Two main contributors to the success of solar energy in the US is price and available of raw sources.To compete with fossil fuel and other traditional and alternative forms of energy sources the price of the solar energy will need to competitive. The U.S. market is short sighted, long term goals are hard to sell. The benefit to the consumer needs to be short term and easily calculated. The price has come down, in 1982 the average price per watt peak was $27.00 today it is $4.00 per watt peak. The current kilowatt hour is around .30 cents this needs to be around .10 cents to be competitive with other renewable sources of and energy and to be able to capture a larger share of the electricity market.In 2004 Germany increased their purchase of silicone to make the new solar cells that are silicone wafers. This consumption caused a shortage and increased the price of the raw materials needed to produce silicone solar cells. To sustain growth in the solar energy industry the raw materials will be available to keep a steady supply to keep the price low and the production high.
Technological changes, the newest ceramic battery small, afforable does not produce the heat of Increasing cost of heating and cooling homes, the greenhouse affect, and the need for clean, sustainable renewable, affordable energy.Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) is expensive because the Gallium portion it is rarer than gold. Gallium is the byproduct of aluminum and zinc. It is in the best interest of the solar energy industry to lobby for government funding and find ways to fund research and development to finding ways new ways to collect, store and disseminate solar energy.
Moving toward solar energy will require a well educated customer base and work force to produce, maintain and understand the distinct benefits and challenges of using solar energy.As new innovations are researched and developed the workforce will be needed who understand the complexities of the new systems and are able to meet the challenges of the future technology.
The most cutting edge idea today, using huge arrays in space was first conceptualized by Dr. Peter Glaser inDavid Criswell Director of the Institute for Space Systems Operations at he University of Houston is suggesting that Building solar collectors on the moon and beaming the energy back to earth.More down to earth there is a project in the Mojave desert to install a very large area of photovoltaic cells. According to Zweibel, Mason and Fthenakis it would take $420 billion in subsidies from 2011 to 2050 to fund the infrastructure and make it cost-competitive.
In the beginning…<br />(Giaquinto, 2007)<br />Many consumers assume that solar power is a relatively new power source but this could not be further from the truth. <br />Scientist believe that the Earth was created around 5 billion years ago from the extra debris circling our newly created Sun. Slowly the smaller pieces clumped together to form the planets, Earth being one of them. <br />Most biblical based religions believe the Earth was created by a god and is anything from 5,000-10,000 years old. <br />So no matter your belief, the sun has been around from the beginning of time as we know it.<br />(Wikipedia, 2010)<br />
Here comes the sun…A brief history<br /><ul><li>The sun has been known to be a source of energy dating back to ancient times.
The ancient Greek and Native Americans were the first to use solar power to their benefit back as early as 400 BC (Daviss, 2007)</li></ul>(National, 2010)<br /><ul><li>1776 - the first solar collector was built. This collector was built by a gentleman named Horace de Saussare.
1894 - the first patent was given for the first “Solar Cell”
In the 1900’s research continued with stronger efficiency as the years progressed.
1991 - U.S. President Bush directs to establish the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
2002 - President George H W Bush direct to install the first solar panel on the roof of the maintenance building for the capital.
2010 - President Barack Obama orders installation of additional solar panels and a solar hot water heater at the White House</li></ul>(Wikipedia, 2010)<br />(Couvering, 2008)<br />
A number of factors that are driving strong growth in the solar industry<br />• Federal, state, and local policy incentives.<br />• Market volatility, especially with respect to natural gas and oil.<br />• Climate change and likely carbon regulations.<br />• Energy security issues.<br />• Need for increased energy production to meet growing demand (China, India, etc.).<br />• Interest from financial community in “next big thing”.<br />(Margolis, 2009)<br />(Hodge, 2009)<br />
Socio-Cultural: Demographics<br />Who pays for solar energy?<br />The answer to that question would depend upon what part of the world you live in.<br />Australian retired engineer Mr. Baron says in his blog states that there are tariffs and taxes that labor government is pushing hard where consumers with solar panels will pay a ridiculous rate the ordinary tariff. (Baron, 2010)<br /> Outside of $10,000 worth of raw materials needed to build and design a solar energy system a couple claims solar energy pays for itself in N.Y.-America. (Scee II, 2010)<br />In the UK MHW magazine states this could be their way out of a recession. Right now if you get into solar energy you stand to gain over 8.5% more on your investment than if you wait until 2012.<br />
Socio-Cultural: Values, Beliefs, Lifestyles<br />Michael Eckhart, president of The American Council on Renewable Energy says that Money spent on new energy incentives pays for itself.<br />GE studies claims that there are new studies showing that alternative energy will bring some $250 million into the U.S. Treasury. <br />The cost from the incentive programs will be offset by income tax revenue from the worker’s wages, project vendors and power output after the 10-year credit period ends.(Eckhart, 2008)<br />(Thompson, 2008)<br />
Solar Politics<br />(Thompson, 2005)<br />The energy we receive from the sun is our birthright like the air we breath or the water we drink. <br />Alternative fuels and sources of energy are<br /> gaining traction due to the costs of fuel prices Geothermal energy (heat within the earth’s core) is expected to cost about 7.3 cents per kilowatt hour by 2030 compared to 8.1 cents per kilowatt for wind, 12.5 cents per kilowatt hour for concentrating solar thermal and about 22.9 cents per kilowatt hour for solar photovoltaic. Based on current known technology for collecting, storage and distribution of the different types of energy.<br />The use of solar energy offers a safe, <br />environmentally less destructive <br />technology that can usher in a new era of post-industrial development. <br />(Unknown, Green Economics, 2007)<br />
Political Aspects Who will own the rights to solar power?<br />Ideally there would be joint ownership with government supplying money and resources for R&D, incentives and tax breaks and corporations finding new ways to utilize and bring solar power to their customers.<br />In the bid to control the new emerging markets for solar energy a monopoly could form much like Microsoft in the computer industry.<br />When one corporation goes unchallenged the industry suffers. Diversity is the key to innovation.<br />Talkaboutissues, 2010<br />Global Clean predictions for US combined corporate and government spending.<br />(New Energy News, 2010)<br />China is on the forefront of the solar energy frontier. According to Pew report China invested $34.6 billion in 2009 the US was reported to have spent $18.6 billion on clean energy projects. At the current pace China will win the solar energy race and the United States will be the loser.<br />
Economic Considerations<br />Fat Knowledge, 2008<br />Grid Parity<br />Available raw materials, shortages increase prices. <br />Money for R&D to stay ahead of the curve.<br />
Technological Change <br />Ceramic battery<br /><ul><li> Small
Uses both light and heat of the sun to create electricity. (Trends Updates, 2010)</li></ul>Trends Updates, 2010<br />
Educational Changes<br /><ul><li>Technology has changed the pace and access to knowledge.
The education process has become, easier, cheaper, deeper and wider.</li></ul>Microsoft Clip Art, 2010<br />A more sophisticated workforce and consumer base will facilitate the advancement of solar energy.<br />The solar industry will profit from a well educated population.<br />
Forecasting<br />Sun gathering satellite in geosynchronous orbit around the earth gather solar energy 365 and beaming back down to earth to be converted to usable energy.<br />Moon based solar array to collect solar energy and beam it back to earth.<br />Earth bound solar collection in the desert. <br />Farrar (2008)<br />
Part II<br />Solar Energy as an Alternative Energy<br />Please close this presentation and proceed to this IP Address:<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N4Fsc-I8K1I <br />