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The genocide.pptx2benjamin wesley

  1. 1. Analytical Reasoning: Genocide in Rwanda Dr. Helen Chukwuma Dr. Sakinah Abdur-Rashied Dr. Shakira Cain
  2. 2. Genocide in Rwanda
  3. 3. Is This Right?
  4. 4. Objectives:  Students will have a clear understanding of genocide.  Students will be able to recognize the origins and causes of genocide.  Analyze the implication of genocide globally.  To understand the intervention and role of the United Nations in genocide.  To appreciate lessons learned from genocide in terms of human dignity, the rule of law, and tolerance
  5. 5. Day 1  Class Activity: Pretest, Definition and discussion of genocide.  Why genocide originated: Colonialism, Nativism, Ethnic cleansing, Religious intolerance, Racism, and Economics  Examples of historical origins of genocide: Nazi, Biafra, Sudan, Liberia, and Rwanda.  Assignment: research genocide in Rwanda
  6. 6. Pretest  What is genocide?  Where can it occur?  Who does it involve?  Name a people who has suffered genocide.
  7. 7. Day 2  Origins of genocide in Rwanda: How did it begin?
  8. 8. Day 2  Analytical Reasoning: The Rwanda Genocide. 1994.  Preamble.  Day 2. The Origins of Rwanda Genocide.  Rwanda is a land-locked country in Central Africa with a population of 7.3 million.(Show Map.) Their language is Rwanda but they also speak English, French and Swahili. They were colonized by Belgium before they gained their independence in 1962.There are three ethnic groups in Rwanda:  a) The Hutus who are approximately 85% of the population  b) The Tutsis who are approximately 14% of the population  c) The Twa who are approximately 1% of the population.
  9. 9. Continued  The conflict of citizenship and indigeneity was really between the Hutus and the Tutsis.  Causes of Genocide:Colonialism by Belgium  Racism and Indigeneity  Privileged Citizenship  The Plane Crash that killed President Habyarimana  Search for Justice as an Act of Revenge, Retribution and Ethnic Cleansing.
  10. 10. Continued  Colonialism:  Class test (Take Home) a) What is Colonialism? Identify three countries that were former colonies in the continents of Africa, Asia and the Americas.  b)Who are the Hutus and the Tutsis?
  11. 11. Continued  Colonialism severed the socio-cultural links that bound the Rwandan people as an entity. The Belgian political rulers in a bid to maintain a power strong-hold on the country, introduced a deep racial divide between the Hutus and the Tutsis. They identified the Hutus as of the Bantu race and ancestry and so were indigenes and owners of the land while the Tutsis were a Hamitic race who migrated from Ethiopia so were aliens. The colonialists using racial difference favored the Tutsis who were thus associated with privilege and power. Colonial divisiveness was thus the initial cause of conflict and rivalry between two hitherto ethnicities who co-habited before the advent of the colonialists.
  12. 12. Continued  Racism and Indigeneity:  The country in the Belgian Reform of the thirties had three levels of population: the natives/indigenes or the Hutus, the aliens or the Tutsis and the settlers or the Belgian colonists. Such a divide led to civil strife so that when the Belgians left, issues of race and indigeneity rendered governance difficult. There were massacres but not genocide. Some Tutsis fled to Uganda a neighboring country and there formed the RPF Rwanda Patriotic Front led by Mr.Kagame and continued the struggle for a full and participatory citizenship.
  13. 13. Continued  Privileged Citizenship:  The privileged citizenship of the Hutu over the Tutsi helped to ignite the Revolution of 1959 whose aftermath caused dis-affection and unrest in the polity.  The Plane Crash that killed the Hutu President Habiyarimana:
  14. 14. Continued  On April 6th1994, the plane carrying President Habiyarimana and other dignitaries was shot down. The crash was blamed on the Tutsi leader Mr.Kagame then in exile in Uganda. Mr. Kegame denied the charge. The Hutu population still held Kegame and the Tutsis accountable.  Search for Justice as an Act of Revenge, Retribution and Ethnic Cleansing:
  15. 15. Continued  Class Discussion:  Do you consider the genocidal impulse an admissible form of settling political disputes? In other words,Discuss whether the quest for power and control justifies genocide and man’s inhumanity to man. Give reasons for your answer.  .
  16. 16. Day 3  Movie: Hotel Rwanda  Class Activities: Discussion
  17. 17. Day 4  Intervention of the United Nations  What is the UN, it’s purpose, what did it do, and what could it have done during the Rwandan genocide?  Student Activity - Three panels will be formed to brainstorm possible actions that could have been taken by the United Nations
  18. 18. continued What is the UN, and what is its purpose.  The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 by 51 countries. The Organization can take action on a wide range of issues, and provides a forum for its 192 Member States to express their views, through the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and other bodies and committees.  The purpose of the UN is to maintain international peace and security, to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace.  To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian nature.
  19. 19. Continued  In March of 1998, President Clinton issued the "Clinton apology." "We come here today partly in recognition of the fact that we in the United States and the world community did not do as much as we could have and should have done to try to limit what occurred" in Rwanda.  This implied that the United States had done a good deal but not quite enough. In reality the United States did much more than fail to send troops. It led a successful effort to remove most of the UN peacekeepers who were already in Rwanda. It aggressively worked to block the subsequent authorization of UN reinforcements. It refused to use its technology to jam radio broadcasts that were a crucial instrument in the coordination and perpetuation of the genocide.
  20. 20. Continued  Three of the five permanent members of the UN had reasons not to prevent the genocide. The US had nothing to gain, and France and China were supplying the government with arms. Most other countries had no investments or anything to gain from helping Rwanda, so little was done.  And even as, an average, 8,000 Rwandans were being butchered each day, U.S. officials shunned the term "genocide," for fear of being obliged to act. The United States in fact did virtually nothing to "try to limit what occurred." Indeed, staying out of Rwanda was an explicit U.S. policy objective.
  21. 21. Day 5  Rwanda and Genocide: What are the statistics, and the cultural implications?
  22. 22. Rwandan Genocide Who was murdered? Who were the murders?
  23. 23. During the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, ID cards were death warrants for many Tutsis. —Jerry Fowler/USHMM
  24. 24. Continued  The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass murder of an estimated 800,000 people. Over the course of approximately 100 days from the assassination of Juvenal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate. Other estimates of the death toll have ranged between 500,000 and 1,000,000 (a commonly quoted figure is 800,000) or as much as 20% of the country's total population.
  25. 25. Who was murdered? Who were the murders  The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 was the proximate cause of the mass killings of Tutsis and pro-peace Hutus. The mass killings were carried out primarily by two Hutu militias associated with political parties: the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi. The genocide was directed by a Hutu power group known as the Akazu. The mass killing also marked the end of the peace agreement meant to end the war, and the Tutsi RPF restarted their offensive, eventually defeating the army and seizing control of the country.
  26. 26. The Murders  Numerous elite Hutu politicians have been found guilty for the organization of the genocide. The Rwandan Military and Hutu militia groups, notably the Interahamwe, systematically set out to murder all the Tutsis they could capture, irrespective of their age or sex, as well as the political moderates. Hutu civilians were forced to participate in the killings or be shot and were instructed to kill their Tutsi neighbors. Most nations evacuated their nationals from Kigali and abandoned their embassies in the initial stages of the violence.
  27. 27. Women Killers and Child Accomplices  By September 1995, several hundred of the 10,000 inmates in Kilgali’s central prison were women. Rakiya Omar of the African rights told an Associated Press journalist that some “were actively involved, killing with machetes and guns” while others “acted in support roles allowing murder squads access to hospitals and homes, cheering on male killers, stripping the dead and looting their houses.”
  28. 28. Women Killers and Child Accomplices  Women killed a few, but mainly waited for Tutsi women crossing the river with a kid on the back, so they would take the kid and throw it in the water.  Reference: McDowell, “342 Women Implicated in Genocide.”
  29. 29. Aftermath Approximately two million Hutus, participants in the genocide, and the bystanders, with anticipation of Tutsi retaliation, fled from Rwanda, to Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and for the most part Zaire. Thousands of them died in epidemics of diseases common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysentery. The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps.
  30. 30. Day 6  Truth and reconciliation as a global paradigm for post-genocide RwandaTruth and Reconciliation Committee.  Truth and Reconciliation Committee.( Please see what I wrote in Day 6) This is a continuation.  In July,1994, the RPF captured Kigali the capital of Rwanda and the Tutsis took over government. Two million Hutus fled to the Republic of the Congo for fear of retaliation. The threat of war and reprisals haunted both the Tutsi-led government and the fugitive Hutu. How can lasting peace be achieved?
  31. 31. Day 6 Truth and Reconciilation in Post Genocide Rwanda  Nations after a disjointed governance marked by genocide, apartheid and massacres would institute a Truth and Reconciliation Committee to heal wounds and return the nation to order and normalcy.  An example is the TRC of South Africa after the end of the Apartheid regime and the freedom of Nelson Mandela.
  32. 32. Continued  Test: Research into and name three other nations that had the TRC (Truth Reconciliation Committee).  With genocide, there are victims and victimizers. The distinctions are not clearly made but the glaring point is that the Hutu are “the guilty majority and the Tutsi are the fearful minority.”
  33. 33. Peace cannot be achieved without truth and justice.  Issues of Truth and Reconciliation Committee in post-genocidal Rwanda.  a) The truth in Rwanda genocide is known, there is no need for confession as was the case in South Africa. In Rwanda, genocide was public and open. Any living Hutu is presumed guilty of killing because if you did not kill, you were killed by your own.  b) What does justice and reconciliation mean to Hutus and Tutsis?
  34. 34. Peace cannot be achieved without truth and justice.  c) The Hutus are the political majority and the Tutsis the political minority. While the minority calls for justice, the majority calls for democracy.  d) How can the minority be safeguarded from a genocidal reoccurrence?  e) How can the Hutus no more be marginalized economically?  f) Should Justice be retributive, that is punitive (punish the evil-doers) or should it be reconciliatory? What is the more realistic and tenable option?  g) Should the genocide survivors be compensated and rehabilitated? How about the Hutu refugees who fled to Congo Republic, will they also be rehabilitated? 
  35. 35. Some Suggestions:  a) For a lasting peace and to remove danger to the Tutsis, they should be given a separate state of their own.  b) There should be a re-organization of power between the citizens not on cultural lines but as political entities.  c) Rwandan citizenship should be reconciled.  d) Their history must be written so that the lessons of the past will be available to the younger generation.
  36. 36. Suggestions Continued  Should there be international intervention or should Rwanda work on its own solution?
  37. 37. Rwanda: Lessons Learned  Stop the genocide before it becomes a genocide.  React promptly and firmly to preparations for the mass slaughter of civilians.  Pay close attention to the media in situations of potential ethnic, religious, or racial conflict. In cases of impending genocide, be prepared to silence broadcasts that incite or provide directions for violence.
  38. 38. Continued  Be alert to the impact of negative models in nearby regions.  Obtain accurate information about what is happening on the ground.  Identify and support opponents of the genocide.  Call the genocide by its rightful name and vigorously condemn it. Commit to permanently opposing any government involved in genocide, including by refusing it assistance in the future.
  39. 39. Continued  Impose an arms embargo on the genocidal government.  Press any government seeming to support the genocidal government to change its policy.  Be prepared to intervene with armed force.
  40. 40. Day 7  A Re-enactment of the Rwandan genocide  Class divides into two groups: A)Hutu B)Tutsi  Reconcilers, Panel of judges  Class Activity: To be filmed
  41. 41. Day 8  Assignment: written exercise: what were, in your opinion, lessons learned from Rwandan genocide?  How can genocide situations be avoided in the future?
  42. 42. Day 8 Continued:  Post Test  What is genocide?  Where can it occur?  Who does it involve?  Name a people who has suffered genocide
  43. 43. References:  Des Forges, Alison (1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-171-1. Retrieved 2007-01-12.  See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Seven out of every 10 Tutsis were killed.
  44. 44. References continued:  Transcript of remarks by Mark Doyle in Panel 3: International media coverage of the Genocide of the symposium Media and the Rwandan Genocide held at Carleton University, March 13, 2004  Ch. 10: "The Rwandan genocide and its aftermath"PDF in State of the World's Refugees 2000, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  "Operation Support Hope". 2005-04-27. port_hope.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-02
  45. 45. References continued  Carroll, Rory, US Chose to Ignore Rwandan Genocide, Johannesburg The Guardian, usa.rwanda    Power, Samantha, Bystanders to Genocide 001/09/bystanders-to-genocide/4571/  x.html
  46. 46. References Continued  4/03/29/rwanda8308.htm  Mamdani, Mahmood, (2001). When victims become killers- Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.