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- 1. Introduction Visualization Machine Learning Visualization and Machine Learning for exploratory data analysis Xiaochun Li1,2 1 Division of Biostatistics Indiana University School of Medicine 2 Regenstrief Institute May 2, 2008 / CCBB Journal Club Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 2. Introduction Visualization Machine Learning Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 3. Introduction Visualization Machine Learning Introduction Mining large scale datasets, methods are needed to search for patterns, e.g., biologically important gene sets, or samples present data structure succinctly both are essential in the analysis. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 4. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Objective Visualization An essential part of exploratory data analysis, and reporting the results. plot data as is plot data after simple summarization plot data based on more advanced methods clustering PCA (Principal component analysis) MDS (Multidimensional scaling) Silhouette, randomForest, . . . Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 5. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 6. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Plot data as is Quality Inspection An affymetrics chip image. Some images may have obvious local contaminations. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 7. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Plot data as is Quality Inspection Ins+, white Ins−, white 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 An RNAi experiment with 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Ins+, black Ins−, black white and black plates, 1 2 1 2 insulin stimulated +/-. 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 8. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Plot data as is R tools image or heatmap for any chip arrays for cell-based assays, could also use plotPlate in R package prada Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 9. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 10. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Simple Summarization Along Genomic Coordinates Cumulative expression levels by genes in chromosome 21 scaling method: none − + − + + + − − + − + − + + − − + + − + + − Cumulative expression 80000 proﬁles along Chromosome 21 for 60000 samples from 10 children Cumulative expression levels with trisomy 21 and a transient myeloid 40000 disorder, colored in red, and children with different 20000 subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (M7), colored in blue. 0 ATP5O DYRK1A DYRK1A RUNX1 RUNX1 NRIP1 BTG3 JAM2 ADAMTS1 CCT8 GRIK1 HUNK SYNJ1 IFNAR2 C21orf55 SON ITSN1 DSCR1 CBR3 CLDN14 DSCR5 TTC3 DSCR4 KCNJ15 ETS2 HMGN1 BACE2 ANKRD3 TFF1 PDE9A U2AF1 PDXK TMEM1 B7H2 AIRE C21orf2 UBE2G2 ADARB1 COL18A1 SLC19A1 COL6A1 COL6A1 LSS MCM3AP Representative Genes Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 11. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Simple Summarization Along Genomic Coordinates The previous wiggle plot was produced using alongChrom of the R package geneplotter Could plot just a segment of chromosome of interest Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 12. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 13. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods MASS Spec Example “Latin Square” Design for B-F Group Cytochrome c Ubiquitin Lysozyme Myoglobin Trypsinogen A 0 0 0 0 0 B 0 1 2 5 10 C 1 2 5 10 0 D 2 5 10 0 1 E 5 10 0 1 2 F 10 0 1 2 5 G 10 10 10 10 10 Design and the protein concentration, proteins 1= Ubiquitin (1 fmol/uL), Cytochrome/Lysozyme/Myoglobin (10 fmol/uL), Trypsinogen(100 fmol/uL) Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 14. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Mass Spec Example 40 30 One spectrum from x[1, ] 20 group A 10 0 0e+00 2e+04 4e+04 6e+04 8e+04 1e+05 mz Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 15. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Mass Spec MDS Classical MDS scaling results of 39 200 150 spectra from groups 100 A, D and G. Circles third coordinate 50 qq q represent group A, qq q 0 q q q squares group D second coordinate q −200 −150 −100 −50 q q q 400 and triangles group 0 200 G. Each group has −200 −400 13 spectra. −600 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 first coordinate Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 16. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods MASS Spec pairs plot 0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 80 60 spec 1 The outlier in group 40 20 A and 3 other 0 40 spectra from the 30 0.66 spec 2 same group are 20 10 plotted against each 0 other. The lower left 40 30 0.60 0.98 spec 3 panels show the 20 10 0 Pearson correlation coefﬁcients of pairs 30 0.59 0.97 0.99 of spectra. 20 spec 4 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 0 10 20 30 40 Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 17. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods MASS Spec pairs plot 0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 30 25 20 spec 1 The outlier in group 15 10 A and 3 other 5 0 40 spectra from the 30 0.99 spec 2 same group are 20 10 plotted against each 0 other. The lower left 40 30 0.96 0.98 spec 3 panels show the 20 10 0 Pearson correlation coefﬁcients of pairs 30 0.96 0.98 0.99 of spectra. 20 spec 4 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 10 20 30 40 Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 18. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Mass Spec MDS: 3-D Classical MDS scaling results of 39 spectra from groups second coordinate q q A, D and G. Circles 200 q qq qq 200 represent group A, 100 q 150 third coordinate q q q q q 100 squares group D 50 and triangles group 0 0 −50 G. Each group has −100 −100 −150 13 spectra. −200 −200 −400 −300 −200 −100 0 100 200 300 400 first coordinate Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 19. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Silhouette plot visualize clustering results Cluster Dendrogram 50 40 Dendrogram of clustering results of 30 39 spectra from Height groups A, D and G - 20 before and after low molecular range is 10 removed. G D 0 G G G G G G D D D G D D A A D G A A D D G G D D D D G G A A A A A A A A A d.s.nocut hclust (*, "complete") Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 20. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Silhouette plot visualize clustering results Cluster Dendrogram 400 Dendrogram of 300 clustering results of 39 spectra from Height 200 groups A, D and G - before and after low 100 molecular range is G G removed. D D G A 0 G G A A G G D G G D D G G A A D D G G A D D A D D D D A A A A A A d.s.cut hclust (*, "complete") Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 21. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Silhouette plot visualize clustering results whole spec n = 39 3 clusters Cj j : nj | avei∈Cj si ∈ 1 : 17 | 0.67 Silhouette plot of clustering results of 39 spectra from groups A, D and G - 2 : 16 | 0.48 before and after low molecular range is removed. 3 : 6 | 0.56 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Silhouette width si Average silhouette width : 0.57 Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 22. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Silhouette plot visualize clustering results mz<1000 cut n = 39 3 clusters Cj j : nj | avei∈Cj si ∈ 1 : 13 | 0.82 Silhouette plot of clustering results of 39 spectra from 2 : 13 | 0.60 groups A, D and G - before and after low molecular range is 3 : 13 | 0.53 removed. 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Silhouette width si Average silhouette width : 0.65 Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 23. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Silhouette plot silhouette width For each observation i, the silhouette width si is deﬁned as follows: ai = average dissimilarity between i and all other points of the cluster to which i belongs for all other clusters C, put di,C = average dissimilarity of i to all observations of C bi = minC di,C , and can be seen as the dissimilarity between i and its “neighbor” cluster, i.e., the nearest one to which it does not belong si = (bi − ai )/ max(ai , bi ) Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 24. Introduction As Is Visualization Simple Summarization Machine Learning More Advanced Methods Visualization R tools classical MDS: cmdscale 2-D, 3-D scatter plot: plot and R package scatterplot3d 2-D scatter plot matrix: pairs silhouette plot: silhouette Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 25. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Machine Learning Machine Learning: computational and statistical approaches to extract important patterns and trends hidden in large data sets. Supervised: predict outcome y based on X , a number of inputs (variables). E.g., predict the class labels of “tumor” or “normal”, based on gene expression Unsupervised: no y ; describe the associations and patterns among X . E.g., which subset of genes has similar expression? Which subgroup of patients has similar gene expression proﬁles? Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 26. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Machine Learning Machine Learning: computational and statistical approaches to extract important patterns and trends hidden in large data sets. Supervised: predict outcome y based on X , a number of inputs (variables). E.g., predict the class labels of “tumor” or “normal”, based on gene expression Unsupervised: no y ; describe the associations and patterns among X . E.g., which subset of genes has similar expression? Which subgroup of patients has similar gene expression proﬁles? Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 27. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Machine Learning Machine Learning: computational and statistical approaches to extract important patterns and trends hidden in large data sets. Supervised: predict outcome y based on X , a number of inputs (variables). E.g., predict the class labels of “tumor” or “normal”, based on gene expression Unsupervised: no y ; describe the associations and patterns among X . E.g., which subset of genes has similar expression? Which subgroup of patients has similar gene expression proﬁles? Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 28. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Machine Learning Machine Learning: computational and statistical approaches to extract important patterns and trends hidden in large data sets. Supervised: predict outcome y based on X , a number of inputs (variables). E.g., predict the class labels of “tumor” or “normal”, based on gene expression Unsupervised: no y ; describe the associations and patterns among X . E.g., which subset of genes has similar expression? Which subgroup of patients has similar gene expression proﬁles? Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 29. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 30. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Supervised Learning linear model nearest neighbor (k -nn) LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis): same covariance Σ across classes LDA variants: QDA (class-speciﬁc Σk ), DLDA (Σ is diagonal), RDA (regularized use αΣ + (1 − α)I, SVM randomForest Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 31. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 32. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised Learning Clustering PCA (Principal component analysis) MDS (Multidimensional scaling), classical MDS using Euclidean distance=PCA K-means SOM (Self-organizing maps) Unsupervised as Supervised Learning Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 33. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised as Supervised Learning through data augmentation Let g(x) be the unknown density to be estimated, and g0 (x) be a speciﬁed reference density. i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∼ g(x); assign class label Y = 1 i.i.d. xn+1 , xn+2 , . . . , x2n ∼ g0 (x); assign class label Y = 0 i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n ∼ (g(x) + g0 (x))/2 g(x)/g0 µ(x) ≡ E(Y |x) = 1+g(x)/g(x) can be estimated by 0 (x) supervised learning using the combined sample, (y1 , x1 ), (y2 , x2 ), . . . , (y2n , x2n ) µ(x) g(x) = g0 (x) 1−µ(x) E.g., using this techinque with RandomForest. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 34. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised as Supervised Learning through data augmentation Let g(x) be the unknown density to be estimated, and g0 (x) be a speciﬁed reference density. i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∼ g(x); assign class label Y = 1 i.i.d. xn+1 , xn+2 , . . . , x2n ∼ g0 (x); assign class label Y = 0 i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n ∼ (g(x) + g0 (x))/2 g(x)/g0 µ(x) ≡ E(Y |x) = 1+g(x)/g(x) can be estimated by 0 (x) supervised learning using the combined sample, (y1 , x1 ), (y2 , x2 ), . . . , (y2n , x2n ) µ(x) g(x) = g0 (x) 1−µ(x) E.g., using this techinque with RandomForest. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 35. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised as Supervised Learning through data augmentation Let g(x) be the unknown density to be estimated, and g0 (x) be a speciﬁed reference density. i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∼ g(x); assign class label Y = 1 i.i.d. xn+1 , xn+2 , . . . , x2n ∼ g0 (x); assign class label Y = 0 i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n ∼ (g(x) + g0 (x))/2 g(x)/g0 µ(x) ≡ E(Y |x) = 1+g(x)/g(x) can be estimated by 0 (x) supervised learning using the combined sample, (y1 , x1 ), (y2 , x2 ), . . . , (y2n , x2n ) µ(x) g(x) = g0 (x) 1−µ(x) E.g., using this techinque with RandomForest. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 36. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised as Supervised Learning through data augmentation Let g(x) be the unknown density to be estimated, and g0 (x) be a speciﬁed reference density. i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∼ g(x); assign class label Y = 1 i.i.d. xn+1 , xn+2 , . . . , x2n ∼ g0 (x); assign class label Y = 0 i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n ∼ (g(x) + g0 (x))/2 g(x)/g0 µ(x) ≡ E(Y |x) = 1+g(x)/g(x) can be estimated by 0 (x) supervised learning using the combined sample, (y1 , x1 ), (y2 , x2 ), . . . , (y2n , x2n ) µ(x) g(x) = g0 (x) 1−µ(x) E.g., using this techinque with RandomForest. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 37. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised as Supervised Learning through data augmentation Let g(x) be the unknown density to be estimated, and g0 (x) be a speciﬁed reference density. i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∼ g(x); assign class label Y = 1 i.i.d. xn+1 , xn+2 , . . . , x2n ∼ g0 (x); assign class label Y = 0 i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n ∼ (g(x) + g0 (x))/2 g(x)/g0 µ(x) ≡ E(Y |x) = 1+g(x)/g(x) can be estimated by 0 (x) supervised learning using the combined sample, (y1 , x1 ), (y2 , x2 ), . . . , (y2n , x2n ) µ(x) g(x) = g0 (x) 1−µ(x) E.g., using this techinque with RandomForest. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 38. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Unsupervised as Supervised Learning through data augmentation Let g(x) be the unknown density to be estimated, and g0 (x) be a speciﬁed reference density. i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ∼ g(x); assign class label Y = 1 i.i.d. xn+1 , xn+2 , . . . , x2n ∼ g0 (x); assign class label Y = 0 i.i.d. x1 , x2 , . . . , x2n ∼ (g(x) + g0 (x))/2 g(x)/g0 µ(x) ≡ E(Y |x) = 1+g(x)/g(x) can be estimated by 0 (x) supervised learning using the combined sample, (y1 , x1 ), (y2 , x2 ), . . . , (y2n , x2n ) µ(x) g(x) = g0 (x) 1−µ(x) E.g., using this techinque with RandomForest. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 39. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 40. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM What are Random Forests Random forests are a combination of tree predictors which depends on iid values random vectors, {θ k }. θ Example - Bagging (bootstrap aggregation): bootstrap samples are drawn from the training set, where θ k is counts in n boxes resulting from sampling with replacement a tree is grown from each bootstrap sample assign class per majority votes. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 41. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Motivation: Improve prediction a single tree has poor accuracy for problems with many variables, each of them having very little information e.g., genomics data sets combining trees grown using random features can improve accuracy Assess Performance training error (error rate from the training set) does not indicate performance over new data overﬁt → small training error but poor generalization error need data which were not used to grow a particular tree to assess the performance of the tree. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 42. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Strength and Correlation for a given case (X, Y), and a given ensemble of classiﬁers margin = proportion of votes for the right class − maxother classes (proportion of votes for any other class) generalization error PE ∗ = PX,Y (margin < 0) s ≡strength = EX,Y (margin) ρ ≡correlation = some correlation btw any two trees. ¯ Thm 1.2. generalization error converges Thm 2.3. Gen. Error is bounded, PE ∗ ≤ ρ(1 − s2 )/s2 . ¯ Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 43. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Random Forests Converge Theorem 1.2. As the number of trees increases, generalization error a.s. for all {θ k } converges. θ this is why random forests do not overﬁt as more trees are added, but tend to a limiting value of the generalization error. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 44. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Strategy Minimize Correlation While Keeping Strength Using randomly selected inputs or combinations of inputs at each node to grow each tree: Random Input Selection - Forest-RI at each node, select at random F variables to split on, grow the tree to maximum size and do not prune. Random Feature Selection - Forest-RC same idea as above but with F Features - "linear combinations of randomly selected L variables" with random coefﬁcients runif(L, -1, 1) ⇒ further reduce correlation Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 45. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Gauging Performance Bagging makes it possible to estimate the generalization error without a test set. Why: in any bootstrap sample, about 1/3 of cases from the original training set are left out due to sampling with 1 replacement (1 − n )n ≈ e−1 ≈ 1/3. Out-Of-Bag Estimates of Error, Strength and Correlation For each (x, y), aggregate the votes over trees grown without (x, y) - out-of-bag classiﬁer. Out-of-bag estimate of generalization error = error rate of out-of-bag classiﬁer. Same idea for out-of-bag strength and correlation. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 46. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Conclusions RandomForest Random forests do not overﬁt - effective tool in prediction. Fast in computation Out-of-bag estimates gauge the performance of the forest. Forests give results competitive with boosting and adaptive bagging, without progressively changing the training set. Their accuracy indicates that they reduce bias. Random inputs and random features produce good results in classiﬁcation but less so in regression. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 47. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Conclusions RandomForest Random forests do not overﬁt - effective tool in prediction. Fast in computation Out-of-bag estimates gauge the performance of the forest. Forests give results competitive with boosting and adaptive bagging, without progressively changing the training set. Their accuracy indicates that they reduce bias. Random inputs and random features produce good results in classiﬁcation but less so in regression. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 48. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Conclusions RandomForest Random forests do not overﬁt - effective tool in prediction. Fast in computation Out-of-bag estimates gauge the performance of the forest. Forests give results competitive with boosting and adaptive bagging, without progressively changing the training set. Their accuracy indicates that they reduce bias. Random inputs and random features produce good results in classiﬁcation but less so in regression. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 49. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Conclusions RandomForest Random forests do not overﬁt - effective tool in prediction. Fast in computation Out-of-bag estimates gauge the performance of the forest. Forests give results competitive with boosting and adaptive bagging, without progressively changing the training set. Their accuracy indicates that they reduce bias. Random inputs and random features produce good results in classiﬁcation but less so in regression. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 50. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Conclusions RandomForest Random forests do not overﬁt - effective tool in prediction. Fast in computation Out-of-bag estimates gauge the performance of the forest. Forests give results competitive with boosting and adaptive bagging, without progressively changing the training set. Their accuracy indicates that they reduce bias. Random inputs and random features produce good results in classiﬁcation but less so in regression. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 51. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM RandomForest in Unsupervised Learning RandomForest can be used in the unsupervised mode for variable selection proximity matrix (for clustering) Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 52. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM RandomForest in Unsupervised Learning RandomForest can be used in the unsupervised mode for variable selection proximity matrix (for clustering) Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 53. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization As Is Simple Summarization More Advanced Methods 3 Machine Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Random Forests SVM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 54. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM What are SVMs Support vector machines (SVMs) are a set of supervised learning methods used for classiﬁcation and regression An extension of LDA many hyperplanes could classify the data interested in the one achieving maximum separation (margin) between the two classes mathematically, for (yi , xi ), yi = ±1, i = 1, . . . , n, min 1 ||x||2 2 s.t., yi (xi x − b) ≥ 1 (if separable) 1 n min 2 ||w||2 + λ i=1 ξi s.t., ξi ≥ 0, yi (xi w − b) ≥ 1 − ξi (if not separable) Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 55. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM SVM separable case http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Svm_separating_hyperplanes.png Separable case. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/20/Svm_separating_hyperplanes.png5/2/2008 9:40:18 AM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 56. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM SVM separable case http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Svm_max_sep_hyperplane_with_margin.png Separable case. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Svm_max_sep_hyperplane_with_margin.png5/2/2008 9:41:23 AM Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 57. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Predictive Models Are we only interested in a predictive black box, or are we also interested in which features predict? p >> n, it’s easy to ﬁnd classiﬁers to separate data - are they meaningful? if features are suspected to be sparse, most features are irrelevant; need automatic feature selection. E.g., LASSO, SVM with L1 penalty Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 58. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Predictive Models Are we only interested in a predictive black box, or are we also interested in which features predict? p >> n, it’s easy to ﬁnd classiﬁers to separate data - are they meaningful? if features are suspected to be sparse, most features are irrelevant; need automatic feature selection. E.g., LASSO, SVM with L1 penalty Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML
- 59. Supervised Learning Introduction Unsupervised Learning Visualization Random Forests Machine Learning SVM Summary Visualization is an important aspect of EDA. "A picture is worth a thousand words". Supervised Learning allows one to select features, and classify (prediction). Unsupervised Learning allows study of associations among features, feature selection, and cluster. Xiaochun Li Visualization and ML

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