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Industrial Symbiosis

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Done by Khairul, Pamela, Hui Loh

Published in: Business, Technology
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Industrial Symbiosis

  1. 1. Industrial Symbiosis
  2. 2. in.dus.tri.al e.co.lo.gy the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment
  3. 3. in.dus.tri.al e.co.lo.gy the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in.dus.tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process
  4. 4. in.dus.tri.al e.co.lo.gy the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in.dus.tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis place-based exchanges among different entities that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
  5. 5. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis place-based exchanges among different entities that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
  6. 6. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis engages different traditionally unrelated industries in physical exchanges of materials, energy, water and by-products that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
  7. 7. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process in.dus.tri.al sym.bi.o.sis engages different traditionally unrelated industries in physical exchanges of materials, energy, water and by-products that yield a collective benefit greater than the sum of individual benefits that could be achieved by acting alone
  8. 8. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process eco-industrial clusters eco-industrial park zero-emission park eco-industrial clusters
  9. 9. in..tri.al e.co.lo. the study of flows of materials and energy in industrial activities, and their impact on the environment in..tri.al e.co.sys.tem an optimized consumption of energy and materials and the effluents of one process… serve as the raw material for another process eco-industrial clusters eco-industrial park zero-emission park eco-industrial clusters symbiosis need not occur within the strict boundaries of a park
  10. 10. Illustrating the concepts and issues of industrial symbiosis
  11. 11. EMBEDDED ENERGY AND MATERIALS EMBEDDED ENERGY = SUM OF ‘HIDDEN’ RESOURCES TO MAKE PRODUCT POSSIBLE EXAMPLES OF ‘HIDDEN’ RESOURCES: - RESOURCES USED IN THE EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIAL - PRIMARY / SECONDARY MANUFACTURING - TRANSPORTATION REUSING BY-PRODUCTS ALLOWS THE EMBEDDED ENERGY CONSUMED TO GO FURTHER ELEMENTS EMBEDDED ENERGY LOST EMBEDDED ENERGY PRESERVED
  12. 12. LIFE CYCLE PERSPECTIVE VIRGIN MATERIAL ‘ FINISHED’ MATERIAL COMPONENT PRODUCT OBSOLETE PRODUCT ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TRACK THE TRANSFORMATION OF RESOURCES TO OPTIMIZE TOTAL MATERIALS CYCLE ALLOWS FOR CONSIDERATION OF ENTIRE SET OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AT EACH STAGE OF MANUFACTURING ELEMENTS
  13. 13. CASCADING FRESH / POTABLE WATER EXTRACTED WATER USED TO WASH RICE AT PLANT ‘ CLOUDY WATER’ USED TO IRRIGATE LAND RESOURCE USED REPEATEDLY IN DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS CHANGE IN THE GRADE OF THE RESOURCE CASCADE ENDS WHEN RESOURCE IS DISCARDED OR REQUIRES ALOT OF ENERGY TO REINSTATE ITS VALUE IMPACT: REDUCED USE OF VIRGIN RESOURCES REDUCED DEPOSITION OF WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENT ELEMENTS
  14. 14. LOOP CLOSING IMPACT: REDUCED USE OF VIRGIN RESOURCES REDUCED DEPOSITION OF WASTE INTO ENVIRONMENT THE RETURN OF A MATERIAL TO A FORM SIMILAR TO ITS PREVIOUS FORM BOTTLE CRUSHED INTO CULLETS, MELTED AND REMOULDED INTO A GLASS CONTAINER AGAIN DIRECT WASH-OUT OF USED GLASS BOTTLES TO BE RE-USED ELEMENTS
  15. 15. TRACKING MATERIAL FLOW AUDITING THE TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF MATERIAL, WATER AND ENERGY FLOWS OF OPERATIONS FIRMS ARE CLEARLY DEFINED BY THEIR RATE OF INPUTS AND OUTPUTS THE AMOUNT OF FEEDSTOCKS AND BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE SOURCED FROM AND CIRCULATED WITHIN THE INDUSTRY LONGER RESPECTIVELY SYNERGISTIC INDUSTRY WOULD BE CONSOLIDATING THE PROCESSES WITHIN THE INDUSTRY, ERGO USING LESS RESOURCES FROM THE PLANET AND PRODUCING LESS ‘ULTIMATE DISPOSAL’ WASTE ISSUES
  16. 16. LIMITATIONS OF MATERIAL PROFILES MODELLED FROM SOFTWARES DEVELOPED TO DETERMINE THE FLUX OF PROCESSES, IT OVEREMPHASIZES IDEALIZED CONDITIONS; <ul><li>LITTLE RECOGNITION OF TIME-CONSUMING PROCESSES THAT IS BUSINESS DEALINGS </li></ul><ul><li>MOST INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS ARE NOT INTENTIONALLY CREATED FOR REUSE </li></ul><ul><li>(MATCHING OUTPUTS TO FEEDSTOCK REQUIREMENTS SHOULD INCLUDE AN ANALYSIS OF THE GRADE OF THE ENTITIES) </li></ul>ISSUES
  17. 17. STAKEHOLDER PROCESSES PLAYERS GOVERNMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS CHARETTE SUCESSFUL INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS SHOULD BE TAILORED TO A CERTAIN COMMUNITY OF ADAPTED TO A CONTEXT (DEPENDING ON THE COOPERATIVE OF PLAYERS) PROFITS REGULATIONS SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES
  18. 18. Spatial scales of industrial symbiosis
  19. 19. Types of Spatial Scales <ul><li>Type 1: Through Waste Exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2: Within Facility, Firm or Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Type 3: Among Firms Colocated in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park </li></ul><ul><li>Type 4: Among Local Firms that are NOT Colocated </li></ul><ul><li>Type 5: Among Firms Organized Virtually across a Broader Region </li></ul>
  20. 20. Through Waste Exchange Organization A Organization C A’s Waste C’s waste <ul><li>Exchange done through trade by trade basis </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange of material more than water or energy </li></ul>Organization B B’s Need A’s Need
  21. 21. Within a Facility, Firm, or Organization <ul><li>Materials exchange inside the boundaries of 1 large organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Gains by organization by upstream operation like purchasing and processing </li></ul>department department organization materials department department
  22. 22. Sugar refinery Sugar Molasses Bagasse Filter sludge Sugar cane Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  23. 23. Sugar refinery Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Filter sludge Sugar cane Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  24. 24. Sugar refinery Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Compound Fertilizer Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Filter sludge Sugar cane Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  25. 25. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Paper Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater Black liquor Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  26. 26. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol NaOH Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater NaOH recovery Black liquor Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  27. 27. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol NaOH Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater NaOH recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  28. 28. Sugar refinery Pulp plant Paper mill Cement mill Fertilizer plant Alcohol plant Sugar Alcohol Cement NaOH Pulp Sugar cane farm Molasses Alcohol residue Bagasse Wastewater NaOH recovery Black liquor White sludge Filter sludge Sugar cane Compound Fertilizer Paper Source: Zhu and Cˆot´e 2004, 1028. The Guitang Group, beyond sugar refining in China
  29. 29. Among Firms Colocated in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park <ul><li>Share information and services other than energy, water and materials within the boundaries of the eco industrial park </li></ul><ul><li>Common to involve other partners over the fence </li></ul>
  30. 30. Among Firms Colocated in a Defined Eco-Industrial Park Eco industrial park
  31. 31. Kalunborg example where primary partners are roughly within a 2mile radius Among Local Firms That are NOT Colocated <2miles
  32. 32. <ul><li>Place based enterprises to reduce cost of moving and other critical variables </li></ul><ul><li>More firms participating = larger by-product exchange </li></ul>Among Firms organized Virtually across a Broader Region
  33. 33. Considering the life-cycle of a building
  34. 34. Industrial symbiosis in the process of building construction
  35. 35. WASTE INTO ENERGY. WASTE INTO RESOURCE. SYMBIOSIS STRATEGIES AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
  36. 36. NON HAZARDOUS SOLID WASTE FROM CONSTRUCTION, DEMOLITION AND LANDCLEARING ACTIVITIES WHAT IS CONSTRUCTION WASTE
  37. 37. CONVENTIONAL CONSTRUCTION IS FED WITH FEEDSTOCK THAT IS ALMOST ALWAYS DERIVED FROM VIRGIN MATERIALS SYMBIOSIS WOULD MEAN USING MATERIALS ‘EXISITING IN THE INDUSTRIES OUT THERE’ AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE AND PLANNING FOR ITS POSSIBLE AFTERLIFE IN ANOTHER INDUSTRY <ul><li>SELECTING MATERIALS WITH AN UNDERSTANDING OF ITS </li></ul><ul><li>- EMBEDDED ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>METHOD OF MANUFACTURE (IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT) </li></ul>BUILDING ELEMENT: INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION PANELS (COMPOSITE WOOD BOARDS) SYMBIOSIS STRATEGIES AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
  38. 38. KNOWING YOUR MATERIALS EMBEDDED ENERGY & METHOD OF MANUFACTURE AFTERLIFE PARTICLE BOARD MADE FROM WASTE WOOD FROM SAWMILLS HIGH DENSITY HARDBOARD (WOOD FIBREBOARD) MANUFACTURE PROCESS REQUIRES A LOT OF ENERGY; BUT DURABLE AND HIGH STRENGTH TO MATERIAL RATIO BOARD MADE FROM COMPRESSED NEWSPAPER REPLACING WOOD FIBREBOARD WOOD FIBREBOARD IS MADE FROM NEW WOOD; BOARD MADE FROM COMPRESSED NEWSPAPER IS MADE ENTIRELY FROM POST-CONSUMER WASTE PAPER GYPSUM SYNTHETIC GYPSUM & FIBRE GYPSUM – USES BY-PRODUCTS RECYCLED GYPSUM MAY BE USED AS SOLID CONDITIONER. 90% OF GYPSUM MAY BEA RECOVERED FROM CONSTRUCTION SCRAP
  39. 39. THE CARPET COLLECTED AS A ‘DISCARDED RESOURCE’ (SURPLUS CARPET TILES) REUSED UNCONVENTIONALLY; STACKED TO CREATE THE WALLS OF THE HOUSE CASE STUDY: LUCY’S HOUSE (SAMUEL MOCKBEE’S CARPET HOUSE)
  40. 40. Symbiosis with nature during occupancy
  41. 41. Fab Tree Hab Local Biota Living Graft Structure by Mitchell Joachim, Javier Arbona and Lara Greden (2003)
  42. 42. Fab Tree Hab An Edible Prefab Home for Humanity primary structural growth stages: unfolding each 5 year period by Mitchell Joachim, Javier Arbona and Lara Greden
  43. 43. Fab Tree Hab Life Sustaining Flow Plan of  Water Cycle: 1. Washer,  2. Tub,  3. Sink,  4.Toilet,  5. Living-Machine Link,  6. Garden,  7. Pond. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  44. 44. Hundertwasserhaus, Wien (1983) In the manifesto “the sacred shit” hundertwasser wrote, “shit turns into earth which is put on the roof - it becomes lawn, forest, garden - shit becomes gold… the circle is closed, there is no more waste ” (1975)
  45. 45. Case Study Tripod: Plug and Play Housing Designing for Deconstruction
  46. 46. Design for Deconstruction Understanding the true Life Cycle Analysis before designing DfD Specialized team to Design for Deconstruction Construction/ Occupancy Deconstruction Maintain, Repair, Renovate Adaptive reuse waste industries Energy/incineration Nature landfill Greenmark Disassembly company Net waste tool reuse recycle refining process
  47. 47. Case Study: Design for Deconstruction
  48. 48. Case Study:
  49. 49. Case Study:
  50. 50. Case Study:
  51. 51. Case Study:
  52. 52. Case Study:
  53. 53. Case Study: Connection details Eb-Ty fasterner system Double bend clip
  54. 54. Case Study: Construction details
  55. 55. Future development

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