cream.
  7. 7. 7 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 2.1 LAY OUT FOR A BIOLOGY LAB
  8. 8. 8 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 CHAPTER THREE 3 BIOLOGY LABORATORY APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS 1 Apparatus Must have sufficient number of units as per the C.B.S.E syllabus of 10 + 3 practicals /activities/demo experiments, so that each student gets his/her independent set except in case of museum specimens and permanent slides . Single units may be procured for demonstration. 2 Personal computer Should be of latest configuration, preferably with internet connection and a printer. 3 LCD Projector Suitably positioned so that the projection is visible to all and easy to manage by the teacher. 4 InteractiveBoard/visualiser 1 5 Refrigerator 1 for temperature based experiments 6 Lab museum/display cabinets Laboratory must have lab museum with displayed stuffed animals and cabinets with specimens. 7 Human torso Human torso with detachable body organs in plastic show case. 8 Human skeleton 1 in show case. 9 Garden 1 small garden, well equipped with plants to study, to collect soil samples, should be near to the lab orat approachable distance. 10 Display boards To display safety in lab, plan and execution of practical work, 11 Aquarium 1 outside the lab in proper security to study aquatic life and food chain. 12 NCERT kits/ CDs/Books CBSE based 13 Microwave oven/Incubators For conducting experiments requiring heating/ Maintenance of temperature. 14 rinder/Hand Blender For experiments which need grinding.
  9. 9. 9 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 3.1 KEEPING YOUR LAB FUNCTIONAL 1 Maintenance of records Display of experiments to be done class wise. Maintenance of records of experiments conducted month wise, student attendance class wise time table of practical periods. 2 Maintenance of equipment. The equipment must be maintained functional and necessary repair work whenever needed must be carried out periodically. The microscopes and other equipment should be checked periodically. 3 Fire extinguisher Must be refilled every year and pressure gauge should be checked periodically. 4 Electrical maintenance Power points should be checked for any naked wires, non-functionality, switch failure etc. check the tube lights and exhaust fans regularly. 5 Shock verification Must be regularly done at the year end to have a check on articles. 6 Condemnation The equipment that becomes non-functional due to routine wear and tear with time should be condemned yearly. 7 Procurement The equipment condemned / needed as per changes in syllabus must be procured immediately. 3.2 LIST OF CONSUMABLE ARTICLES REQUIRED IN BIOLOGY LAB S.NO Materials Functions 1. Formalin 2. Formaldehyde 3. Acetocarmine stain 4. Safranine 5. Methylene Blue 6. Leishman’s stain 7. Haemotaxylin stain 8. Iodine stain 9. Hydrolchloric acid 10. Glacial acetic acid
  10. 10. 10 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 11. Nitric acid 12. Benedict’s reagent 13. Fehling solution 14. Biuret solution 15. Millon’s reagent 16. Sucrose 17. Boric acid 18. Potassium nitrate 19. Magnesium sulphate 20. Glycerine 21. Soluble starch 22. Sodium chloride 23. Distilled water 24. pH tablets /paper 25. Neutral Litmus solution 26. Universal Indicator 27. Vaseline 28. Diphenylamine solution 29. Ammonium chloride 30. Ammonium hydroxide 31. Methanol 32. Carbon tetrachloride 33. Acetone 34. Petroleum ether 35. Ethanol 36. Calcium carbonate 37. Agar 38. Yeast 39. Sodium bicarbonate 40. Eosine 41. Phenolphthalein 42. Benzene 43. Urea 44. Robert’s Solution 45. Sulphosalycylic acid 46.
  11. 11. 11 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 47. 48. 49. 50. 3.3 LIST OF NON CONSUMABLE ARTICLES WITH PROPOSED LIFE S.NO Materials Functions 1. Liver Wort 2. Moss 3. Pinus 4. Dryopteris 5. Lichen 6. Mushroom 7. Lilliaceae Plant 8. Bryophyllum 9. Water hyacinth 10. Hydrilla 11. Opuntia 12. Agave 13. Utricularia 14. Pisum Sativum 15. Lathyrus 16. Prassiflora 17. Ascaris 18. Earthworm 19. Prawn 20. Snail 21. Starfish 22. Rohu 23. Frog 24. Liverfluke 25. Bat 26. Scoliodon 27. Life history
  12. 12. 12 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 OfAnophelese/Culex/Silkmoth 28. Development stages of cockroach 29. Life history Of Butterfly/Honey Bee 30. Development Stages Of Frog 31. Modifications Of Root/Stem/Leaf 32. All Inflorescences 33. Tapeworm 34. Octopus 35. Millipede 36. Pearl oyster 37. Sea horse 38. Lizard 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
  13. 13. 13 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 3.4 PERMANENT SLIDES S.NO Materials Functions 1. 1 Bacteria 2. 2 Paramecium 3. 3 Euglena 4. 4 Chlamydomonas 5. 5 Volvox 6. 6 Entamoeba 7. 7 Budding Of Yeast 8. 8 Rhizopus 9. 9 Spirogyra 10. 10 Oscillatoria 11. 11 Epidermal peel with stomatas 12. 12 Parenchyma /Collenchymas/Scelerenchyma 13. 13 Xylem/phloem 14. 14 Vessels 15. 15 T.s.dicot root/stem/leaf 16. 16 T.s.monocot root/stem/leaf 17. 17 Pollen germination 18. 18 Pollen germination on stigma 19. 19 T.s. Testis of any mammal 20. 20 T.s.ovary f any mammal 21. 21 T.s.blastula of any mammal 22. 22 T.s.morula/gastrula of any mammal 23. 23 Stages of mitosis 24. 24 Stages of meiosis in onion bud 5 2 25. 25 Cardiac muscles/striated muscles/smooth muscles 26. 26 W.m. Of nerve cell 27. 27 T.s.bonet.s.cartilage 28. 28 Squamous epithelium 29. 29 Wm.hydra 30. 30 Malarial parasite in blood 31.
  14. 14. 14 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.
  15. 15. 15 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 3.5 CHARTS 1 Family-fabaceae/liliaceae/solanaceae 2 Pedigree charts-rolling of tongue /widow’s peek/colourblindness 3 Controlled pollination – emasculation,bagging technique 4 Malarial parasite-life cycle 5 Hiv –life cycle 6 Pollination by different agencies 7 Tyoes of gynoecium/placentation/aestivation 8 Fabricated models with dissectible parts 9 Human skeleton 10 Human torso 11 Heart 12 Kidney 13 Brain 14 Eye 15 Ear 16 Lung 17 Development of ovule of angiosperm 18 Ts.dicot /monocot root /stem LIST OF APPARATUS (NON CONSUMABLE) REQUIRED FOR BIO LAB 1 Binocular microscope with oil immersion 2 Two way eye pieces 3 Electronic ph meter 4 Microscope olympis 5 Dissection microscope 6 Haemocytometer 7 Autoclave 8 Electric water bath 9 Electronic balance 10 Vaccum dessicator 11 Refrigerator 12 Microwave oven
  16. 16. 16 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 13 Incubator 14 Testtube stand plastic 15 Brush camel 16 Bunsen burner 17 Ganong’s photometer 18 Slide box 19 Mortar and pestle 20 Blender/mixer 21 Funnel 22 Forceps 23 Needle 24 Measuring cylinder 25 Scissors 26 Scalpel entomological needle 3.6 LIST OF THE APPARATUS TO BE INCLUDED IN ACCOUNTS CODE Glass apparatus breakable 1 Test tubes borosil 2 Measuring cylinder 10ml./20ml Borosil 3 Beakers 50ml/100ml/250/ml/500ml 4 Conical flask250ml/100ml 5 Round bottom flask250ml. 6 Funnel 7 Cover slips blue star 8 Slides 9 Slide with blood counting 10 Cavity slides 11 Bent tubes 12 Petri dishes 13 Glass rod 3.7 APPARATUS LIFE FIXED BY YEARS 1 Digital balance
  17. 17. 17 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 2 Test tube brushes 3 Test tube holder 4 Test tube stand 5 Wire guage 6 Cork borer 7 Thermometers 8 Measuring cylinders-plastic*and glass 9 Dessicator 10 Tripod stand 11 Spirit lamp (glass), (brass) 12 Water bath (copper) 13 Microwave oven 14 Refrigerator 15 Herbarium press 16 Staining rack 17 Wash bottle 18 Foreceps
  18. 18. 18 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 3.8 LIST OF ARTICLES OF BIO LAB TO BE CHANGED FROM NONCONSUMABLE TO CONSUMABLE S.NO Materials Function 1. Petridish 2. Plain Slides 3. Watch Glass 4. Cover Slips 5. Beakers 6. Test Tubes 7. Droppers 8. Needles 9.
  19. 19. 19 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 CHAPTER FOUR 4 BIOLOGY LABORATORY MANAGEMENT The Science Laboratory is a place where classroom teaching is further strengthened. The new facts and ideas lectured in the class will be confirmed in the laboratory through the use of equipment, chemicals and specimens. It provides an opportunity to study organisms closely and to examine the various structures, processes, relationships, etc. which are characteristics of these organisms. It is here, therefore, that students develop skills, abilities and attitudes through the practical activities they carry out. Therefore, all laboratory facility should have to be managed to strengthen the classroom teaching. The science teacher should make certain that the theoretical lesson is supplemented with the necessary practical work. Otherwise, the work is considered to be done partially, because the knowledge students are expected to gain along with the development of the required skills and abilities cannot be materialized. So the teacher must not consider laboratory activities as something additional that could be omitted, but as an integral part of the subject matter. Some schools have separate laboratories for biology, chemistry and physics. Others have two labs for the three subjects. And there are still others that have only one laboratory. Variations also exist in water and electricity services, material distribution and storage facilities. This is partly because the schools have been constructed and equipped under different projects, public contribution and government budget. Being aware of these differences, which could only be solved step by step in the process of development, teachers have to put much effort and be creative enough to effectively use the resources at hand. 4.1 GENERAL LABORATORY MANAGEMENT RULES 1. Environmental protection is one objective of the labs. For this reason, a complete treatment of chemical wastes and biological wastes are required when possible. The Lab manager/assistant should know about chemical management, disposal and storage. Fungal and bacterial cultures should be autoclaved before they are disposed. 2. Turn off the lights and equipments when they are not in use including the extractor hoods. 3. When working in the lab, goggles and lab coats must be used. Gloves and masks appropriate for procedure must be used when necessary (i.e. Acid resistant gloves or asbestos gloves for hot objects).Vapor hoods, with the air extraction on, are to be used when working with hazardous volatile materials with the fume shield partially closed to
  20. 20. 20 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 protect against splashes. Safety goggles must always be used when working in the vapor hood. All safety materials (goggles and masks) should be provided for the Lab. 4. Classify your garbage (glass, paper, plastic bottles and aluminum cans) and put it in the proper containers located outside the lab. 5. All solutions and samples should be labeled with the identification of their nature. 6. Balances, pH-meters are calibrated every day by the lab assistants. 7. Refrigerator and freezer space is provided to store solutions or samples. All solutions and samples must be properly labeled. Solutions must be stored in their own containers, not in lab glassware. Stored material that is not properly labeled can be discarded without warning. 4.2 ARRANGEMENT OF EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS Laboratory equipment and chemicals are sent to schools in accordance with the curriculum demand. They are part of the essentials to fulfill the specific objectives of each portion in the course. Hence, they have to be used at the right time. The timely use of these materials however, can only be possible if there is a systematic approach to their arrangement and storage in the laboratory. Keeping materials according to their use and nature is time saving and is essential for safety and guarantees their prolonged use. 4.2.1 ARRANGING AND STORING EQUIPMENT  Materials having similar and related functions are kept together or in adjacent shelves. For example, Microscopes, Microscopic Slides, Cavity Slides, Cover Slides and Magnifying lenses should be placed together or should take adjacent shelves. Similarly, materials used for dissection such as scissors, needles, forceps, razors, etc. should have their own separate places.  It is always preferable to have closed storage space. When equipment and supplies are stored in closed cabinets, they are not exposed to dust, fumes or fluctuations in humidity and temperature.  Microscopes can be stored and easily counted in a cabinet made up of individual sections. This type of storage cabinet reduces the change for tumbling or knocking of the microscopes.  The wooden slide box, which is available in most of the schools, has to be effectively used for storing prepared slides. All the slides contained in the sections of the slide box should be indicated by writing on the corresponding serially arranged lines, printed on the inner surface of the slide box covering.
  21. 21. 21 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013  Once equipment is arranged, the specific place for each item should be indicated by labeling. If the materials are kept in cabinets and shelves with glass covers, the printed labels could be attached to the inner surface of the glass cover. However, if the containers have opaque covering, the printed labels should be placed on the outer surface of the covering and may be protected by a layer of transparent plastic sheeting.  After moving equipment from its place for actual use, return it immediately to its specific (labeled) place. Do not leave apparatus out after use!  Manage and use the Laboratory instruments and equipment according to their nature.  Analytical Equipment: The Laboratory has basic lab equipment such as scales, microscopes, magnetic stirrers, centrifuges, water baths, etc. The user must know the equipment function, operation, care and maintenance. If not, the user must request help from the Lab Assistant.  Any equipment or instrument used should be returned clean and in good shape.  Some instruments such as the gas chromatographs, the lyophylizer, and the spectrophotometer, are of limited use and are to be used only by persons who have previous experience with them.  Refrigerators and freezers:  The refrigerators and freezers are used to store samples and reagents. They are not allowed for food storage.  The user should ask the Lab Assistant for assigning space in them.  If the refrigerators and freezers are intended to be used only during the researcher’s stay at the Station, any stored material must be clearly labeled with the following information:-  Researcher’s name  Project name  Content (Name of the reagent, sample, etc.)  Preparation date  Expiration date (if applicable)  Date in which it will be taken out of the refrigerator or freezer
  22. 22. 22 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013  If anybody needs to keep things in refrigerators and freezers after leaving the station, the Lab Assistant must be informed.  Regularly, the lab personnel will review the contents of refrigerators and freezers. If there objects that do not contain the above information, if the owner is not at the station any more, or if the storing date has expired, they will be disposed.  When using an oven, temperature should be checked periodically as a safety measure for fire.After using it, the oven should be turned off and cleaned.  The laboratory maintains basic glassware available for researcher use. After using glassware, it must be cleaned and dried. Any broken material must be reported to the Lab Assistant and disposed off in the appropriate container. 4.2.2 ARRANGING AND STORING CHEMICALS  The arrangement and storage of chemicals should be done based on the nature of the substances.  Certain chemicals react when placed close to each other. Glycerin and nitric acid, potassium chloride and organic compounds, cyanides and acids, etc. are among such chemicals.  Combustible and dangerous materials such as poisons should be securely locked in metal cabinets.  Acids, strong bases and substances like chloroform, ether, iodine and hormones should be stored in facilities, which can be locked.  Large storage bottles of acids, alkalies and other dangerous chemicals, if on shelves, are to be no more than two feet above the floor. If possible, they should be kept on the floor.  If there are metallic sodium, potassium, and calcium and calcium carbide in the lab, they should not be kept near or above containers containing water or water solution. Metallic sodium and potassium, after the original container has been opened, must thereafter be kept under kerosene.  The containers of chemicals that absorb moisture and change their chemical nature should never be left open. For example, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium bicarbonate are hygroscopic. They absorb water from the atmosphere; as a result, their volume increases. The nature of the chemicals also changes. i. ARRANGEMENTS AND STORAGE OF OTHER TEACHING AIDS: Pictures and
  23. 23. 23 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 Charts  A drawer or filing cabinet filled with unclassified picture is practically worthless (valueless). To be effective, pictures must be put into some kind of order classification may be by topic, process, activity, or any other meaningful system.  Pictures may be mounted for longer use. When mounted they should be laminated between plastic sheets to ensure a longer life and to give a better appearance.  Many charts can be stored conveniently, and they are not exposed to wear and tear, when stored in hanging position. Each chart can be wired at one end and hooked on to the sliding arms of the cabinet. If each arm holds the charts dealing with a given topic in biology, teachers or students can find the charts quickly when they are needed. The teacher may hang the charts according to his filing system.  Models, skeletons, jar mounts and other specimens may be stored in cabinets that many drawers (if the school is equipped with such cabinets). They may also be kept in a storage cabinet that has a glass cover. The later also serves as a display case. If you are using open shelf storage space, you may cover it with transparent plastic sheeting to avoid the accumulation of dust.  If cabinets are not available, specimens and models can be stored and found most easily if they are kept in some uniform kind of container. Plastic boxes, polythene bags, match and shoe boxes, tin lids, plates, etc. may be used. There is no rule. You can choose what you get cheaply and easily in your area. However, classification should be done.  When arranging models, skeleton and other specimens in cabinets, similarity and relations regarding structure and function should be considered. Finally, the materials should be properly labeled for identification.  Sometimes, to avoid smearing, printed labels can be placed inside a jar-containing specimen preserved in alcohol. The procedure is as follows:-  Print labels with India ink and set aside to dry until the ink no longer glistens.  Dip them into a jar containing 5 to 10% glacial acetic acid (use forceps).  Then drain the labels on blotting paper and insert into the specimen jars containing 70% ethyl alcohol. NB. Strong paper should be used for labels because glacial acetic acid tends to soften the paper. b. USEFUL RULE
  24. 24. 24 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 A. Your responsibility includes keeping your workstation properly. You will use equipment and parts stored in trays or drawers in an orderly fashion. Keep it in that order, for your own convenience. B. Keep your work area uncluttered (organized). Store all instruments and components not actively in use in their proper place, away from your work area, or in the specials storage cabinets. C. You may need other equipment and components stored in a different area from your workstation, perhaps in drawers or bins, or on shelves in the stockroom. Return these to their proper place immediately when you have finished with them. D. Do not make unauthorized modifications to the equipment. CHAPTER FIVE 5 SAFETY RULES IN BIOLOGY LABORATORY 5.1 SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY In laboratory  No smoking  No eating
  25. 25. 25 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013  No drinking  Good washing facilities  Good disposal facilities  No taste any chemicals or substances you are working with  Don’t use your mouth for pipetting substances  Don’t handle broken glass with bare hands  Don’t pour chemicals down the drain without permission  Don’t operate lab equipment without permission  Don’t perform your own experiment unless given permission  Don’t leave any heated materials unattended  Don’t place flammable substances near heat  Not engage in childish antics such as horseplay or pranks  Microscopes should not be kept at the edges of the table  Do not play with sharp edges instruments like needles, blades, cutter, scissors a. RESPONSIBILITIES The laboratory supervisor/manager must ensure that:  The laboratory is a safe working environment.  Equipment is safe.  All technicians are aware of the dangers.  All technicians are properly trained to do their work.  Be responsible for chemicals. Technicians are responsible for:  Keeping laboratory suitable for activities  Assisting instructor  Assisting the learner (students)  Proper storage of glass wares  Storing chemicals in proper places (cupboards, stores).
  26. 26. 26 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013  Maintaining equipment.  Bringing any problems or potential problems to the attention of the supervisor. b. CLOTHING  Technicians must always wear the right kind of protective clothing. Laboratory coats should be worn (if the room temperature is high this may prove to be impractical).  Face masks must be worn when dealing with dusts.  Gloves must be worn when handling chemicals. c. CHEMICALS ALWAYS read the label on the container.  Orange background with black cross: harmful.  Orange background with black skull and crossbones: toxic.  Orange background with black fire: flammable.  Orange background with black Bar or hand being eaten away: corrosive. There may be written warnings, but they are often only in one language. Harmful solid! Target organ: Nerves! Possible teratogen*! ALWAYS keep a list of chemicals and the dangers associated with them. NEVER store chemicals in anything other than their original container, with the correct label. ALWAYS keep flammable and toxic chemicals in a securely locked cupboard. d. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS The entomopathogenic fungi used for locust control are very safe, BUT they may cause allergic reactions if they are inhaled. Some common contaminants e.g. Aspergillus spp. Are harmful. Technicians must learn to recognise and dispose of contaminants safely. ALWAYS keep benches, equipment and protective clothing clean. e. FIRST AID
  27. 27. 27 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 ALWAYS keep a first aid box in a secure place, in full view and check it regularly. Write all injuries in an accident book which should be kept next to the first aid box. It is ESSENTIAL that at least on a person in a laboratory is trained. 1) Have a Good Experience: Biology lab is an important aspect of any biology course. In order to have a good lab experience, make sure that you follow these biology lab safety rules and any instruction given to you by your lab instructor. 2) Be Neat: When working in a biology lab, make sure you keep your area neat and organized. If you happen to spill something, ask for assistance when cleaning it up. Also remember to clean your work area and wash your hands when you are finished. 3) Be Careful: An important biology lab safety rule is to be careful. You may be working with glass or sharp objects, so you don’t want to handle them carelessly. 4) Wear Proper Clothing: Accidents do happen in biology lab. Some chemicals have the potential to damage clothing. With that in mind, you want to make sure that the clothing you wear is something you could do without if it becomes damaged. As a precaution, wearing a apron or lab coat is a good idea. You will also want to wear proper shoes that can protect your feet in case something gets broken. Sandals or any type of open – toed shoes are not recommended. 5) Be Cautious with needles, blades, cutter, and scissors 6) Be Cautious with Chemicals:
  28. 28. 28 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 The best way to remain safe when dealing with chemicals is to assume that any chemical you handle is dangerous. Be sure you understand what type of chemicals you are using and how they should be properly handled. If any chemical comes in contact with your skin, wash immediately with water and inform your lab instructor. Wear protective eyewear when handling chemicals. 7) Locate Safety Equipments: Where to find all safety equipment in the biology lab. This includes such items like fire extinguisher, first aid kit, broken glass receptacles, and chemical waste containers. Also be sure you know where all the emergency exists are located and which exit route to take in case of an emergency. Chapter Six 6 LABORATORY SAFETY SYMBOLS AND THEIR DEFINITION Safety symbols are very important in operating any materials and chemicals in laboratory. The following content provides the symbols and their definition are mostly important in biology laboratory and also in others.
  29. 29. 29 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 1. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/K/7/electrical.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Electrical Hazard  This symbol indicates the area or materials which can cause electric shock. 2. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/J/7/combustible.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Combustible Materials
  30. 30. 30 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013  This symbol indicates material or chemical (may be solid, liquid or gas) which can be combustible in fire. 3. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/I/7/noflame.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET No Open Flames  This is the symbol which express a material which cannot create flame.
  31. 31. 31 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 4. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/H/7/corrosive.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Corrosive Materials  Indicates materials which are contaminated with corrosive chemicals and which can be affect human if contacted with skin. 5. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/G/7/flam.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET or
  32. 32. 32 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/2/7/flammable.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Flammable Symbol  Chemicals (solid, liquid or gas) and materials which can be flammable if burnt.
  33. 33. 33 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 6. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/F/7/extinguisher.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Fire Extinguisher  This is the symbol of fire extinguisher which has to be posted on fire extinguisher. 7. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/D/7/toxic.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Toxic Chemical
  34. 34. 34 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013  Indicates chemicals which can be toxic to human body. 8. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/9/7/nonpotable.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Non-potable water  Indicates water pipe which cannot give function. 9. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/8/7/envhazard.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Environment Hazard  Chemicals which can affect environment if exposed or etc…
  35. 35. 35 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 10. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/7/7/eyewash.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Eyewash Sign  Indicates the position of eye wash where to wash eye while the contamination of eye with chemicals occurred.
  36. 36. 36 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 11. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/4/7/poison.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Toxic Materials Sign  Indicates the materials which can be toxic because of chemicals or etc…
  37. 37. 37 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 12. INCLUDEPICTURE "http://z.about.com/d/chemistry/1/0/1/7/radiation.jpg" * MERGEFORMATINET Radioactive Sign
  38. 38. 38 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 13. Biohazard Sign  Biohazards are microorganisms which can potentially harm or even kill living organisms. 14. Chemistry Hazard Label
  39. 39. 39 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 15. Sharp object 16. Harmful to respiratory
  40. 40. 40 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 17. Hot Surface 18. Very cold temperature!
  41. 41. 41 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 19. Eye and face precaution  This tells us to use eye and face protecting safety. Egg. Goggle
  42. 42. 42 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 20.  Glassware safety 21.  Dangerous plant
  43. 43. 43 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 CHAPTER SEVEN 7 CHECKLIST OF NEWLY BUILDING LABORATORY To checkup the standard of a given biology laboratory we can use the following checklist of apparatus. 7.1 New Biology Laboratory Equipment Checklist A. For Cell Biology No. Items Advantages 1. Biological safety cabinets 2. Benchtop centrifuge 3. Shakers/rockers 4. Roller bottle apparatus 5. Laminar flow hoods 6. Microcentrifuges 7. Incubator shakers 8. Laboratory glassware 9. Liquid handling 10. (Pipettes) 11. Water purification systems 12. CO2 and reach in 13. Incubators 14. Automatic cell counters 15.
  44. 44. 44 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 B. Molecular Biology lab No. Items Advantage 1. Gel documentation system/imaging system/ 2. Fluorometers 3. Luminescene microplate readers 4. UV/visible spectrometers/ 5. Abs microplate readers 6. Microplate washers 7. Electrophoresis equipment 8. PCR machines 9. Liquid chromatography systems 10.
  45. 45. 45 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 C. Refrigerators and Freezers No. Items Advantage 1. Ultra-low freezers(-85C and -40C) 2. +4C Glass/solid door refrigerator/ 3. Liquid nitrogen tanks 4. Under-counter +4C and -20C 5. Freezer rack inventory systems -20C general purpose freezers 6. Pharmacy refrigerators 7. Explosion proof +4C and -20C 8. 9. 10.
  46. 46. 46 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 D. General Lab Apparatus No. Items Advantage 1. Ovens 2. Safety storage cabinets 3. Remote alarm systems 4. Autoclaves 5. Water baths 6. Hot plate stirrers 7. Scale/balances 8. Homogenizers 9. Sonicators
  47. 47. 47 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 E. Animal Handling/New Constraction/ No. Items Advantage 1. Biological safety cabinets 2. Cage and rack washers necropsy equipment 3. Bio-decon equipment 4. Environmental rooms 5. Animal surgical equipment 6. Ventilated caging 7. Autoclaves 8. Class III glove boxes 9. Gloves, gowns (PPE) 10. Auto CO2 delivery cage systems 11. Flooring, ceiling wall systems 12. Aquatic systems 13. Glassware washers 14. Cage changing stations 15. Tissue digestors 16. Bio-decontamination equipment 17. 18. Sani mister misting tunnel
  48. 48. 48 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 F. Lab Furniture and Casework No. Items Advantage 1. Flexible laboratory casework 2. Solid and wire shelving Custom laboratory benches Laboratory chairs 3. 4.
  49. 49. 49 Prepared By: Chala Dandessa Debela, JTC November 2013 CHAPTER EIGHT 8 PREPARATION OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS FROM LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS 8.1 Introduction 1. Microscope 2. Beaker 3. Lung models 4. Fish models 5.

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