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Unit 1 Part 2


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Material for unit 1 part 2

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Unit 1 Part 2

  1. 1. Stress, Psychological Factors and Health Unit 1 Health Illness Models M.D. Cecilia Meza From: Abnormal Psychology by Jeffrey Nevid. (2006)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Exposure to stress, can have profound and enduring effects on our mental and physical health. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind and body are closely intertwined, mental health and physical health are inseparable. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Psychologists who study the interrelationships between psychological factors and physical health are called health psychologists. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Stress: a pressure or demand that is placed on an organism to adapt or adjust. </li></ul><ul><li>Stressor: a source of stress, we can include here the psychological factors, life changes, daily hassles and physical environmental factors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stress: Is It Good or Bad?   <ul><li>Stress is a normal part of everyday life, and it can be both good and bad. For instance, it can help a person survive threatening situations by preparing the body for defensive action. The resulting biological changes — a quickened pulse, sharpened senses, tensed muscles — are “fight-or-flight” responses shared by all humans. “Good” stress can also stimulate creativity, endurance, and productivity. But even though short-lived or infrequent episodes of stress can be beneficial, prolonged stress can increase the risk of personal injury or disease. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>An adjustment disorder is a maladaptative reaction to an identified stressor that develops within a few months of the onset stressor. </li></ul><ul><li>The maladaptative reaction is characterized by significant impairment in social, occupational, or academic functioning or by states of emotional distress that exceed in the population vary widely. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Stress increases the risk of various types of physical illness, ranging from digestive disorders to hearth disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The field of Psychoneuroimmunology studies the relationship between psychological factors, especially stress, and the workings of the endocrine system, the immune system, and the nervous system. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Chronic or repetitive stress can weaken the body’s immune system over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic stress, such as exposure to earthquakes, hurricanes, or other natural or technological disasters, or to terrorists attacks or other forms of violence, can also dampen immunological functioning. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Social support appears to moderate the harmful effects of stress on the immune system. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Writing about stressful or traumatic events may enhance both psychological and physical well- being and perhaps even boost immune system response. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a maladptative stressful reaction to a prolonged and traumatic stress. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), describes a common biological response pattern to prolonged excessive stress. </li></ul><ul><li>It describes the body’s three-stage response to states of prolonged stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Fight or flight reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion stage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stress-Related Ailments <ul><li>The art of stress management is to allow stress to be a stimulant, not a lifestyle. When stress starts getting out of control, stress-related ailments arise: </li></ul><ul><li>Short temper </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in concentrating </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia or interrupted sleep cycles (frequent waking) </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship or sexual problems </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Upset or burning stomach or diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tension, twitching or trembling, or dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid breathing or irregular heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating </li></ul><ul><li>Dry mouth or difficulty swallowing </li></ul>
  14. 14. Five Stress Reduction Techniques <ul><li>Exercise . Exercise, especially aerobic movement, is a great way to release tension and stress. Stress management techniques, such as biofeedback, yoga, and tai chi, are also excellent ways to treat and reduce the physical symptoms of stress. Try massage therapy, aromatherapy, or meditation. Stretching and controlled breathing can also reduce tension. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Talk . Take a break from the stress and talk out your problems with a trusted listener. Sharing burdens with a loved one helps reduce your load, even if just psychologically. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize . Prevent stress by staying on top of your responsibilities. Reduce your commitments if that’s what it takes to keep your schedule under control. Don’t take on more than you can handle, and don’t force yourself to multi-task if it’s stressing you out or the tasks are suffering for it. And remember to save time for fun. Mark your calendar if you have to. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Commit . Treat your body right: eat a healthy diet, take a multi-vitamin, make sure you’re getting enough sleep, and avoid alcohol and other Legal: illegal drugs that may contribute to overall lack of health. </li></ul><ul><li>Escape . When nothing else seems to work, it’s OK to escape the source of stress. Whether it’s taking a short break from the stressful task at hand, or treating yourself to a well-deserved vacation, getting physically away from the stress center will help you mentally remove yourself as well. </li></ul>