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  1. 1. Oceans The Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and the Southern.
  2. 2. Ocean Water and Life Waves- movement in which water alternately rises and falls Wave characteristics o Crest- top o Trough- bottom o Wavelength- distance from crest to crest o Wave Height- distance from trough to crest Waves move forward and then the water in them circles back, so in this way it mostly stays in one spot Waves Breaking o Whitecaps near shore are pushed up as water gets too shallow o More energy put into height not width o Friction with bottom causes motion to change o Out in ocean, not many breakers because of the depth
  3. 3. Winds are caused by wind  Greater speed = bigger waves  Greater time wind blows = bigger waves  Greater distance over which wind acts = bigger waves Waves continue moving after wind has stopped Once they are going they continue on to shore Tsunami- wave caused by earthquakes that hit ground under the ocean Ocean tides- long, slow waves that result in a rise or fall of the ocean level Tides are caused by gravitational attraction among the sun, moon, and earth High tide occurs on opposite sides of planet at the same time- twice a day Sun either strengthens or weakens the moons pull All 3 line up- spring tides Neap tide- high/low tides are closer
  4. 4. Between high/low tide is known as the intertidal zone Intertidal zone holds variety of plant/animal life with adaptation for environment Thriving area even though it is exposed and pounded with waves ¾ of the earth is covered by ocean water (salt water) Science believed these formed years ago when water vapor escaped to the atmosphere in volcanic eruptions, condensed, and then precipitated The saltiness of ocean water comes from water run off over minerals over a long period of time Salinity- measure of the amount of salts dissolved in ocean water 1000 grams of water has 35 grams of salt Oceans stay about the same saltiness on average Oceans also contain dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide. These two things allow for a variety of sea life Breathing/ photosynthesis take place underwater
  5. 5. Ocean Currents Ocean currents- movement of water in certain direction, not shifting around Surface currents- movement of water that affects only the upper 100 m of seawater • Caused by wind • Affect weather by bringing warm or cold water • Ship captains must know the currents
  6. 6. Currents Affect on Marine Life Surface currents move around all the life that is called plankton- algae, small animals etc. Most larger sea animals depend on this plankton in some form or another There for the animals that can move (nekton) live near where plankton is passing by or by the surface current areas Density Currents • Affect deeper water than surface currents, usually below 400 ft • Two factors cause these currents • Differences in salt concentration • Differences in temperature
  7. 7. In both situations, the higher or lower density of the seawater drives these currents High dense sinks, low dense rises and thus a current is formed Salinity Currents • • Caused by freezing of salt water near the poles The water becomes a higher salinity near poles, it sinks and pushes other water out of its way Temperature Currents • • • Cold water sinks and warm water rises. Currents form where this occurs UPWELLING- deep cool water rises to replace warm water that is being driven off by winds Any upwelling will cause more movement down below
  8. 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u64ppKBY3cM