The Iliad by Homer (Yeng Bunsoy)


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I made this power point presentation in World Literature for I was assigned to report about the full story of "The Iliad" by Homer. Additionally, this presentation includes themes and literary approach applied in the story. I hope this could help you in literature subject. :)

Instructor: Mr. Jaime M. Forbes
Presenter: Marie Buena "Yeng" Bunsoy

Published in: Education, News & Politics
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The Iliad by Homer (Yeng Bunsoy)

  1. 1. HOMER’S
  2. 2. HOMER •the greatest of ancient Greek epic poets •Lived in 850 BC, 12th century BC, or 7th century BC •Teacher of Greece •"the date of Homer" refers not to an individual, but to the period when the epics were created •Melesigenes •The poet's name is homophonous with ὅμηρος (hómēros), "hostage" (or "surety") •Iliad was composed by "Homer" in his maturity, while the Odyssey was a work of his old age •Homeric poems are dependent on an oral tradition
  3. 3. The Iliad “The Song of Ilion” or “The Song of Ilium”  Ancient Greek epic poem written in dactylic hexameters  tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemmnon and the warrior Achilles  the story covers only a few weeks in the final year of the war (Medias Res)  the epic narrative takes up events prophesied for the future, such as Achilles' looming death  usually dated to around the eighth century BC  contains 15,693 lines written in Homeric Greek
  4. 4. Characters: The Greeks  Agamemmnon — King of Mycenae, leader of the Greeks.  Achilles — Leader of the Myrmidons, half-divine hero.  Odysseus — King of Ithaca, the wiliest Greek commander and hero of the Odyssey.  Ajax the Greater — son of Telamon, with Diomedes, he is second to Achilles in martial prowess.  Menelaus — King of Sparta, husband of Helen and brother of Agamemnon.  Diomedes — son of Tydeus, King of Argos  Ajax the Lesser — son of Oileus, often partner of Ajax the Greater.  Patroclus — Achilles’ closest companion.  Nestor — King of Pylos, and trusted advisor to Agamemnon.
  5. 5. Characters: The Trojan Men  Hector — son of King Priam and the foremost Trojan warrior.  Aeneas — son of Anchises and Aphrodite.  Paris — Helen’s lover-abductor  Deiphobus — brother of Hector and Paris.  Priam — the aged King of Troy.  Polydamas — a prudent commander whose advice is ignored; he is Hector’s foil.  Agenor — a Trojan warrior, son of Antenor, who attempts to fight Achilles (Book XXI).  Sarpedon, son of Zeus — killed by Patroclus. Was friend of Glaucus and co- leader of the Lycians (fought for the Trojans).  Glaucus, son of Hippolochus— friend of Sarpedon and co-leader of the Lycians (fought for the Trojans).  Euphorbus — first Trojan warrior to wound Patroclus.  Dolon — a spy upon the Greek camp (Book X).  Antenor — King Priam’s advisor, who argues for returning Helen to end the war.  Polydorus — son of Priam and Laothoe  Pandarus — famous archer and son of Lycaon.
  6. 6. Characters: The Trojan Women  Hecuba— Priam’s wife, mother of Hector, Cassandra, Paris, and others.  Helen— abducted by Paris  Andromache — Hector’s wife, mother of Astyanax  Cassandra — Priam’s daughter; courted by Apollo, who bestows the gift of prophecy to her  Briseis— a Trojan woman captured by the Greeks; she was Achilles' prize of the Trojan war.
  7. 7. Characters: Gods and Goddesses  Zeus (Neutral)  Hera (Achaeans)  Artemis (Trojans)  Apollo (Trojans)  Hades (Neutral)  Aphrodite (Trojans)  Ares (Trojans)  Athena (Achaeans)  Hermes (Neutral)  Poseidon (Achaeans)  Hephaestus (Neutral)  Iris (Achaeans)
  8. 8. takes place in the tenth year of the Trojan War Greece and Troy
  9. 9. Prologue: The Judgment of Paris Paris was called to judge to whom the golden apple would be given among Pallas Athena, Aphrodite, and Hera “For the Fairest”
  10. 10.  Hera: I promise to make you the Lord of Europe and Asia!  Athena: You will lead the Trojans to victory against the Greeks and lay Greece in ruins!  Aphrodite: The fairest woman in the world should be yours! Paris chose Aphrodite. This was how the Trojan War began.
  11. 11. Trojan War  Aphrodite led Paris to Sparta and he left Oenone for Helen.  Menelaus and Helen welcomed him as their guest. Paris broke his trust and completely left to Paris his home and went off to Crete. BUT…
  12. 12. “Paris who coming Entered a friend’s kind dwelling, Shamed the hand there that gave him food, Stealing away a woman.”
  13. 13. Menelaus got back to find Helen gone, and he called upon all Greece to help him. Wanted: Odysseus and Achilles (later go to the Greek camp) Aulis- a place of dangerous winds and strong tides
  14. 14. Calchas declared that the Gods had spoken to him: Artemis was angry. Iphigenia must be sacrificed for them to have a safe voyage to Troy.
  15. 15. Agamemmnon wrote to his wife that he had arranged marriage to Iphigenia and Achilles. When she came to her wedding, she was carried to the altar to be killed. “And all her prayers---cries of Father, Father, Her maiden life, These they held as nothing, The savage warriors, battle-mad.”
  16. 16.  Protesilaus died upon leaping ashore to the mouth of Simois and Hermes brought him up from the dead to see once again his deeply, mourning wife, Laodamia.  Laodamia killed herself and went to the underworld with Protesilaus.
  17. 17. “Very brief is your lot. Would that you could be free now from tears and troubles, for you shall not long endure, my child, short-lived beyond all men and to be pitied.” ~Thetis to Achilles
  18. 18. “I know well in my heart and in my soul, the day shall come when holy Troy will be laid low and Priam and Priam’s people.” ~Hector to Andromache
  19. 19. Achilles vs. Agamemmnon  Chryses, a Trojan priest of Apollo, offers the Greeks wealth for the return of his daughter Chryseis.  He prayed to Apollo and he set up a plague against the Greek Army.  Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father, but also decides to take Achilles's captive, Briseis, as compensation.
  20. 20.  Achilles asks his mother, Thetis, to ask Zeus that the Greeks be brought to the breaking point by the Trojans, so Agamemnon will realize how much the Greeks need him.  Zeus sent a dream to Agamemmnon, urging him to attack Troy.
  21. 21. Paris vs. Menelaus  Paris offers to end the war by fighting a duel with Menelaus  Helen promised Priam to abide by the outcome of the duel.  Aphrodite rescues him and leads him to bed with Helen before Menelaus could kill him.
  22. 22.  Greeks: Ajax and Diomedes  Trojans: Prince Aeneas (Aphrodite’s son)  Diomedes wounded her hand and she let Aeneas fall.  Diomedes (with the help of Hera) vs. Hector (with the help of Ares)  Ares was terribly wounded and went back to Olympus.
  23. 23. “Lady Athena, spare the city and the wives of the Trojans and the little children.” ~Hector
  24. 24. Andromache: My dear lord, you are the father and mother and brother unto me as well as husband, stay here with us. Do not make me a widow and your child an orphan.” Hector: I could not be a coward. It was for me to fight always in the forefront of the battle. Hector to Astyanax: Far greater is he than his father was.
  25. 25.  Zeus helped the Trojans as a promise to Thetis.  Nestor told Agamemmnon that if he had not angered Achilles, they would not have been defeated.  Agamemmnon brought Briseis back to Achilles and give them all the riches.  Achilles angrily refuses Agamemnon's offer, and declares that he would only return to battle if the Trojans reach his ships and threaten them with fire.
  26. 26. Because of Hera, the battled turned in favor of the Greeks. Poseidon was begged by Hera to help the Greeks and Zeus sent Iris to withdraw from the field. Apollo revived Hector.
  27. 27. “You can keep your wrath while your countrymen go down in ruin. I cannot. Give me your armor. If they think I am you, the Trojans may pause and the worn- out Greeks have a breathing space. You and I are fresh. We might yet drive back the enemy. But if you will sit nursing your anger, at least let me have the armor.” ~Patroclus
  28. 28. “That way, they can cut off the Army’s retreat. Go. Take my armor, my men too, and defend the ships. I cannot go. I am a man dishonored. For my own ships, if the battle comes near them, I will fight. I will not fight for men who have disgraced me.” ~Achilles
  29. 29. The Death of Patroclus “Bitter tidings. Patroclus is fallen and Hector has his armor.” ~Antilochus
  30. 30. Achilles: I will no longer live among men, if I do not make Hector pay his death for he himself for Patroclus dead. Thetis: You yourself is fated to die straightway after Hector. Achilles: So may I do. I who did not help my comrade in his sore need. I will kill the destroyer of him I loved; then I will accept death when it comes.
  31. 31. Achilles vs. Hector Hector: If I kill you, I will give back your body to your friends and do you do the same to me. Achilles: Madman. There are no covenants between sheep and wolves, nor between you and me. (hurling his spear)
  32. 32. The Death of Hector Before Hector could approach, he who knew well that armor taken by Hector from the dead Patroclus aimed at an opening in it near the throat, and drove the spearpoint in. HECTOR FELL, DYING AT LAST!
  33. 33. The Death of Hector Hector (dying): Give back my body to my father and my mother. Achilles: No prayers from you to me, you dog. I would that I could make myself devour raw your flesh for the evil you have brought upon me.
  34. 34. Achilles pierced the feet of Hector and fastened them with thongs to the back of his chariot, letting the head trail. He lashed his horses and round and round the walls of Troy he dragged all that was left for Hector.
  35. 35. Achilles to the dead Patroclus “Hear me even in the house of Hades. I have dragged Hector behind my chariot and I will give him to the dogs to devour beside your funeral pyre.”
  36. 36. King Priam: Remember, Achilles, your own father, of like years with me and like me wretched for want of a son. Yet, I am by far more to be pitied who have braved what no man on earth ever did before, to stretch out my hand, to the slayer of my son. Achilles: Sit me by here, and let our sorrow lie quiet in our hearts. Evil is all men’s lot, but yet, we must keep courage.
  37. 37. “The other Trojans upbraid me. But always I had comfort from you through the gentleness of your spirit and your gentle words. You only were my friend.” ~Helen of Troy to King Priam
  38. 38.  The Trojans lamented Hector for 9 days.  When all was burned, they quenched the flame with wine and gathered the bones into a golden urn, shrouding them in soft purple. And with it, the Iliad ends.
  39. 39. The Fall of Troy
  40. 40. Achilles killed Prince Memnon of Ethiopia Paris shot an arrow at Achilles and Apollo struck his foot in the one spot where he could be wounded… HIS HEEL.
  41. 41.  Marvelous arms Thetis had brought Achilles caused the death of Ajax.  Odysseus got the arms and Ajax who was defeated was held to be dishonored.  Ajax was determined to kill Agamemmnon and Menelaus.  Because of his anger, he killed the flocks and herds of the Greeks.
  42. 42. “The poor cattle killed to no purpose by my hand. And I stand here alone, hateful to men and to gods. In such a state only a coward clings to life. A man, if he cannot live nobly, can die nobly.” ~Ajax
  43. 43.  There was a man from the Trojans who knew the future, the prophet Helenus.  Troy would not fall until some one fought against the Trojans with the bow and arrows of Hercules.  Greeks stopped at an island to offer a sacrifice, and Philocletes was bitten by a serpent, and left him at Lemnos.
  44. 44. Philoctetes wounded Paris with his arrows. Paris begged to carry him to Mount Ida where Oenone and he once lived to be healed. But Oenone only watched him died.
  45. 45.  As long as the Trojans had the Palladium, the Greeks could not defeat them.  Diomedes stole the Palladium with the help of Odysseus.  The Greeks thought of a way to defeat the Trojans.
  46. 46. The Stratagem of the Wooden Horse  Created by Odysseus  The wooden horse could hold a number of men.  Only Neoptolemus was not terror- stricken  Men inside the Trojan horse would surely die.
  47. 47. The Plan  To leave a single Greek behind in the deserted camp for the Trojans to bring the horse in their city  At night, the Greeks would come out of the horse and open the city gates to the Army
  48. 48. In front of the Scaean gates stood an enormous figure of a horse Sinon told Priam that the horse was a votive offering to Pallas Athena.
  49. 49.  Priest Laocoon warned the Trojans to destroy the wooden horse immediately.  Cassandra had echoed his warning, but no one believed her.  Two serpents crushed the life out of Laocoon and his two sons.
  50. 50.  Trojans dragged the horse through the gate and up to the temple of Athena.  In the middle of the night, the door in the horse opened.  Troy was burning.  Achilles’ son struck Priam down before the eyes of Hecuba and their daughters.
  51. 51.  Aeneas fought the Greeks alone.  Even with Aphrodite’s wife, he couldn’t really save his wife and children.  Aphrodite helped Helen got out of the city and took her to Menelaus.  Only Hecuba, Andromache, and other Trojan women survived.  Death of Astyanax
  52. 52. Andromache: Not that he does not go with me? Herald: The boy must die—be thrown Down from the towering wall of Troy. Now—now—let it be done. Endure Like a brave woman. Think. You are alone. One woman and a slave and no help anywhere.
  53. 53. “Weeping, my little one? There, there. You cannot know what waits for you. --How will it be? Falling down—down— down—all broken— And none to pity. Kiss me. Never again. Come closer, closer. Your mother who bore you—put your arms around my neck. Now kiss me, lips to lips.” ~Andromache
  54. 54. polyxena’s Death
  55. 55. “Troy has perished, the great city. Only the red flame now lives there. The dust is rising, spreading out like a great wing of smoke, And all his hidden. We are gone, one here, one there. And Troy is gone forever.”
  56. 56. THEME
  57. 57. Fate and Freewill because everything is fated doesn't mean there isn't any freedom the gods don't control fate
  58. 58.  The Iliad’s male characters are motivated in some way by considerations of their social standing  Priam and Patroclus  depicted as a destructive force  shown as having some benefits
  59. 59. Competition  The way to get reputation and pride  Hector prays that his son will grow up to be a better warrior than him  He wants to be able to boast about having a better son than anyone else.
  60. 60. Compassion and Forgiveness  Achilles refuses the offerings of King Agamemmnon and did not show compassion to the Greeks  He refuses to make any deal with Hector
  61. 61. Friendship Achilles strong comradeship with Patroclus Helen and Hector
  62. 62. Love  Hector and Andromache  Not only love as a spouse, but a parental love to Astyanax  Priam’s love for Hector  Hera’s seduction of Zeus  Forbidden love of Paris and Helen
  63. 63. Hate Achilles’ anger to Agememmnon and Hector
  64. 64. Warfare Battle scenes are petrifying and brutal War is an almost inevitable part of human life
  65. 65. Religion  Gods and Goddesses are a daily presence in people's lives  the mortals honor the gods with sacrifices, but they expect favors in return
  66. 66. Glory of War  Paris  Achilles  To fight is to prove one’s honor and integrity, while to avoid warfare is to demonstrate laziness, ignoble fear, or misaligned priorities  Homer portrays each side as having a justifiable reason to fight and depicts warfare as a respectable and even glorious manner of settling the dispute
  67. 67. Military Glory over Family Life  One wins in the eyes of others by performing great deeds  Hector knows that fighting among the front ranks represents the only means of “winning my father great glory.”  Achilles chose to avenge Patroclus and kill Hector rather than to stay with his aged father.
  68. 68. SYMBOLISMS
  69. 69. Achaean Ships  future of the Greek race  the heroes represented here actually lived historically, as real kings who ruled the various city-states of Greece in their earliest years  The mass death of these leaders and role models would have meant the decimation of a civilization.
  70. 70. Shield of Achilles  The world beyond the battlefield  Life as a whole  Human beings may serve not only as warriors but also as artisans and laborers in the fields
  71. 71. Historical Approach  reflected in the Homeric poems derives from a tradition of epic poetry founded on a war which actually took place  Others accept that there may be a foundation of historical events in the Homeric narrative, but say that in the absence of independent evidence it is not possible to separate fact from myth
  72. 72.  Represent an historical campaign that took place at the eve of the decline of the Mycenaean civilization  The Achilles of the Linear B tablet is a shepherd, not a king or warrior  Some story elements from the tablets appear in the Iliad  Troy VIh and Troy VIIa, both appear to have been destroyed by fires  The helmets covered with wild boar teeth described in the Iliad can be found on Bronze Age archeological contexts
  73. 73.  Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as Hisarlik (and other locations such as the Greek camp)  One may see Homer or his informants as eyewitnesses to Troy and the landscape of Troy at the close of the eighth century B.C., the period when scholars generally agree Homer composed his epic  there were several armed conflicts in and around Troy at the end of the Late Bronze Age
  74. 74. Gilgamesh The Iliad (Achilles) A warrior king Expressed the achievements of great warriors Partly divine, partly mortal Mixed divine and human heritage Expressed severe loneliness in Enkidu’s death Expressed severe loneliness in Patorclus’ death Strives to achieve immortality for Enkidu Could not surpass death
  75. 75. A bull was sent for him to battle Apollo set a plague that wipes out a large number of soldiers in the Greek camp. Searching for immortality Searching for honor Attempted to ressurect Enkidu’s body Accepted Patroclus’ death and avenged him Raped the daughters in each family Women enjoyed Achilles’ “company” Death was his destiny Death was his destiny