HYDRO, WIND, SOLAR
TEAM 5 – GREEN ENERGY
Hydro-power or water power is power derived from
the energy of falling water and running water, which
may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient
times, hydro-power has been used for irrigation and
the operation of various mechanical devices, such
as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes,
domestic lifts, power houses and paint making.
The Bernoulli equation can be considered as a
principle of conservation of energy, suitable for
moving fluids.The behavior usually called "Venturi
effect" or "Bernoulli effect" is the reduction of fluid
pressure in areas where the flow velocity is increased.
This decrease in pressure in a narrowing of the duct
may seem contradictory, unless you consider the
pressure as an energy density. Passage through the
narrowing, the fluid velocity, so its kinetic energy
should be increased at the expense of pressure
Law (equation) is a consequence of Bernoulli's law
of conservation of energy for steady flow of an ideal
(ie, without internal friction) incompressible fluid
Since the early 20th century, the term has been used
almost exclusively in conjunction with the modern
development of hydro-electric power, which
allowed use of distant energy sources. Another
method used to transmit energy used a trompe,
which produces compressed air from falling water.
Compressed air could then be piped to power other
machinery at a distance from the waterfall. Hydro
power is a renewable energy source.
Having fallen out of favor during the late 20th
century due to the disruptive ecological and social
effects of large impoundments, hydropower enjoyed
a revival by 2013 as international institutions such as
the World Bank tried to find solutions to economic
development which avoided adding substantial
amounts of carbon to the atmosphere.
Water's power is manifested in hydrology, by the
forces of water on the riverbed and banks of a river.
When a river is in flood, it is at its most powerful, and
moves the greatest amount of sediment. This higher
force results in the removal of sediment and other
material from the riverbed and banks of the river,
locally causing erosion, transport and, with lower
flow, sedimentation downstream.
Of all the forces of nature, I should think the wind contains
the largest amount of motive power.
All the power exerted by all the men, beasts,
running-water, and steam, shall not equal the one
hundredth part of what is exerted by the blowing of the wind.
Quite possibly one of the greatest discoveries,
will be the taming and harnessing of it.
- Abraham Lincoln - 1860
COMPONENTS OF A WINDMILL
Anemometer: Measures the wind speed and transmits wind speed data to the
Blades: Lifts and rotates when wind is blown over them, causing the rotor to spin.
Most turbines have either two or three blades.
Brake: Stops the rotor mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically, in emergencies
Controller: Starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour
(mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. Turbines do not operate at wind
speeds above about 55 mph because they may be damaged by the high winds.
Gear box: Connects the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft and increases
the rotational speeds from about 30-60 rotations per minute (rpm), to about 1,000-
1,800 rpm; this is the rotational speed required by most generators to produce
Generator: Produces 60-cycle AC electricity; it is usually an off-the-shelf induction
High-speed shaft: Drives the generator.
Low-speed shaft: Turns the low-speed shaft at about 30-60 rpm.
Nacelle: Sits atop the tower and contains the gear box, low- and high-speed shafts,
generator, controller, and brake. Some nacelles are large enough for a helicopter to land
Pitch: Turns (or pitches) blades out of the wind to control the rotor speed, and to keep the
rotor from turning in winds that are too high or too low to produce electricity.
Rotor: Blades and hub together form the rotor.
Tower: Made from tubular steel, concrete, or steel lattice. Supports the structure of the
turbine. Because wind speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture
more energy and generate more electricity.
Wind direction: Determines the design of the turbine. Upwind turbines—like the one
shown here—face into the wind while downwind turbines face away.
Wind vane: Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the
turbine properly with respect to the wind.
Yaw drive: Orients upwind turbines to keep them facing the wind when the direction
changes. Downwind turbines don't require a yaw drive because the wind manually blows
the rotor away from it.
Yaw motor: Powers the yaw drive.
GREEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN
THE U.S. AS OF 2010
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy,
such as using wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for
mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to
Large wind farms consist of hundreds of individual
wind turbines which are connected to the electric
power transmission network. For new constructions,
onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electricity,
competitive with or in many places cheaper than
fossil fuel plants. Small onshore wind farms provide
electricity to isolated locations. Utility companies
increasingly buy surplus electricity produced by small
domestic wind turbines. Offshore wind is steadier and
stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less
visual impact, but construction and maintenance
costs are considerably higher.
Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable,
widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions
during operation and uses little land. The effects on the
environment are generally less problematic than those from other
power sources. As of 2011, Denmark is generating more than a
quarter of its electricity from wind and 83 countries around the
world are using wind power to supply the electricity grid. In 2010
wind energy production was over 2.5% of total worldwide
electricity usage, and growing rapidly at more than 25% per
Wind power is very consistent from year to year but
has significant variation over shorter time scales. As
the proportion of windpower in a region increases, a
need to upgrade the grid, and a lowered ability to
supplant conventional production can occur. Power
management techniques such as having excess
capacity storage, geographically distributed
turbines, dispatchable backing sources, storage such
as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, exporting and
importing power to neighboring areas or reducing
demand when wind production is low, can greatly
mitigate these problems. In addition, weather
forecasting permits the electricity network to be
readied for the predictable variations in production
“I'd put my money on the sun and solar
energy. What a source of power! I hope we
don't have to wait „til oil and coal run out
before we tackle that.”
-Thomas Edison - 1931
Frame-Holds all of the components that makes up the solar panel
LightSwitch Frontsheet- Protects the Photovoltaic cells of a solar
panel from any damage.
LightSwitch Encapsulent- An anti-reflective material used to capture
more of the suns photons.
Metalization- A series of Photovoltaic cells that are used to harvest
the power from the sun.
Encapsulent- The encasement of the electrical components that
insulates the component as a whole and protects the wires from the
Back sheet- Used to protect the photovoltaic cells and electrical
components from external harm and stress.
Terminal and leads- Feeds the power produced from the
photovoltaic cells to where it is needed.
COMPONENTS OF A SOLAR PANEL
• "Energy.gov." How Do Wind Turbines Work? N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.
• "Green Energy Usage in the Us - Google Search." Green Energy Usage in the
Us - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.
• "Layering of a Photovoltaic Cell - Google Search." Layering of a Photovoltaic
Cell - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.
• N.p., n.d. Web.
• "Photovoltaic Cell Parts - Google Search." Photovoltaic Cell Parts - Google
Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.
• "Wind Power Glossary." Otherpower. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 May 2014.