Final report dadp study mjumita consultancy- stephen nyagonde 2013
CLIMATE CHANGE AGRICULTURE AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION –CCAP
SMALL SCALE FARMERS PARTICIPATION IN DISTRICT AGRICULTURE
DEVELOPMENT PLANS-DADPS IN KILOSA DISTRICT
Stephen Joseph Nyagonde- Centre of Climate Change Studies-UDSM
Majority of the rural communities in Tanzania are small scale farmers who are entire depending on agriculture for
their livelihood. Therefore attainment of the first MDG and NSGRP is, therefore, heavily dependent on the
performance of the agricultural sector. In recognition of that the Government has adopted an Agricultural Sector
Development Strategy (ASDS) which sets the framework for achieving the sector’s objectives and targets, which
contribute to both the NSGRP objectives and to the Tanzania Development Vision (TDV) 2025. The objective of
the ASDS is to achieve a sustained agricultural growth rate of 5 percent per annum primarily through the
transformation from subsistence to commercial agriculture. To implement the ASDS the five agriculture sector
lead ministries developed the Agriculture Sector Development Programme (ASDP) setting out the framework and
processes for implementation by the national ministries and Local Government Authorities (LGAs). Development
activities at national level are to be based on the strategic plans of the line ministries while activities at district
level are to be implemented by Local Government Authorities (LGAs), based on District Agricultural Development
Plans (DADP) as part of the broader District Development Plans (DDPs).
This consultancy was therefore developed to assess the participation of the small-scale farmers in planning and
implementation of DADPs, so that the CCAP project can get an understanding of how DADPs is carried out and
how communities participate in such process. Inter alia, the study provides relevant policy recommendations on
how effectively small scale farmers can participate in DADPS process. The study was made in four villages
(Mvumi, Ilonga-Msalabani, Ibingu and Lunenzi villages) in Kilosa district to collect information on how the small
scale farmers have been involved in the planning and implementation process of DADPs in the district. Interview
and discussions were held with key informants beneficiary groups (groups of farmers and village officials) and
district officials based on respective guiding questions stipulated in the ToR. This was complemented by
secondary data gathered from different sources including the reviewed relevant literatures related with DADPs in
Kilosa district, guidelines and procedures for planning and implementation of DADPs and other essential
literature relating to the climate-smart small scale agriculture. The resources in terms of time and finance
available for conducting the research were limited. As such travel was limited to only four villages of Kilosa
district. The study would have benefited from exploring challenges or gaps of small scale farmers in a wide range
of geographic area.
In 2010-2012, the district has been using the participatory approaches by involving community right from the
planning stage using the (O&OD) approach through implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the planned
activities of DADPs. The study found that for the fiscal year 2010/2011-2011/2012 small scale farmers were not
clearly involved in the DADPs processes as stipulated to the guideline. This lead to the failure of several DADPs
projects activities in the district. In the fiscal year 2012/013 the district is implementing DADPs activities under
the new revised guideline version of December 2011 which emphasized the need to adopt a phase-in and
phase-out approach (Value chain approach) where the district is supposed to hold the Districts Stakeholders
Meeting for identifying priority villages based on the community needs and priorities and then promote production
of the selected crop in those selected villages for the 3 years. Under this new approach still the study found that
involvement of small scale farmers and other stakeholders in planning and implementation is not so much
promising as stipulated within the revised guideline. Also study found that only few communities are benefiting
directly out of those irrigation schemes while others are benefiting through renting their farms to the medium
scale farmers and larger investors from Morogoro and Dar es Salaam. Despite of the underway efforts initiated
by the district council to engage the small scale farmers on the process of planning and implementation of
DADPs, the study found several challenges and gaps which need to be addressed for the effectively involvement
of small scale farmers in planning and implementation of DADPs.
The study has explored a number of issues regarding impediments of involving the small scale farmers in
planning and implementation of DADPs, and has culminated in this comprehensive report. Policies and
strategies have been put in place to harness the potentiality of small scale farmers and transforming the rural
sector, but not much has been achieved in this regards. The main problem has been cited as a mismatch
between policy documents and initiatives put in place to operationalise the policies and transform the small scale
farmers from subsistence to the commercial farming. Based on these, the following recommendations are given.
a) MJUMITA and TFCG in collaboration with other stakeholders in CCAP should come up with a
comprehensive strategy for enhancement the involvement of small scale farmers in the planning
and implementation process of DADPs in the district.
b) To ensure that challenges facing marginal farmers are understood, articulated, and measures to
address them properly presented and prioritised, these farmers and other vulnerable groups should
be directly consulted. They should be assisted by experienced facilitators to explain the nature of
their challenges and articulate what is required and what activities should be prioritised to address
c) In connection to the above, value chain developed should be carried out in which smallholder
farmers are organized (for example through block farming) to effectively engage in the selected
d) For effective transformation of small scale farmers from subsistence to commercial farming the role
of the government is paramount in terms of financing the sector. At the moment the billions of
money spent on agriculture through DADPs are spread thinly with no impact. The district should be
sensitised to use DADPs fund to support selected useful value chains which will really help the
small scale farmers.
e) Policy dialogue between the government and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) engaged in
addressing interest of small scale farmers should be established specifically for the purpose of
addressing the challenges or gaps facing the small scale farmer’s participation in planning and
implementation process of DADPs. This arrangement would be educative and informative on both
sides (government and other stakeholders). It would inform the government side of the impact of
not involving the small scale farmers and would inform the stakeholders on the concerns of
There is a need for the district to revitalize her agricultural crops by encouraging the small scale
farmers to improve production of high value crops as the strategy to withstand and become more
resilient with the ongoing impacts of climate change in the district as they grow in short period of
g) Agricultural information analysis and dissemination is inadequate, especially for small scale farmers
in rural communities who are conceptually disconnected from the source of those important
informations. There should be a strategy to correct this anomaly. There is a need to establish an
effective Agricultural information system (MIS) which could ensure that information is disseminated
to target small scale farmers on timely basis.
h) Since women and youth constitute large group of small scale farmers and are the key players in
production (growing, selling, extension services, utilization) at the same time serious highly affected
with climate related impacts, thus there is greater need to provide a range of training technical
assistance services to women and youth groups. For the villages under CCAP project could be
achieved through Local Area Environmental Networks of MJUMITA.
Small scale farmers should be mobilized, sensitized and empowered to form their own Small Micro
Enterprises and Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) which will help them in
provision of capital/funds in form credits for further development/expansion of their production.
Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................................................................... 2
LIST OF TABLES..................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
1.0 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................. 7
BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................................. 7
OBJECTIVES AND OUTPUTS OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................. 8
STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT............................................................................................................... 8
LIMITATIONS .................................................................................................................................... 8
2.0 METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 9
3.0 FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................................... 10
LOCAL CONTEXT OF KILOSA DISTRICT ........................................................................................ 10
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS: .................................................................................................. 10
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE DISTRICT: ........................................................................ 11
COMMUNITY COPING MECHANISMS: ........................................................................................... 11
STAKEHOLDER’S EFFORTS IN ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES IN THE DISTRICT: .................. 12
POLICY DOCUMENTS AND SMALL-SCALE FARMERS: .................................................................... 12
4.0 DADP OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS IN THE DISTRICT:.................................................................... 14
OVERVIEW: ................................................................................................................................ 14
INVOLVEMENT OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN THE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS OF
ACCRUED POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO THE SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN DADPS. ................................. 18
THE NEEDS AND PRIORITIES OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN KILOSA DISTRICT: ............................. 18
GAPS OR CHALLENGES FACING THE SMALL-SCALE FARMER’S PARTICIPATION IN THE PROCESS OF
PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF DADPS IN KILOSA DISTRICT : ............................................. 19
EXISTING INTERVENTIONS TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES OR GAPS IDENTIFIED IN THE DISTRICT : ... 21
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................. 22
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 25
This consultancy work was conducted by Stephen Joseph Nyagonde. In accomplishing it, several
people were helpful to me. The number is too large to mention all individually but I thank everybody
who has helped me in one way or another. In particular, am indebted to the Community Forest
Conservation Network (MJUMITA), the Farmer’s Network of Tanzania (MVIWATA), the Tanzania
Forest Conservation Group (TFCG), ActionAid Tanzania and the Tanzania Organic Agriculture
Movement-TOAM which are jointly running the project of Climate change, agriculture and poverty
alleviation-CCAP within six villages in Kilosa and Chamwino Districts.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mrs Rahima Njaidi and Elida Fundi of MJUMITA, Ms Nike
Doggart and Mr Elinasi Monga of TFCG, who tirelessly guided, advised, assisted, and provided me with
all support required throughout this consultancy, making its completion possible. I wish also to
recognize the cooperation and support received from TFCG and MJUMITA field staffs of Kilosa, in
particular Mr. Shadrack Yoash Nyungwa, Joshua Ivan and Jerome Ernest for their hard work in
organizing the village meetings and other logistics. Also am grateful to the members of the District
Facilitation Team-DFT for their valuable inputs to this study particularly the DALDO, DPLO, DNRO and
DCDO of Kilosa district.
And last, but not least, I’m highly indebted to the various small scale farmers who spared their time
responding to the questions asked on this study.
Agricultural Sector Development Programme
Agricultural Sector Development Strategy
Agricultural Sector Lead Ministries
Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Alleviation
Civil Society Organizations
District Agricultural Development Plans
District Agricultural Livestock Officer
District Community Development Officer
DADPs Facilitating Team
District Natural Resource Officer
District Planning Officer
Local Government Authorities
Tanzania -Community Forest Conservation Network
Mtandao wa Vikundi vya Wakulima Tanzania (Network of Farmers Groups in Tanzania)
National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
Quality Declared Seeds
Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
Savings and Credit Cooperative societies
Sokoine University of Agriculture
District Development Plan
Tanzania Forest Conversation Group
Tanzania Meteorological Agency
Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement
Terms of References
UN Conference on Environment and Development
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Village Agricultural Development Plans
Village Land Use Plans
Water for the Third World
Ward Facilitation Teams
Women in Poverty Alleviation Tanzania
Water Users Associations
Tanzania, like most developing countries, has defined a national strategy for reducing poverty and food
insecurity, the first of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The National Strategy for
Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) is the Tanzanian blueprint charting the path towards the
first MDG target of halving the level of poverty and food insecurity by the year 2015. Tanzania relies on
agriculture for about 50% of its gross domestic product (GDP) and for 75% of foreign exchange
earnings. Most of the 82% of Tanzanians who live in rural areas earn a living from agriculture. The
attainment of the first MDG and NSGRP is, therefore, heavily dependent on the performance of the
In recognition of that the Government has adopted an Agricultural Sector Development Strategy
(ASDS) which sets the framework for achieving the sector’s objectives and targets, which contribute to
both the NSGRP objectives and to the Tanzania Development Vision (TDV) 2025. The objective of the
ASDS is to achieve a sustained agricultural growth rate of 5 percent per annum primarily through the
transformation from subsistence to commercial agriculture. To implement the ASDS the five agriculture
sector lead ministries developed the Agriculture Sector Development Programme (ASDP) setting out
the framework and processes for implementation by the national ministries and Local Government
Authorities (LGAs). Development activities at national level are to be based on the strategic plans of
the line ministries while activities at district level are to be implemented by Local Government
Authorities (LGAs), based on District Agricultural Development Plans (DADP) as part of the broader
District Development Plans (DDPs).
Policy and legal changes in Tanzania over the past ten years have provided an enabling framework for
the small scale farmers to have better access to and use of agricultural knowledge, technologies, and
market infrastructure; all of which contribute to higher productivity, profitability, and farm incomes.
Projects in Tanzania are now exploring how to use these legal changes both to create and enabling
conducive environment for improving profitability of the agricultural sector as a basis for improved farm
incomes and rural poverty reduction in the medium and long term.
It is on this background that the Community Forest Conservation Network (MJUMITA), the Farmer’s
Network of Tanzania (MVIWATA), the Tanzania Forest Conservation Group, ActionAid Tanzania and
the Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement-TOAM with the support from Act-Tanzania have been
leading a partnership project that aims to reduce poverty amongst the small scale farmers as well as
reducing green house gas emissions from agriculture through the widespread adoption of climate
resilient, low emission agricultural practices. The project is implemented in six villages in two districts (3
villages in Kilosa and 3 villages in Chamwino district). Considerable underway efforts have been made
towards achieving those goals.
As such, MJUMITA commissioned a field study to assess the participation of the small-scale farmers in
DADPs so that the project can get an understanding of how this DADPs is carried out and how
communities participate in such process. The main theme of the study as proposed in the Terms of
Reference (ToR) (Appendix 1) was “Small Scale Farmers participation in the DADPs Development
Process”. The findings of this study will enable the project to develop an advocacy strategy of how
small scale farmers can effectively participate in the process of planning and implementing DADPS
within their areas.
1.2 Objectives and Outputs of the Study
The main objective of the assignment as could be deduced from the ToR is to assess the participation
of the small-scale farmers in DADPs so that the project can get an understanding of how this DADPs is
carried out and how communities participate in such process. Specific output of this assignment has
been stipulated as a comprehensive study report indicating, but not limited to the following:
(a) Review DADPs for Kilosa district and field visit to the two villages within and other two villages
outside of the CCAP project site to analyse how small scale farmers are participating in
planning, budgeting and implementing DADPS.
(b) Provide relevant policy recommendations on how effectively small scale farmers can participate
in DADPS process.
(c) To identify whether the current procedures for DADP development and implementation have
resulted in more climate-smart small-scale agriculture.
1.3 Structure of the Report
This report is organised into five main sections. The first section, which is proceeding, presents
background and objectives of the assignment. The second section covers approach and
methodological issues employed by the consultant in addressing the study objectives. Section three
presents findings of the study. Section four presents conclusion and recommendations for advocacy
whereas the last section entails appendices. The subsections in the report are arranged in a manner
that reflects the chronological arrangement as required in the ToR.
The resources in terms of time and finance available for conducting the research were limited. As such
travel was also limited to only to four villages of Kilosa district of which two villages are implementing
irrigations schemes projects (DADP’s) while the rest are not implementing but are within the CCAP
project. Because of the resource constraints the methodology was to be confined to discussion with
few selected key informants at district and village level as well. Also there was an opportunity to
capture perception of a broad spectrum of small scale farmers. Despite these limitations, the
assignment generally was accomplished successfully. The report has been compressive enough to
provide an over view of how the small scale farmers are involved in the DADPs planning and
In accordance with the ToRs, this study assignment has been carried out in the four villages; Ibingu,
Lunenzi, Ilonga-Msalabani and Mvumi of Kilosa district in Morogoro region. The first two villages i.e.
Ibingu and Lunenzi are implementing CCAP project, while the rest are not in CCAP project but are
implementing DADP’s as a part of broader District Development Plans-DDP. The selection of these
villages were based For this study a review of relevant literature was conducted, including background
documents concerning the history of DADPs, their formulation guidelines and procedures for planning
and implementation. The consultant also reviewed essential literature relating to the basic concepts of
the small scale farmers and highlighting the challenges and gaps facing them in engaging in the
process of planning and implementing DADPs. It also reviewed documents on the concept of climate
change and its various dimensions, but mostly with regard to its relationship with food security,
production and productivity and the manner in which it affects the small scale farmers. The interviews
and discussion were held with key informants beneficiary groups and district officials based on
respective guiding questions generated by the consultant. With respect to beneficiaries, interviews were
organised with groups of farmers and village officials. Interviews were held in all village visited.
Wherever possible, separate interviews were held with women to ensure that the specific concerns of
women are properly reflected in the findings. Also consultations were held with the District Facilitation
Team-DFT concerned with DADP planning and implementation in the district. Due to limited time the
study managed to consult only four members of the team including; District Agricultural and Livestock
Development Officer-DALDO, District Planning Officer-DPLO, District Community Development OfficerDCDO, and District land and Natural Resources Officer-DLNRO. These consultations sought to obtain
information relating to:
(a) The history of DADPs and their relationship with the Agricultural Sector Development Strategy
and the Agricultural Sector Development Programme in Kilosa district.
(b) Planning, processing and execution of DADPs with a view to understanding the extent of
participation or involvement of small scale farmers comparing stated guidelines and actual
practice as well as the challenges or gaps encountered in the process.
(c) The implementation record of the DADPs with a view to assessing the extent to which the
needs and priorities for the small scale farmers are addressed through the effectively
implementation supervision, monitoring, evaluation and review techniques.
A visit in Kilosa was undertaken on 7th and 13th June 2013. A list of people and institutions contacted
in the field is appended on this report as Appendix 2. The data collection exercise was followed by
synthesis of data collected to create information out of it, organizing and producing this report.
Local Context of Kilosa District
It should be pointed out from the beginning that Kilosa district is one of the six districts of Morogoro
region. The district is presently divided up into nine divisions, 37 wards and 164 villages with a total
population of 438,175 (NBS, 2012). Agriculture and Livestock are the most important economic activity
in the district that contributes an average of 88% of the household income. The potential agricultural
land is 536,590 Ha however, only 97,500 Hectares are currently under crop production. Also the district
has several big permanent rivers that together account for 32,000 ha of irrigable land of which only
11,000 ha are being exploited. Subsistence crop production takes more than 47% of the land that is
under cultivation. This prevailing condition of subsistence agriculture is likely associated with lack of
capital for purchasing the farm implements; hence, majority of the farming community depends
exclusively on the use of hand hoe resulting into small areas kept under cultivation. The average
cultivated land per capital is 0.31 ha. Important principal crops grown in the district include: maize, rice,
sorghum, beans, onions, sweet potatoes, bananas, simsim, sunflower, cotton, industrial sugar cane,
table sugar canes and sisal. Other economic activities include; Business (Small Medium EnterprisesSME); Wage employment; Beekeeping, Carpentry, Kiosk, Café, Alcohol Selling, Firewood and
charcoal selling; and Selling Fruits.
As per the ASDP guideline directed, the district has been implementing the DADP as an integral part of
the District Development Plan (DDP). DADP’s activities have been implemented in line with the recently
announced ‘Kilimo Kwanza idea’ having a viewpoint of prioritizing the agricultural sector as a key
strategy to the development of the entire Nation. Kilimo Kwanza is a new initiative formulated to give
impetus to ASDP implementation. However the study found that in Kilosa district, it is apparently clear
that Kilimo Kwanza has been initiated by and for large scale farmers, a serious gap in the ASDP. This
also could be testified by the presence of different areas of potential arable land held by title-holders
who are particularly engaged in large scale modernized and commercial agriculture which is amongst
the pillars of Kilimo kwanza. In such case, the Government could consider playing a role in acquiring
such lands and reallocating them to the small scale farmers who would ensure their efficient use for the
benefit of the economy. In 2010-2012, the district has been using the participatory approaches by
involving community right from the planning stage using the (O&OD) approach through implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of the planned activities of DADPs. In 2012 the district has developed the
three years DADP District Agriculture through the participatory planning processes in Stakeholders
Meeting. The District Stakeholders Meeting undertaken the appraisal for identification of one crop to be
considered in Value chain as far as DADP guideline is concern. However, the Meeting came up with
Paddy as crop of choice for Kilosa District to consider in One Crop Value Chain for three (3) financial
years 2012/2013 – 2014/2015. The District Stakeholders Meeting selected 3 villages i.e. Ilonga,
Rudewa - Mbuyuni and Mvumi so as to thrust efforts and resources from Community, Council, Private
sector such as IWASH involved in economic groups assistance in Ilonga and Mvumi villages and SDAS
project for skill Development for the Agriculture and other development partners such as JICA. This will
feature prominent output/outcome in terms of input supply, production, processing and marketing by the
year 2014/2015. The study noticed that within all interventions of DADPs process, the concepts of
involving the small scale farmers in initiating the DADPs activities in the district has been overlooked
and are not clearly practised as stipulated in the guideline for its planning and implementation. Thus the
proactive strategies are needed to ensure effectively participation of small scale farmers in the
Impacts of Climate Change in the District:
According to Tanzania NAPA (2006), agriculture has been identified as the second most vulnerable
sector to the impacts of climate change. The IPCC (2007) states that the poor and the vulnerable are
likely to bear the greatest impacts of climate change as they have the least capacity to reduce their
exposure to climate change and to adapt to its consequences. Most of the small scale farmers in the
district are entirely depending on the rain fed agriculture. Thus the adverse effects of climate change
are already felt by small scale farmers in the district because of their low adaptive capacity associated
with limited financial resources, poor infrastructure, low level of education, dependence on natural
resources and lesser access to technology. The village chairman of Mvumi village urges that, there is a
serious conflict between livestock keepers and arable farmers in his village as the result of shortage of
water due to decreased water flow. This has been seriously observed during the dry season when the
Masai livestock keepers drove their livestock onto irrigation schemes for pasture and water services.
This has lead to disruption of the infrastructure of the irrigation schemes (irrigation canals) and
destruction of the crops. Apart from periodical drought, the district officials reports, in 2009/2010 the
district experiencing serious flooding incidents as the results of over flow of Mkondoa River which
account for 32,000 ha of irrigable land within the district. TMA reported that such floods were caused
by excessive downpours in Dodoma in December which recorded 107mm over 24 hours in December
before Kilosa floods (TMA, December 2009). Apart from other damages reported, destruction of crops
in the farms and lost of other stored food were highly reported after such incidence happening. Also a
total of 207 km of the road network in both Kilosa Township and feeder roads were rendered
impassable while sections of the Central Railway Line from Kilosa to Dar es Salaam and from Kilosa to
Dodoma were destroyed that led to the suspension of train services.
Community Coping Mechanisms:
Most of the respondents from Ibingu and Lunenzi villages claiming that shortage of rainfall in their
villages is escalating with an upsurge rate hence affecting their agricultural season. This has forced
them during the dry season to shift to the swampy areas for agricultural activities. Most of those
swampy areas are acting as the water source for communities in the villages. Others have been
reported to move to Lumuma Irrigation Schemes to work as cheap labours for them to sustain their
daily household livelihood. Other community climate change mechanisms include: growing of early
maturing crops varieties; Terrace; Perennial crops; Crop rotation; Cover crops; Minimum tillage; Weed
control; Use of mulching; Agroforestry; Use of fertilisers; and nomadic practices for pastoralists
(Baseline study for the climate change, agriculture and poverty alleviation (CCAP) initiative - 2013). In
both Ilonga-Msalabani and Mvumi villages water rationing has been reported as the results of water
shortage in the areas.
3.5 Stakeholder’s efforts in addressing climate change issues in the district:
In line with the global and national efforts, different stakeholders have been engaging in addressing
climate change in Kilosa District include: Research Institute Ilonga; Training Institute-Ilonga; Heifer
Project Tanzania; World Vision (T); KADNET (Kilosa Agro-dealers Network); W3W ( Water for the Third
World); Illovo sugar Company; HUDESA (Human Development Strategy Association); JICA; Green
Light SACCOS; Parakuyo CBO; Mees Agri & Civil contructors LTD; Malaika Civil Contarctor; Pascosi
company LTD; WOPATA (Women in Poverty Alleviation Tanzania); Tushikame SACCOS; National
Microfinance Bank; MJUMITA, TFCG, and Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA); Kilosa
Cooperative Union (KIKU); Caritas ; Agriculture Seed Agency (ASA) (Msimba).
Policy Documents and Small-scale Farmers:
Review of government documents reveals that Tanzania is rich in coded policy, strategy, programs and
project documents. Fortunately policy statements and objectives in these documents favour the interest
of small scale farmers. The problem has always been how to translate them into actions and lead to
realisation of intended impact to the beneficiaries (small scale farmers). This sections review selected
government documents with the aim of demonstrating how they favour small scale farmers. Although
the involvement of the small scale farmers is not mentioned explicitly, it is implied in these documents.
The review starts with the most important document that forms the basis of all the laws in the country,
that is, the Constitution. The constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania implicitly proclaims the
interest of small scale farmers. Through Article 9, Sub article (i) and (j), the constitution asserts that the
use of national wealth should place emphasis on the development of the people and in particular be
geared towards the eradication of poverty, ignorance and disease; and that economic activities are not
conducted in a manner that may result in the concentration of wealth or the major means of production
in the hands of a few individuals. By this, it means all policies, strategies, and other development
initiatives should reflect this requirement of the constitution. Probably it is on this background that in an
endeavour to transform the livelihood of the rural people and agriculture in general, Tanzania has come
up with a chain of strategy papers and policy initiatives whose main objective is to improve the
livelihood of the small scale farmers dwelling in rural areas. These initiatives are embedded in the
Tanzania Development Vision 2025 and National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
(NSGRP), or MKUKUTA as commonly known in Tanzania. In October 2001, the Government issued its
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), which was prepared in the context of the enhanced Debt
Initiative for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPIC). The PRSP subsumed the two strategies; the
Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) and the Rural Development Strategy (RDS). Other
policies that have been formulated in the last 15 years that have a bearing on small scale farmers
include Agriculture and Livestock Policy (ALP) of 1997; Cooperative Development Policy (2002); Rural
Development Policy (RDP); National Food Security Policy (2004); National Trade Policy (2003); Small
and Medium Enterprises Development Policy (SMEDP) of 2003; National Livestock Policy (2006), and
the Agricultural Marketing Policy (AMP) of 2008. Under this framework the country has witnessed
mushrooming of programs and projects such as Agriculture Sector Development Programme (ASDP) implemented through Participatory Agricultural Development and Empowerment Project (PADEP) and
District Agricultural Sector Investment Project (DASIP) under MAFSC and Agricultural Sector
Development Programme for Livestock (ASDP-L) under the Ministry of Livestock Development and
Fisheries (MLDF). The policies are normally followed by a series of regulations, by-laws and rules that
guide their implementation. Table 1 summarises statements from selected government documents that,
in a way, aim at improving production and marketing of agricultural commodities for small scale
farmers. As could be noted, small-scale farmers are at the centre of almost all agricultural policies and
strategies, ranging from the Vision 2025 to MKUKUTA and individual policies and projects. Statements
such a ensuring food self-sufficiency and food security; transformation from subsistence to commercial
agriculture; improved structure, conduct and the performance of agricultural marketing systems;
producer empowerment and market linkages and improved rural marketing infrastructure development;
reducing income poverty; improve standards of living in the rural areas; supplying raw materials,
improving production, marketing and processing technologies; etc are spotted in the government policy
and strategy documents. Some documents have been implemented and some are in various stages of
implementation with billions of donor money. In terms of chasing milestones most projects are
successfully implemented, but in terms of transforming the beneficiaries there are no observable signs
that this has been achieved.
Table 1: Policy objectives relevant to small scale farmers’ interest
Mini-Tiger plan 2020
National Strategy for Economic Growth and
Reduction of Poverty (MKUKUTA)
Property and Business Formalization
Agricultural Sector Development Program
Agricultural Marketing Systems
Development Programme (AMSDP)
Issues relevant to small-scale farmers/poor
Ensure food self-sufficiency and food security
One village one product program (OVOP)
Scholarship tree planting – I million ha commercial forest project
Cash crop Special Economic Zone program
Improved food availability and accessibility at household level in urban and rural areas.
Rural Financial Services Programme in
Agriculture and Livestock policy
Agricultural Marketing Policy
Cooperative Development Policy
National Livestock Policy
Reduced individual household poverty
Improved living standard of the target groups
Transformation from subsistence to commercial agriculture
Reduced proportion of rural food poor (men and women) from 27% in 2000/01 to 14% by 2010.
Productivity in crop and livestock enterprises increases by at least 20%
Increase incomes and food security of the rural poor in Northern and Southern Highlands agroecological and marketing zones of Tanzania.
Improved structure, conduct and the performance of agricultural marketing systems in the country
Producer empowerment and market linkages and improved rural marketing infrastructure
To further empower poor rural households to benefit from rural financial services.
To improve standards of living in the rural areas through increased income generation from
agricultural and livestock production, processing and marketing.
To produce and supply raw materials, including industrial crops, livestock, by-products and
residues for local industries, while also expanding the role of the sector as a market for industrial
outputs through the application of improved production, marketing and processing technologies
Farmers and agricultural marketing actors to be supported to negotiate and compete effectively in
regional and international markets;
Encourage producers to directly enter the markets instead of using middlemen.
Promote adherence to quality, standards and grade in agricultural products to start with the
Enhance access to agricultural marketing finance
Transform farmers from subsistence to commercial farming
Enhance farmer’s income through processing of produces to obtain added value
Contribute towards national food security through increased production, processing and marketing
of livestock products
Increase the quantity and quality of livestock and livestock products as raw materials for local
industry and export.
Facilitating contractual linkage with commercial enterprises for the purpose of processing and
marketing of milk.
Source: Composed from various government documents.
DADP OVERALL PLANNING PROCESS IN THE DISTRICT:
For the fiscal year 2010/2011- 2011/20122 DADPs Kilosa district follows the LGA’s participatory
planning methodology as provided in the regional Administration Act No. 19 of 1997 and the
Miscellaneous Amendment Act No. 6 of 1999. The legislation provides for devolving planning powers
and empowering community members to participate in the DADP’s process (as shown in the figure
Figure 1 presents a diagrammatic structure of the planning process used by the district.
This planning system was in line with the GoT planning cycle which begins in September each year as
illustrated in PMO-RALG guidelines. All these intended to facilitate communities and districts to plan
for agricultural development as well as imparting community members with skills on how to identify
agricultural problems, their causes, effects and possible solutions. The process used to follow the
articulated participatory methodologies through Opportunities and Obstacles to Development-O & O D
approach. The study carried out by Policy Forum (2008) indicates that O&OD was an approach for
identifying and analysing local opportunities and obstacles to development.
Through a series of participatory exercises and focus groups, the village sectoral plans were
developed, which were presented to the village assembly for approval. O&OD had several criticisms,
including the following: vulnerable groups are often marginalised in the process, village plans are often
ambitious compared to available resources, the process is expensive and there are not always
resources available for it and village-level O&OD often has only marginal influence on LGA plans. The
sectoral plans at community level were designed at village level, and were known as village agricultural
development plans (VADPs). The planning process were presumed to involve the village assembly and
Civil Society representatives working in the area and ensure CSO plans are part of the broader workplan for the village. However there is limited evidence that such plans from groups and communities
were enjoying the technical skills from CSOs and ward level extension officials. The ward and district
level DADP facilitation teams were supervising the completion of the VADP up to district level. In the
district level implementation of DADPs is supervised by District Agricultural and Livestock Officer
(DALDO). District Facilitation Team (DFT) members working in collaboration with DALDOs compiles the
plans before tabling them to the full council for approval. For the fiscal year 2010/2011-2011/2012
study found that DADPs processes were not followed as stipulated to the guideline. This lead to the
failure of several DADPs projects activities in the district.
In the fiscal year 2012/2013 Kilosa district is implementing DADPs activities under the new revised
guideline version of December 2011. The new guidelines emphasized the need to adopt a phase-in and
phase-out approach (Value chain approach) where the district is supposed to hold the Districts
Stakeholders Meeting for identifying priority villages based on the community needs and priorities and
then implementing those selected projects for the 3 years. The district has developed the three years
DADP District Agriculture through the participatory planning processes in Stakeholders Meeting. The
District Stakeholders Meeting undertaken the appraisal for identification of one crop to be considered in
Value chain as far as DADP guideline is concern. The meeting came up with Paddy as crop of choice
for Kilosa District to consider in One Crop Value Chain for three (3) financial years 2012/2013 –
Involvement of Small scale Farmers in the planning and
implementation process of DADPs:
Both Mvumi and Ilonga-Msalabani villages are implementing VADP activities which are focusing on
improving the irrigation schemes in their areas (Mvumi and Ilonga irrigation schemes) to enhance the
production of paddy hence attainment of the food security in the district. Construction of the schemes is
not yet finished but already the main and secondary canal are working. For the sake of cost sharing and
involvement the communities, small scale farmers are responsible to construct the tributary canals from
the main canal to their farms. Surprisingly in depth interview with the small scale farmers of both Mvumi
and Ilonga-Msalabani villages reveals that most of them are not aware of how the whole process of
formulating those plans were initiated. With exception of the Village Government Council-VGC and
Project Facilitation Committee-PFC members, other communities members especially women are
claiming not to be involved in the whole process of facilitating the VADP. However the district officials
urges that in both villages the focus groups were held to conduct a participatory situational analysis in
order to identify opportunities and obstacles to development-O&OD, including those for the agricultural
sector. The whole process has been coordinated and facilitated by the DFT in collaboration with the
WFT. Though the study proves that there were no enough training provided to the communities
regarding to such participatory situational analysis approach. That’s why the responses from the normal
communities were completely different compared with those of the government council’s members.
The study witnessed most of the community members are seems not to be responsible to those VADPs
initiated in their areas. The female respondents from Ilonga-Msalabani village commented that…
“These activities are not ours they just brought here with the district council and they are only working
with the government council and the committee for the irrigation schemes”. It was also noted that some
interventions lacked community ownership due to inadequate community empowerment (especially
monitoring and decision making) and hence jeopardized sustainability of investments. To make the
investment worthwhile, irrigation infrastructure must be regularly maintained and used with maximum
efficiency. In the irrigation sites visited, it was reported that irrigation efficiency is deteriorating as a
result of water being lost through seepage along the walls and floors of the canals. There is an acute
need for cleaning up and plastering the canal walls and floors, followed by regular and meticulous
maintenance to ensure smooth water flow. Unexpectedly some of the community members of the
Mvumi village are claiming that it is not their task to renovate those canals.
The situation is different to the villages which currently are not implementing DADPs i.e. Lunenzi and
Ibingu villages. Most of the community members are not aware of any DADPs activities initiated in their
areas. Few community members of the Ibingu village recognise the presence of irrigation schemes of
Chogwe which were constructed in 2010/2011 under DADPs. They are complaining not to be involved
to any process of designing and construction of the Chogwe irrigation scheme. The communities
pondered the decision made by the council to build the main intake of the canal in the wrong position.
This has lead to the failure of the scheme to operate properly and currently they are continuing to use
their traditional schemes. Ward agricultural officer who is working in seven villages including Lunenzi
and Ibingu villages commented that most of the DADPs projects initiated in his wards are not fully
involving the communities since it early stages of planning up to implementation levels. This has been
one of the key reasons for the failure of different projects established by the district council. In Lunenzi
village, community members are not aware at all with the DADPs, but they acknowledge the underway
efforts initiated by MKUHUMI project in their areas. They further stressed for the district council to
support them on their current efforts of constructing the road from Ibingu to their village. Also as
enshrined in the guideline the Village Agricultural Extension Officers as well as PFC and the WFT are
responsible for the agricultural component of the VDP.
In both villages visited they don’t have the Agricultural Extension Officers despite they are only
depending to the one from the ward. For the case of Ilonga-Msalabani and Mvumi village they are only
getting assistance from the trainee students of MATI-Ilonga during their field practical training. The
study also finds the limited participation of private sector in planning process, implementation of
investments, and marketing support at local level. The involvement of private sector is mostly limited to
smallholder farmers and contractors for infrastructure construction. There is very limited awareness at
regional and LGA level on the modalities for integration of private sector in ASDP. Thus limited capacity
of the private sector in the districts has also been cited as one of the challenges for engaging the
private sector effectively in the implementation of the programme. The district also receives the
technical and financial supports from the development partners including JICA and Swis-Aid for the
construction of those irrigation schemes.
In order for the clearly understanding of how the small scale farmers are involved in the process of
planning and implementation of DADPs, the study sought it is important to assess how the PFC has
been formulated and how are they supervising VADP. Every village implementing DADPs must have
project facilitation committee-PFC for community and group projects. For community projects, the
village assembly suppose to appoint people with necessary qualifications not more than 10 and not less
than 8 who supervise the community projects. Although the guidelines talks about qualifications, it is not
clear whether it is about education, expertise and experience. Surprisingly the interview with the women
of both Mvumi and Ilonga-Msalabani village reveals that most of the members of PFT are not selected
on the basis of qualifications and most of them are not capable and are either influential persons or
either the relatives or friends of the village leaders. Committee members are supposed to select
leaders which include chairperson, vice chair, secretary and treasurer. Two committee members will be
selected together with two project leaders as signatories of financial matters including drawing cash
from banks. It is advised that wherever necessary women should not be less than 50% in the
committee and at least one woman must be among the signatories. For both Mvumi and Ilonga
Msalabani villages this has been done as stipulated in the guideline with the help from the WFT and
DFT. Though their attendance to the meetings is not so much promising, this implies that there is no
enough sensitization to the community members on the importance of DADPs activities within their
villages. Thus is an important avenue for the CSO’s to advocate and lobby for involvement of capable
individuals with high integrity in the planning process of DADPs.
For group projects, the village assembly propose the names of agricultural groups to receive project
funds. Group members are selecting their leaders and implementation committees based on gender
equality similar to the community project. Most of the groups projects were implemented in fiscal year
2010/2011-2011/2012 and were focusing in livestock keeping with the emphasize of the dairy goat
keeping. However the study found most of the communities were not full involved in initiating those
projects of which lead to failure of those projects especially around Ilonga-Msalabani village. The
community and group project committees are supposed to be accountable to village council leaders
through regular submission of project development reports, together with financial (income and
expenditure). DALRDO who is the in charge of the DADPs in the district report that, there is a problem
in financial and technical reporting for the VADP initiated by different groups from the village levels. This
implies close follow up (monitoring) of those projects is not so much promising.
Moreover other members of the DFT urging that, they were not involved in the process of planning for
the DADPs. This was testified with the DNRO who complain not to be involved in the whole planning
process of DADPs. The DCDO were only involved in the process of the participatory rural appraisal for
the awareness raising. Usually CSOs/private companies had an opportunity to influence the two
processes in O &O D-approach. The study indicates that the CSOs have a great opportunity to
participate in planning process of DADP’s. The CSOs have been invited during the compilation stage
(consultative meeting at district level). It is also important to note that, the criteria for selection on which
CSOs/PSO to represent the stakeholders (NSAs) remains DED/DALDO’s jurisdiction power. At the
district level when budget execution guidelines are released, District Executive Director (DED) is
supposed to convene council meetings, issue guidelines and clarify approvals. Heads of department
and ward councillors will be expected to disseminate information to respective villages/group project
members. However the dissemination of those information’s to the communities is rarely as stipulated
in the guideline. There is a need to be proactive and ensure when treasury issues budget execution
guidelines, communities are aware and they can immediately start demanding for services.
Accrued potential benefits to the small scale farmers in
As the results of the DADP interventions the district has witnessed several benefits accrued by the
small scale famers including the increase of agricultural production. In addition producer prices have
increased significantly for most crops and livestock. Despite this progress, most of the households in
the district regularly have inadequate food supplies. In both Mvumi and Ilonga-Msalabani villages, most
of the households who are reliance on agriculture as a source of income are experiencing food insecure
during the dry season. This mainly has been attributed by the existing tendency of small scale farmers
of renting their farms to the business men (Medium Scale Farmers and Larger investors) from the big
cities like Morogoro and Dar es Salaam. Additional problems arise from the fact that in many areas
within the irrigation schemes the soil is not fertile. Competition for fertile and irrigated land is intense,
especially amongst extremely poor households. These households are often forced to take up plots at
the far end of the irrigation canal where water is less dependable.
The Needs and Priorities of Small-scale Farmers in Kilosa
The District Agricultural Development Plans (DADPs) for Kilosa District Council focus on improving the
livelihood of the small scale farmers i.e. increased agricultural mechanization and irrigation,
improvement of crop production, improvement of market infrastructure and cooperatives, and
improvement of the infrastructure. Under the new DADP guidelines it is emphasized that there is a need
to adopt a phase-in and phase-out approach by identifying priority villages based on district priorities.
Thus, in the 3 villages selected in the agricultural stakeholders meeting the district aiming on
improvement of mechanization and irrigation infrastructures, enhancing the community based seed
production, supporting the agro input use and value adding technologies along paddy value chain and
improving the farmers field schools. In order to achieve the planned objectives the district has
highlighted the different key issues as the main constrains facing the small scale farmers in those
villages including the following: lack of appropriate technologies in irrigated agriculture, poor knowledge
among farmers paddy production, lack of value adding technologies to harvested crops, inadequacy of
improved infrastructures along paddy value chain and inadequacy of extension services and facilities.
During the interview with farmers of Ibingu and Lunenzi villages; improved farming techniques, quality
and desired seeds, fertilizer, modern agricultural equipments, storage facilities, proper infrastructure and
reliable market for the crops, were highlighted as their main needs and priorities.
The district has tried to address those needs and priorities of the small scale farmers in one way or
another. For the year 2010-2013, DADPs the fiscal budget allocation for the DADPs has been increasing
in order to address the aforementioned needs and priorities for the small scale farmers. DADPs aim on
construction of the irrigation infrastructures, improving the appropriate, affordable and applicable
technologies in irrigated agriculture schemes, promotion of high value paddy varieties, supporting the
community based seed production (QDS), purchasing of farm implements and agro machinery. Also
through DADPs the district has been facilitating the field trainings on establishment of small scale agroprocessing plants through the farmer field schools (FFS) and supporting the partnership with the private
sector in service provision. Despite of those initiatives still there are challenges or gaps which needed to
be addressed for the effectively involvement of the small scale famers in DADPs.
Gaps or challenges facing the small-scale farmer’s
implementation of DADPs in Kilosa District:
In this section the consultant answers the question on the challenges or gaps emanate during the
involvement of small scale farmers on the planning and implementation of the DADPs in the district.
Despite of the underway efforts initiated by the district council to engage the small scale farmers on the
process of planning and implementation of DADPs, the study found several challenges and gaps which
need to be addressed for the effectively involvement of small scale farmers in planning and
implementation of DADPs. Generally the study found that most of the small scale farmers were not
involved in the planning process; rather they were involved in the implementation of the centrally made
plans which did not include their priorities and needs hence lead to the minimum efficiency in
implementation of the DADPs in the district. Those gaps and challenges include:
(i) Priorities used to select or reject village and ward proposals at district level are not known by
the small scale farmers. Individuals’ interests interfere in the selection or rejection of proposals
during the stakeholders meeting, and it is not clear who makes the final decision. The village
chairmen’s of both Ibingu and Lunenzi claiming that politics has been influencing the selection
of the paddy as the main crop under value chain approach.
(ii) The study noted that inadequacy of the extension services is a major constraint hampering
small scale farmers’ efforts to increase productivity. The quality of extension service delivery to
farmers depends on the frequency of contact between the extension agents and farmers. This
has been one of the barriers lead to poor involvement and participation of small scale farmers
in the DADPs planning and implementation processes. Absence of those expertises has been
one of the reasons for the small scale farmers to be in position of not accessing important
agricultural informations in their area. This automatically will not enable them to participate fully
in the processes. In the village like Mvumi where they have an agricultural extension officer,
communities pointed out that the officer is not committed to his work even if they happen to visit
their villages. In one in-depth interview with a male respondent from Lunenzi village he
commented emotionally that…“ Because of MKUHUMI is now we are seeing the ward
agricultural extension officer is visiting our village”. We really acknowledge and appreciate the
presence of MKUHUMI staffs who have been taught us different issues related to agriculture.
Ward agricultural extension officer of Lumuma who is also providing services to Lunenzi and
Ibingu villages proclaiming that…” My ward is very big comprised of seven villages which are
so scattered and I don’t have any kind of support in terms of transports and others to enable
me to work effectively with community to initiate DADPs activities as enshrined in the
guideline’. This implies that most of the VADP prepared at the village levels are not of the
concerns for the communities rather that the ideas of expertise. This could be verified by the
failure of some of the DADPs activities e.g. Chogwe irrigation schemes in Ibingu village.
(iii) Lack of timely agricultural information is a big problem and a constraint to small scale farmers
in Kilosa Disrict. However, there are some opportunities in the area which if tapped may
perhaps address the issue. Such opportunities include the presence of the Kilosa Rural
Services and Electronic Centre (KIRSEC) which provides agricultural news to different
communities in Kilosa district. Lack of funds and non reliable electric power, however, makes it
difficult to support all customers. Another opportunity is a telecenter with the prime goal to
demonstrate the use of ICTs in disseminating and communicating agricultural information and
knowledge to farmers and other stakeholders. But, high costs limit its utility and sustainability.
In addition, farmer radio is present, but what content to present on air, the lack of subsidy from
the government and poor coverage are reasons for its failure.
(iv) DADPs are done in a rush, and there is a lot of copy-paste from previous years (no any new
serious interventions aimed on capacitating the small scale farmers have been observed).
(v) The planning process of DADPs seems to be too long and too complicated for the small scale
farmers to participate effectively. Participants at all levels of the planning process are unaware
of when they will get an answer to their specific proposals. This makes it very difficult for them
to follow-up on them.
(vi) The utilization of the human resources available and their competence seems to be
insignificant. In that regard, it is recommended that council should ensure that they effectively
involve the community in setting their priorities and develop their own plans – involve them in
the planning process through utilization of the available human resources at the grass root
levels around the villages.
(vii) DADPs are written in English due to guidelines being in English, and because an English
format suits donors’ needs. But most farmers don’t understand English. It is difficult to follow
English guidelines and write in Kiswahili.
The study found that the small scale farmers in Kilosa district operate as individuals.
They do not have any bargaining power, and their linkages with markets are tenuous. They
also have very little information on markets, including produce price, and cannot access credit
to enable them to store their produce and sell out of season at higher prices.
(ix) The delaying of the funds for the project activities have been observed as a serious problem for
the effective participation of the small scale farmers in the DADPs. This has been reported in
both Mvumi and Ilonga villages were contractors had to stop continuing with the projects
because of funds and ultimately handover of the projects will be extended. Also DALRDO
report that the DADPs fund for the 2011/012 fiscal year have been received nearly the end of
the fiscal year. Delays in DADP funding have several origins. Sometimes one or other donor or
the government delays in releasing their portion of the funding into the basket. When the
delaying contributor is the government, the situation becomes more complicated as donors
may hold back release of their contributions.
(x) The study noticed marginalisation of the women small scale farmers regarding to the equitable
allocation of plots, where women farmers tend to get smaller plots than men. Also the
frequency of irrigation and assigning irrigation times for women varies accordingly compared to
men. This has lead to poor involvement and participation of women in DADPs both from IlongaMsalabani and Mvumi villages.
(xi) The competition for land between arable farmers and herdsmen is particularly serious as
livestock not only graze on crops, but also destroy irrigation infrastructure. This has been
seriously observed in Mvumi and Ilonga-Msalabani villages.
(xii) The inadequacy and high cost of agricultural credit has been repeatedly reported as one of the
major hindrances to improving productivity. Presently in Tanzania most formal sources of credit
shun lending to small scale agriculture. In any case the interest rates charged (often over 20%
annually) are so high that it would be difficult for the small scale farmers to afford. Presently the
only lending institutions that remains credible for small-scale agriculture is the SACCOS.
Surprisingly DADPs in Kilosa doesn’t advocate SACCOS of which could enable small scale
farmers and other low income groups to mobilise savings from their limited resources and lend
themselves for productive investments.
The excessive cost, of tractor hire services is a major constraint to the small scale
farmers’ ability to expand production, as it condemns them to reliance on limited family labour.
It is not likely that the cost of tractor hire will fall soon. In any case, at the scale of operation of
the marginal farmer, it is more practical to consider more appropriate technologies such as
using ox ploughs or, at best, power tillers. Though the district in the fiscal year 2011/2012
manage to buy one tractor for the Mvumi village of which is not enough for all small scale
farmers in the villages. For both Mvumi and Ilonga villages communities are hiring the tractors
for the price of 45,000- 50,000 Tshs per acre. The government needs to put more emphasis on
promoting this more appropriate technology in order to satisfy the power needs of the small
The subsidised fertilisers are not available and if available haven’t been reached to the
villages at the right time and in the required quantity. For instance in the fiscal year 2011/2012
Ibingu village were supposed to receive 200 bags of subsidized fertilisers (50 kgs each) instead
they receive only 30 bags. As the results small scale farmers are not able to realise increased
productivity and the increase in income that would have resulted from increased productivity. In
Lunenzi village it was found that subsidised fertiliser has never been delivered there because of
bad roads and the concern that such fertiliser, if delivered there, would have to be sold at a
price considerably higher than the announced price for the subsidised inputs.
Existing interventions to address the challenges or gaps
identified in the district:
There are already underway efforts undertaken by the district council to address the challenges or gaps
facing the small scale farmers to participate effectively in the planning and implementation process of
the DADPs in Kilosa district. This section outlines ways in which small scale farmers, together with the
district council, are responding to those challenges or gaps. Where appropriate, recommendations are
made with respect to how the response to the challenges could be strengthened.
(i) The district has been embarked on improvement of irrigation schemes which will concurrently
accommodate issues of conservation of catchments and water sources; hence, to every
scheme undertaking improvement interventions, the community have the environmental
management committee to oversee the conservation aspects of the catchments and water
sources. This in one way or another could contribute to the facilitation of climate-smart smallscale agriculture.
(ii) The research and training institutes of Ilonga has been conducting trainings to the extension
officers, in field training of farmers and residential training to farmers. Though this has been
done by the students during their field practical training but in one way or another helps to
capacitate the small scale farmers.
(iii) The district has prepared land use plan for several villages as the means of reducing
competition for land uses between arable farmers and herdsmen. Though the pace is not so
promising and implementation of it still full of uncertainties. Land use plan been done to all
villages surveyed in the study.
(iv) With regard to intrusion by herds of livestock for grazing, the Kilosa DADP for 2010/011
incorporates an activity to demarcate agro-pastoral land in two villages not visited by the
research team. This is a good initiative, but land specifically earmarked for livestock grazing
already exists, and herdsmen continue to drive their herds into crop farming areas.
(v) The district council in collaboration with JICA have been supporting the capacity building to the
small scale farmers and extension staffs on irrigation activities and data collection around
Mvumi villages. This has been so useful on monitoring progress.
(vi) There is consensus between the Kilosa District Council and villagers to develop the VADP in
Swahili Language though there is difficultness for the small scale farmers to understand the
guideline which is in English language.
(vii) National Microfinance Bank-NMB has been coordinating the loan schemes for the agricultural
sector in the district. Though this has not much been utilized effectively by small scale farmers.
The district council in collaboration with the communities have formulated the irrigators
cooperative societies; currently there are only two (4) namely ‘Chama cha Msingi cha
Umwagiliaji Mwega (CHAUMWE)’, ‘Chama cha Msingi cha Umwagiliaji Lumuma (CHAULU)’,
Chama cha Msingi cha Umwagiliaji Mvumi (CHAUMVU) and Chama cha Msingi cha
Umwagiliaji Ilonga-Msalabani (CHAUILO). The cooperative societies have a core function of
owning the schemes water rights and overseeing the irrigation infrastructures hence carrying
out the operation and maintenance of irrigation schemes.
(ix) Also other cooperative activity supported by the district is the Savings and Credit Cooperative
societies-SACCOS. Currently there are 23 SACCOS administering savings and credit
schemes. Most of these SACCOS are not aiming on up scaling the small scale farmers.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The consultant was requested to make recommendations based on the analysis of the previous issues
raised in the ToR. The study has explored a number of issues regarding impediments of involving the
small scale farmers in planning and implementation of DADPs, and has culminated in this
comprehensive report. Policies and strategies have been put in place to harness the potentiality of
small scale farmers and transforming the rural sector, but not much has been achieved in this regards.
The main problem has been cited as a mismatch between policy documents and initiatives put in place
to operationalise the policies and transform the small scale farmers from subsistence to the commercial
farming. Based on these, the following recommendations are given:
(i) MJUMITA and TFCG in collaboration with other stakeholders in CCAP should come up with a
comprehensive strategy for enhancement the involvement of small scale farmers in the
planning and implementation process of DADPs in the district.
(ii) The process of DADPs begins with the identification, at the village level, of the ‘focus group’
that will identify and articulate the development needs at the level of the grassroots. It is likely
that such a group would comprise the elite of the community and not such disadvantaged
people as small scale farmers or other vulnerable persons. It is also likely that the focus group
so composed will not be able to adequately articulate the challenges that face marginal farmers
and identify measures to address the challenges. To ensure that challenges facing marginal
farmers are understood, articulated, and measures to address them properly presented and
prioritised, these farmers and other vulnerable groups should be directly consulted. They
should be assisted by experienced facilitators to explain the nature of their challenges and
articulate what is required and what activities should be prioritised to address these challenges.
(iii) In connection to the above, value chain developed should be carried out in which small scale
farmers are organized (for example through block farming) to effectively engage in the selected
(iv) For effective transformation of small scale farmers from subsistence to commercial farming the
role of the government is paramount in terms of financing the sector. At the moment the billions
of money spent on agriculture through DADPs are spread thinly with no impact. The district
should be sensitised to use DADPs fund to support selected useful value chains which will
really help the small scale farmers.
(v) Policy dialogue between the government and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) engaged in
addressing interest of small scale farmers should be established specifically for the purpose of
addressing the challenges or gaps facing the small scale farmer’s participation in planning and
implementation process of DADPs. This arrangement would be educative and informative on
both sides (government and other stakeholders). It would inform the government side of the
impact of not involving the small scale farmers and would inform the stakeholders on the
concerns of government.
(vi) There is a need for the district to revitalize her agricultural crops by encouraging the small scale
farmers to improve production of high value crops as the strategy to withstand and become
more resilient with the ongoing impacts of climate change in the district as they grow in short
period of time.
(vii) Agricultural information analysis and dissemination is inadequate, especially for small scale
farmers in rural communities who are conceptually disconnected from the source of those
important informations. There should be a strategy to correct this anomaly. There is a need to
establish an effective Agricultural information system (MIS) which could ensure that information
is disseminated to target small scale farmers on timely basis.
Since women and youth constitute large group of small scale farmers and are the key
players in production (growing, selling, extension services, utilization) at the same time serious
highly affected with climate related impacts, thus there is greater need to provide a range of
training technical assistance services to women and youth groups. For the villages under
CCAP project could be done through Local Area Environmental Networks of MJUMITA.
(ix) To increase the effectiveness of the extension services, especially in the hard-to-reach villages
that are inaccessible because of rough terrain, two other options may be considered: i)
providing official housing for extension agents in their assigned work stations, on account of
long distance or rough terrain; and ii) providing special hardship allowances for agents serving
particularly difficult stations. This could either be supported with the district council in
collaboration with other stakeholders through Private Public Partnership-PPP.
(x) Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) have a very important role as spokespersons of the
voiceless. Since the participatory development approach is relatively new, there will be a
continuing tendency by the various stakeholders to fall back to the old ways in planning or
execution of programmes. CSOs should play the role of alerting the poor and vulnerable to
their rights and responsibilities, and advising them and the development community on how to
ensure that the interests of the small scale farmers are integrated in the development agenda.
(xi) Small scale farmers should be mobilized, sensitized and empowered to form their own Small
Micro Enterprises and Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) which will help
them in provision of capital/funds in form credits for further development/expansion of their
Agricultural Sector Development Programme (ASDP) Guidelines for District Agricultural Development Planning
and Implementation November 2006.
Agriculture Non-state Actors Forum (2011). Budget Analysis for ASDP and DADP Funds in Tanzania.
Budgets and District Agricultural Development Plans- DADPs progress reports for respective years (2010-2013)
for Kilosa District Council.
Controller and Auditor General Reports for Kilosa District of 2010-2012.
Nambiza, W (2013). Baseline study for the Climate Change, Agriculture and Poverty Alleviation (CCAP) Final
Report April 2013 submitted to the CCAP project.
The East African Grain Council (EAGC): RATIN Regional Agricultural Trade Intelligence Network; East Africa
Food & Trade Bulletin, Jan ‘09 (No. 51)
The Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA) (2002). Marketing Strategies for Small-Scale
Farmers. Rural Radio Resource Pack: Sharing knowledge, improving rural livelihood.
URT (2006). National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) for Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Division of
URT (2008). The Study on Improvements of Opportunities and Obstacles to Development (O&OD) Planning
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VECO Tanzania (2006). National Stakeholders’ Workshop on Smallholder Farmers’ Access to Markets in 2015.
22nd and 23rd March 2006 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Appendix 1: Empowering Smallholder farmers in Eastern Africa to access agro-markets and secure agricultural
Terms of Reference (ToR)
Title: STUDY ON SMALL SCALE FARMERS PARTICIPATION IN DADPS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
About the project:
The project named “Climate change, agriculture and poverty alleviation: putting small-scale farmers at the heart
of policy and practice” is a partnership project implemented by 5 organizations which are Community Forest
Conservation Network (MJUMITA), the Farmer’s Network of Tanzania (MVIWATA), the Tanzania Forest
Conservation Group, ActionAid Tanzania and the Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement and funded by AcT.
The project is implemented in six villages in two district (three villages in in Kilosa and 3 villages in Chamwino
district). Development of this project is based on the fact that the majority of people in Tanzania are smallholders
and depends on agriculture for their livelihood. When it comes to climate variability, it is small-scale farmers who
are hit first and hardest by the climate change (CC). It has been realized that land use changes particularly
deforestation as a result of shifting agriculture, is the largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in
Tanzania. Investment in agriculture and agricultural policies and practices are prioritising a shift to more
mechanised, fossil fuel dependent, larger scale agriculture with the aim of increasing productivity and
commercializing smallholder production. Whilst this approach may increase short-term yields, it risks making
small-scale farmers poorer and more vulnerable to CC. We believe that there are alternative approaches to land
use and food production that would bring ‘wins’ in terms of CC adaptation and mitigation, but lack of awareness
to small-scale farmers and policy makers on the adaptation and mitigation to CC has been the problem.
Poverty has been reduced amongst small-scale farmers in Tanzania and greenhouse gas emissions from
agriculture have been reduced through the widespread adoption of climate resilient, low emission agricultural
Tanzania has developed and is implementing policies and strategies that prioritise support to small-scale farmers
to enable them to improve their livelihoods through the adoption of climate smart agriculture and sustainable land
and natural resources management.
Immediate objective 1: Small-scale farmers and other stakeholders are demanding the integration of climate
smart, small-scale agriculture and sustainable land and natural resources management in national policy and
Immediate objective 2: Government, private sector and civil society are cooperating to support Small-scale
farmers to benefit from climate smart agriculture and sustainable land and natural resources management.
Strategies of the project
In order to achieve the outcomes of the project, the five partners apply four inter-linked strategies which are:
1. Community networking as a force for securing climate-smart agricultural land management.
2. Research on policy and practice in relation to the interface between small-scale agriculture and climate
change adaptation and mitigation
3. Demonstrating an integrated approach to Climate Smart Small-scale agriculture and REDD+
4. Advocating for Climate Smart Small-scale agriculture
Goal and objectives of the assignment
Aim of the assignment
The overall aim of the assignment is to conduct small study on small-scale farmers participation in DADPs so
that the project can get an understanding of how this process is carried out and how communities participate in
such process. The findings of this study will enable the project to recommend on how small scale farmers can
effectively participate in the process of planning and implementing DADPS.
Objectives of the assignment
1. Review DADPs for Kilosa district and field visit to the two villages within and other two villages outside
of the project site to analyse on how small scale farmers are participating in planning, budgeting and
2. Provide relevant policy recommendations on how effectively small scale farmers can participate in
3. To identify whether the current procedures for DADP development and implementation have resulted in
more climate-smart small-scale agriculture.'
Scope of the assignment:
The consultant is expected to analyse the process of developing DADPs in Kilosa district for the year
2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 DADPs to determine how small scale farmers were/are involved
in the process. The consultant is required to consider the following issues among others:Desk review of DADPS to assess on how small scale farmers are participating in the process of
planning and implementation of DADPs.
1. Highlight challenges or gaps identified in the process of engaging small scale farmers in the process of
planning and implementing DADPs
2. Assess any existing interventions that are being carried out by local government in Kilosa district to
address the challenges identified.
3. Provide practical recommendations on how effectively small scale farmers can participate in the process
of planning and implementing DADPs
4. Assess to what extent the DADPs address small scale farmers needs and priorities
In addressing the objectives of this assignment, the consultant should take into account the following
1. How DADPs development processes involve small scale farmers?
2. What are the gaps/challenges identified in the process of DADPs development process in relation to
3. What are the opportunities available in the process of DADPs that small scale farmers can use in
making sure that they are participating fully in planning and implementing DADPS?
4. Any other question the consultant might deem necessary to ask
Expected output from the consultant:
One detailed study report with practical recommendations on how effectively small scale farmers can participate
in planning and implementing DADPs. This report will be used to advocate for communities involvement in
Structure of the report:
Below are the proposed headings of the report
Table of contents
List of acronyms
Introduction outlining the objectives of the assignment, background information in relation to the
assignment and the project and limitation of the study if any.
Local context in relation to agriculture development and its challenges, main economic activities in the districts,
impact of climate change in Kilosa districts and local communities coping mechanisms to climate change. How
communities were involved in planning the process of DADPS for 3 year and resource allocation to the
Findings and discussion.
a) How small scale farmers are participating in the process of planning and implementation of DADPs?
b) What are the challenges or gaps identified on the process of engaging small scale farmers in the
process of planning and implementing DADPs?
c) What are the existing interventions that are being carried out by local government in Kilosa district to
address the challenges identified?
d) To what extents are the DADPs addressed small scale farmers needs and priorities?
Recommendations and Conclusions an
Annexes if any
The assessment will be for10 days after signing the contract
Appendix 2: Names of people and contacted for information
1. Silas Mbuya- DALDO- Kilosa District
2. Ibrahimu Nyembo- DNRLO –Kilosa District
3. Ledivina Ngowi- DCDO- Kilosa District
4. Joseph Chiwaya-DPLO- Kilosa District
5. Mohamed Hamza-Village Chairman- Ilonga Msalabani
6. Hasani Kindai-Village Chairman- Mvumi- Village
7. Josephina Maingu- Ilonga Msalabani Village
8. Mawazo Mtaliku- Ilonga Msalabani Village
9. Asha Mwavumi- ILonga Msalabani Village
10. Amina Mwenegoha- Ilonga Msalabani Village
11. Salimu Ahmed- Mvumi Village
12. Severine Mkole- Mvumi Village
13. Masule Ipiana- Mvumi village
14. Mwanaisha Mkole- Mvumi Village
15. Goodluck Mbuya- Mvumi Village
16. Paulina Stephano- Lunenzi Village
17. Malium Julius- Lunenzi village
18. Dotea Elias – Lunenzi village
19. Sesilia Lusiani- Lunenzi village
20. Paskwina |Fenado-Lunenzi Village
21. Elias Lesombe- VEO Lunenzi
22. Silivano Hasan- Ibingu Village
23. Sijali Eliasi- Ibingu Village
24. Saveli Madabuka- Ibingu Village
25. Juweni Lesombe- Ibingu Village
26. Franko Mwikora- Ibingu Village