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Chemistry

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Chemistry

  1. 1. Lipids <ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul>
  2. 2. Triglycerides - Elements <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul>
  3. 3. Triglycerides - Examples <ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul>
  4. 4. Triglycerides - Subunits <ul><li>3 Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol </li></ul>
  5. 5. Triglycerides - Functions <ul><li>Energy source – 9 Cal/g </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary solvent of cells </li></ul>
  6. 6. Waxes - Elements <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul>
  7. 7. Waxes - Examples <ul><li>Ear Wax </li></ul><ul><li>Thin covering on plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutin </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Waxes - Subunits <ul><li>3 Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol chain </li></ul>
  9. 9. Waxes - Functions <ul><li>Waterproofing </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul>
  10. 10. Steroids - Elements <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul>
  11. 11. Steroids - Examples <ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul>
  12. 12. Steroids - Subunits <ul><li>4 carbon rings </li></ul>
  13. 13. Steroids - Functions <ul><li>Structural elements of cells </li></ul>
  14. 14. Phospholipids - Elements <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul>
  15. 15. Phospholipids - Example <ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phospholipids - Subunits <ul><li>2 Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol </li></ul>
  17. 17. Phospholipids - Functions <ul><li>Forms a barrier around the cell </li></ul>
  18. 18. Proteins - Elements <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul>
  19. 19. Proteins - Examples <ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron-containing respiratory pigment in red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Albumin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins that are found in egg white, blood serum, milk, and many other animal and plant tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keratin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tough, insoluble protein substance that makes up hair, nails, horns, and hooves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul>
  20. 20. Proteins - Subunits <ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Di-peptide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tri-peptide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many peptides = Polypeptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many polypeptides = Protein </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Basic Amino Acid <ul><li>Copy this picture to have in your notes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Examples of Amino Acid. There are 20 different kinds. The R groups make each amino acid unique.
  23. 24. Proteins - Functions <ul><li>To build and for structures </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary energy source – 4 Cal/g </li></ul>
  24. 25. Enzymes A Special Kind of Protein <ul><li>Example of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reusable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as a catalyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Enzyme as a catalyst
  26. 27. This image shows how an enzyme is used to take a disaccharide and break it down to its monomers. Please study this picture.
  27. 28. Nucleic Acids - Elements <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous </li></ul>
  28. 29. Nucleic Acids - Examples <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul>
  29. 30. Nucleic Acids - Subunits <ul><li>Nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose (DNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose (RNA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Nucleic Acids - Functions <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores genetic information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in protein synthesis </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Using a new page in your composition book, take notes on following characteristics of water.
  32. 34. Water - Elements <ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>2 H : 1 O </li></ul>
  33. 35. Water - Functions <ul><li>Major solvent of the cell </li></ul>
  34. 36. Water - Characteristics <ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial charge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cohesive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticks to itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water beads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adhesive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sticks to other things/surfaces </li></ul></ul>

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