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Microlearning –  Concepts, Examples,  Critical Issues and Questions   Theo Hug, Innsbruck (Austria)
Overview <ul><li>Points of Departure   </li></ul><ul><li>Understandings of Microlearning </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Examples...
Some Points of Departure <ul><li>Variety of Society-Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Educational lags </li></ul><ul><li>Tech...
Microlearning <ul><li>deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>rela...
Understandings of   Microlearning
Mobile Examples (1) – „Frequency 1550“ <ul><li>Waag Society, a knowledge institute in Amsterdam – it “wishes to make a con...
Mobile Examples (2) – „Flocabulary“ <ul><li>Bringing hip-hop music into high school classrooms to teach SAT  vocabulary an...
Mobile Examples (3): Mobile Training Solutions <ul><li>Data being processed by a special learning-algorithm supporting the...
Further Examples: remix, modding, mashups <ul><li>Examples of Game Modding in Education: „Revolution“ (Klopfer et al: Educ...
Outline of a Microlearning Agenda I <ul><li>Historical aspects: “Learning by small units in small steps has a tradition, w...
Outline of a Microlearning Agenda II <ul><li>Diversity of microlearning didactics according  to various traditions </li></...
Outline of a Microlearning Agenda III: Linking Microcontent <ul><li>In the  multicomponent model  micro aspects or content...
Outline of a Microlearning Agenda IV <ul><li>Institutional and corporate applications, centralized systems, constrained an...
Critical Issues and Questions <ul><li>Underestimation of dimensions, power relations, efforts of &quot;education towards t...
Conclusions  <ul><li>Motto „Making use of the use of media for educational purposes“ </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for episodic ...
Education based on Principles of Bricolage (cf. Hug 1996, 2008) Education as the competence of plurality  Education as ref...
Thank you! P.S.: Want to learn more? Hug, Theo (Ed.):  Didactics of Microlearning. Münster et al: Waxmann, 2007
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Microlearning - Concepts, Examples, Critical Issues and Questions

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Paper presented by Theo Hug at the WLE/LMLG workshop at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009 on "Technology-enhanced learning in the context of technological, societal and cultural transformation," November 30 to December 1 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen

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Microlearning - Concepts, Examples, Critical Issues and Questions

  1. 1. Microlearning – Concepts, Examples, Critical Issues and Questions Theo Hug, Innsbruck (Austria)
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Points of Departure </li></ul><ul><li>Understandings of Microlearning </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Towards a Microlearning Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some Points of Departure <ul><li>Variety of Society-Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Educational lags </li></ul><ul><li>Techno-promises & Techno Trance? </li></ul><ul><li>From e-promises zu m-promises? </li></ul><ul><li>And now microlearning promises? </li></ul>http://www.elektronik-technik.com/html/internettechnik__internettechn.html Wenn Sie einen zuverlässigen Partner suchen, Hund und Ehepartner aus dem Haus sind, dann legen Sie sich doch ein Internet zu.
  4. 4. Microlearning <ul><li>deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>relational concept depending on frames and domains of reference </li></ul><ul><li>metaphorical characteristics - it works with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a variety of learning concepts and models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning environments, arrangements, settings, design patterns, didactical orientations, models and concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e-learning 1.x, e-learning 2.7, m-learning 0.9, m-learning 1.4, etc. also: distributed education, networked learning, distance learning </li></ul><ul><li>Microlearning as a new paradigmatic perspective on learning processes in mediated environments on micro levels ? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Understandings of Microlearning
  6. 6. Mobile Examples (1) – „Frequency 1550“ <ul><li>Waag Society, a knowledge institute in Amsterdam – it “wishes to make a contribution to the design of the information society. In this it doesn't let itself be lead by technology but instead looks at the possibilities of people, their creativity and culture. The interplay of technology and culture is the driving force of all Waag Society's activities” (www.waag.org) </li></ul><ul><li>„ Frequency 1550“, a pilot (2005) together with the Amsterdam Montessori School </li></ul><ul><li>mobile game experience which “fits with the traditional curriculum” (ibd.). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning results (J. Raessens, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>URL: URLs: http://freq1550.waag.org http://www.frequentie1550.nl/ http://www.waag.org/project/frequentie </li></ul>Frequency 1550, February 10 2005
  7. 7. Mobile Examples (2) – „Flocabulary“ <ul><li>Bringing hip-hop music into high school classrooms to teach SAT vocabulary and history (B. Harrison, A. Rappaport, et al.) </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm and mnemonic rhymes </li></ul><ul><li>URL: www.flocabulary.com </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mobile Examples (3): Mobile Training Solutions <ul><li>Data being processed by a special learning-algorithm supporting the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>mTrainer - new develompents by www.yocomo.at </li></ul><ul><li>future perspectives </li></ul>
  9. 9. Further Examples: remix, modding, mashups <ul><li>Examples of Game Modding in Education: „Revolution“ (Klopfer et al: Education Arcade), „Replaying History“ (K. Squire) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Sims Teach German” ( Purushotma 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>„ If we examine previous attempts at 'edutainment', one clear theme emerges: there must be a strong match between the educational content to be delivered and the content or mechanics of the entertainment media being harnessed -- similar to the way the Chitrageet researchers were able to transform literacy into an integral tool that facilitated understanding of lyrics and actually improve the entertainment process.“ ( Purushotma 2007, http://www.lingualgamers.com/thesis/) </li></ul>Chitrageet with subtitles http://www.langwidge.com/simsfiles.html
  10. 10. Outline of a Microlearning Agenda I <ul><li>Historical aspects: “Learning by small units in small steps has a tradition, which reaches beyond the documented development of civilization.” (Hierdeis 2007, p. 48) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematical aspects: Towards a relational concept of microlearning, mesolearning and macrolearning </li></ul>Example 1 Linguistics Example 2 Course structure Example 3 Sociology micro level single letters learning objects individualized learning meso level words, letter-figure combinations, sentences topics, lessons group learning or organizational learning macro level texts, conversation, linguistic communication courses, curricular structures learning of generations, learning of societies
  11. 11. Outline of a Microlearning Agenda II <ul><li>Diversity of microlearning didactics according to various traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didactical models (German-speaking traditions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structured and discovery approaches in instructional design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topography of microlearning; Further ways of conceptualizing, analyzing and designing didactics referring to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregation models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conglomeration models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single-/multiple-loop designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing concepts </li></ul></ul>A Typical Instructional Design Model Group didactics (theme-centered interaction)
  12. 12. Outline of a Microlearning Agenda III: Linking Microcontent <ul><li>In the multicomponent model micro aspects or contents are combined more or less systematically in sequences, linear, recursive and/or branching, relating to each other as separate components. </li></ul><ul><li>In the aggregation model microlearning elements that are fundamentally similar are bundled or combined as a relatively unstructured entity or homogenous mass (“aggregate”). </li></ul><ul><li>In the conglomerate model diverse micro elements are arrayed as a kind of assortment or “bouquet” of learning products and processes. </li></ul><ul><li>In the emergence model ne w phenomena, coherent structures and qualities evolve from and between microlearning elements themselves. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Outline of a Microlearning Agenda IV <ul><li>Institutional and corporate applications, centralized systems, constrained and standardized forms of communication and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Personal learning environments, individualized sets of connections and socio-technical developments, learners control the tools and services and integrate them into their personal workflows </li></ul>“ Individual Setting ” (cf. Fiedler & Kieslinger, 2006, p. 81) “ Institutional Setting ” (cf. Fiedler & Kieslinger, 2006, p. 80)
  14. 14. Critical Issues and Questions <ul><li>Underestimation of dimensions, power relations, efforts of &quot;education towards truth&quot; (cf. Hug 2008), and organized practices through which subjects are governed (cf. Weber & Maurer 2006)? </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at the relation and relevance of institutional and personal aspects of learning environments, how can meaningful learning be promoted? </li></ul><ul><li>Isn't it all about bits and pieces loosely joined (D. Weinberger)? Isn't microlearning the problem considered itself to be the solution? </li></ul><ul><li>Isn't microlearning mainly about computer literacy or digital fluency? Which literacy modes have to be considered if we want to avoid technology fallacies? </li></ul><ul><li>Along with that: If we think of microlearning other than in the sense of formal or informal modes of &quot;flickering minds&quot; (Oppenheimer 2003), how can we conceptualize educational claims and their relation to microlearning, literacy modes, as well to learning in formal, non-formal and informal contexts? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Motto „Making use of the use of media for educational purposes“ </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for episodic structures of learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Sound out limits of utilization of game based approaches and playful elements in the context of intentional didactical purposes and political goals in terms of democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Need of fruitful perspectives of bridging popular culture and school environment, lifeworld and technology, learning in informal and formal contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a “tertium datur” in view of the opposition of reliable long-term knowledge and harmonious ideals of education vs. technologically driven “digital fluency” or the production of ”Flickering Minds” ( Oppenheimer 2003)? </li></ul><ul><li>Education as Bricolage </li></ul>
  16. 16. Education based on Principles of Bricolage (cf. Hug 1996, 2008) Education as the competence of plurality Education as reflective ability to learn Education as “ antagonistic Education ” Explanation transversal competence, qualification to sensibly deal with and intervene in plural situations qualification to reflect processes of learning from several perspectives overcoming discursive constraints, abdication of harmonising ideals Thematic relevance dealing with lifeworlds as mediated worlds, metaphorical competence (re-)organisation of learning processes, media, affect and attention management reference modalities, modularisation and modalization of the experience of reality therefore Education as media education – education with media instead of against them Education in learning cultures of deliberation Education as the ability and qualification to manage differences
  17. 17. Thank you! P.S.: Want to learn more? Hug, Theo (Ed.): Didactics of Microlearning. Münster et al: Waxmann, 2007

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