Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

U7 Interchange3


Published on

 Passive in the present continuous and present perfect; prepositions of cause; infinitive cause; infinitive clauses and phrases.
 Describing problems, Offering solutions, talking about what will happen, identifying something, getting someone’s attention, expressing approval/disapproval, expressing a regret

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

U7 Interchange3

  1. 1. Use of passive with prepositions and use of infinitive clauses and phrases Lic. Selene Rodríguez Lic. Norma Dzib Tello 2008/2009 Unit 7 The world we live in
  2. 2. Use of passive <ul><li>A passive sentence is usually more formal than the active sentence. Compare: </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll send you a letter (informal) </li></ul><ul><li>A letter will be sent to you (formal) </li></ul><ul><li>Note that in a passive construction we can mention the person or the thing that does the action ( the agent ) after the word by . </li></ul><ul><li>The house was bought by a local businessmen </li></ul>WHEN YOU ARE WORKING ON ACTIVE TO PASSIVE SENTENCES, FIRST YOU HAVE TO ASK YOURSELF: WHAT KIND OF SENTENCE IS IT? STRUCTURE Active : Subject + verb + object Passive : Subject + verb be (was, is, has been..) + Past Participle
  3. 3. Present continuous passive The air is being polluted by fumes from cars and trucks City streets are being damaged as a result of heavy traffic Present perfect passive The roadways have been jammed because of people’s dependence on cars Many parks have been lost through overbuilding The homeless have been displaced due to overcrowding in city shelters Passive with prepositions
  4. 4. Forms of passive Radio London sacked Mark Walsh is an active sentence Mark Walsh was sacked by Radio London is a passive sentence The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. We form the passive with the verb be (is, was, has been, etc) + a past participle (heard, stopped, etc) The tense of the verb be changes to form the different tenses in the passive. Present simple: The show is listened to by 1 million people Present continuous: A letter is being sent to Mrs. Hind Past simple: The argument was heard by the director Present perfect: Mr. Walsh has not been offered his job back Past continuous: I was being insulted by a silly woman Past perfect: He had been given the job a month ago Future: A new DJ will be chosen soon
  5. 5. PRACTICE <ul><li>Rewrite the sentences using the passive and the prepositions given. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution is threatening the health of people in urban areas. (by) </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock farms have contaminated soil and underground water. (because of) </li></ul><ul><li>The burning of gas, oil, and coal has created acid rain. (as a result of) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of CFCs in products like hair spray has created a hole in the ozone layer. (through) </li></ul><ul><li>The destruction of rain forests is harming rare plants and wildlife. (through) </li></ul><ul><li>The growth of suburbs has eaten up huge amounts of farmland. (due to) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The health of people in urban areas is being threatened by air pollution. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Complete the sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Many species of animals _____ hunting and fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Have been endangered by </li></ul><ul><li>Have endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution _____ buildings and trees in the inner cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Is being harmed by </li></ul><ul><li>Is harming </li></ul><ul><li>3. Oil and reserves _____ because of our dependence on cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Are using up </li></ul><ul><li>Are being used up </li></ul>Practice
  7. 7. <ul><li>4. People’s health _____ due to overeating junk food </li></ul><ul><li>Has affected </li></ul><ul><li>Has been affected </li></ul><ul><li>5. Recycling _____ natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Is saving </li></ul><ul><li>Is being saved by </li></ul><ul><li>6. New types of cars don’t pollute as much _____ some of the major car companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Are developing </li></ul><ul><li>Are being developed by </li></ul>WHEN YOU ARE WORKING ON ACTIVE TO PASSIVE SENTENCES, FIRST YOU HAVE TO ASK YOURSELF: WHAT KIND OF SENTENCE IS IT? STRUCTURE Active : Subject + verb + object Passive : Subject + verb be (was, is, has been..) + Past Participle
  8. 8. <ul><li>To form Infinitive phrases, structure the sentences as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>(A way / Two Ways) + infinitive + is / are + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>One thing + to do about it + is + to talk to the company’s management </li></ul><ul><li>Another way + to stop them + is + to get a TV station to run a story </li></ul><ul><li>The best ways + to fight HIV / AIDS + are + to do more research and educate people. </li></ul><ul><li>An infinitive is part of the subordinate clauses which are named after the form of the verb . TO - INFINITIVE CLAUSE: You must book early [ to secure a seat] </li></ul>Infinitive clauses and phrases
  9. 9. PRACTICE Find one or more solutions for each problem. Solutions a. to build more public housing. b. to train people in modern farming methods c. to start free vocational training programs. d. to educate people on how diseases are spread e. to have more police on the streets. f. to provide ways for people to voice their concerns g. To develop cleaner public transportation h. To create more jobs for the unemployed <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>One way to reduce famine is … </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to fight HIV/AIDS is … </li></ul><ul><li>One way to stop political unrest is … </li></ul><ul><li>One thing to improve air quality is … </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to reduce poverty is … </li></ul><ul><li>One thing to help the homeless is … </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bibliography Richards, Jack C. Interchange Third Edition Cambridge University Press Images: www.postershop -