Annual Report


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Annual Report

  1. 1. Annual Report<br />Central Analytical Facility<br />August 16, 2008 to August 15, 2009<br />The Central Analytical Facility<br />The Central Analytical Facility (CAF) has a mission of service in support of the teaching, research and service missions of the University of Alabama. The CAF maintains major research instrumentation for teaching and research. It educates all users in the productive and safe use of the instruments. All research groups have access to this state-of-the-art instrumentation, allowing them to pursue cutting research. The instruments are available to our sister institutions across the southeast and nationwide. In addition the CAF services industry and government laboratories, located both in and out of state. <br />The CAF houses eight major instruments, a JEOL 8600 electron microprobe, a Philips XL 30 scanning electron microscope, a JEOL 7000 scanning electron microscope, a FEI Quanta 3D dual beam focus ion beam microscope, a FEI Tecnai F-20 transmission electron microscope, a Kratos Axis 165 Auger/x-ray photoelectron spectrometer, a Bruker Discovery D8 GADDS X-ray diffractometer and the Imago 3000 xSi Local Electrode Atom Probe. The technical staff of the CAF consists of a manager and two instrumentation specialists, whose responsibilities are to assure the instruments are in full operating order, acquire data for customers and train users. The CAF aspires to be the center of excellence for materials characterization in the State of Alabama and in the Southeast.<br />CAF Finances<br />The CAF operating budget is $391,000 per year. This budget is largely consumed by paying for the service contracts for each instrument (total $333,885). This requires the CAF to raise income from user fees to pay for operating expenses, instrument repairs not covered by service contract and improvements to the facilities. In the current reporting period the CAF collected $133,122.29 in user fees. Of this total, $28,045.66 (27%) was collected from users outside the University of Alabama. The total does not include the $4,476 worth of user time dedicated to using the instruments in teaching courses. The income from user fees helps to fund our operating costs. However, as we seek to acquire new instruments, the added cost of the service contract may exceed our operating budget. <br />Personnel<br />The CAF has made dramatic change in personnel. Mr. Richard Martens was promoted to Manager of the CAF. Mr. Johnny Goodwin and Mr. Rob Holler were hired as instrumentation specialists. Dr. Mohammad Shamsuzzoha was moved to a new research position outside the CAF. This position better suits his talents. This completes our technical staff.<br />The CAF organization is shown in Table 1. The CAF reports to the Vice President for Research through the Director. Greg Thompson has assumed the role of Associate Director to assist the Director while he is ill. Also reporting to the V. P. of research are the Executive Committee and the External Advisory Committee. The CAF Manager reports to the Director. Also reporting to the Director is the Users Advisory Committee. The Users Advisory Committee helps the Director recommend policy and future goals of the CAF. Reporting the CAF manager are the office staff and the technical staff. Ann Brasher is the accounting specialist. She maintains the budget, prepares billing statements and collects user fees. Mary Robinson is responsible for the web page and marketing. Jason Foster is paid a supplemental salary to assist with information technology, specifically our web page and the CAF Equipment Manager. <br />The technical staff consists of Johnny Goodwin, Rob Holler and Rich Martens, with each responsible for different instrument clusters. Johnny Goodwin is responsible for the scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Rob Holler is responsible for the electron microprobe, the Auger/XPS and the x-ray diffractometer. Rich Martens is responsible for the dual beam FIB and the LEAP. Each will be cross-trained so that we have an expert present, even when someone is absent. <br />Table 1. CAF OrganizationVice President for ResearchD. Joseph BensonExecutive CommitteeA&S and COE DeansExternal Advisory BoardDirector of the CAFDavid E. NiklesAssociate Director of the CAFGregory B. ThompsonUsers Advisory CommitteeViola Acoff, Gary Mankey, Rich Martens, Greg Thompson, Mark WeaverManager of the CAFRichard MartensAccounting SpecialistAnn BrasherSenior Office AssociateMary RobinsonInformation TechnologyJason FosterInstrumentation SpecialistJohnny GoodwinInstrumentation SpecialistRob Holler<br />Impact of the CAF<br />Figure 1. Pie chart showing the level of use by different departments in UA and by outside users.The CAF provides hands-on access for a diverse range of UA scientists and engineers. Figure 1 is a pie chart showing the level of use for each department. The two largest CAF user groups are the MINT Center and the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. Each of these use the CAF more than all the other UA users combined. The use by the departments of Geological Sciences and Metallurgical and Materials Engineering includes time the instruments are being used to teach formal courses. Groups from outside UA represent the third largest group. This group is growing and includes research groups from our sister institutions, i.e., the University of Alabama at Birmingham, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, the University of North Alabama and Mississippi State University. The unique capabilities of our local electrode atom probe have attracted academic research groups from the University of Florida, and the University of Michigan. Alabama industry (Southern Research), regional industry (Fushi Copperweld Inc., Fayetteville, TN) and national industry (Intel) have come to UA to use the instruments in the CAF. <br />Table 3. The number of CAF users from each departmentDepartmentNumberAerospace Engineering1AIME1Chemical Engineering3Chemistry29Electrical Engineering16Geology8Mechanical Engineering4Metallurgical Engineering37Microfabrication Facility3Physics6UAB Biomedical Engineering1UAB Materials1UAB Physics1University of North Alabama1University of Florida1University of Michigan1Mississippi State University1Table 2. Number of users for each of the CAF instrumentsInstrumentTraineeNoviceJourneymanBruker XRD15125FEI Dual Beam FIB18418FEI TEM181517Imago LEAP15012JEOL 8600 Microprobe1038JEOL 7000 SEM244613Philips XL 30 SEM111440XPS/Auger10410As part of our education mission, the CAF technical staff has worked hard to train a broad range of users. In table 1 is a list of users and their level of expertise. The users are largely graduate students or post docs. Trainees are learning to use the instruments in a safe and productive manner. The training is free of charge. Novices are inexperienced users who may only use the instrument during the day when the professional staff is available to assist them. Journeyman users are experienced, competent and may use the instruments at any time, 24 hours per day, and 7 days per week. We have a total of 129 users. In Table 3 is a list of the number of users from each department. The departments with the largest number of users are Metallurgical Engineering and Chemistry. About 40% of the UA users are from the College of Arts & Sciences, while about 60% are from the College of Engineering. <br />The CAF assets empower the faculty to compete for external funding. For the year beginning in October 2007 and ending in September 2008, the UA faculty users of the CAF submitted 98 proposals requesting a more than $32,400,000. In that time period the CAF faculty users had a total of 76 research grants with a total budget of more than $4,200,000. Of course the research effort must result in publications in high quality journals. Appendix 1 is a list of publications that included results obtained by the instruments in the CAF during this time period. Appendix 2 is a list of research nuggets, provided by the CAF uses. The nuggets describe significant research results obtained on the CAF instruments by the diverse community of users. <br />For faculty who do not have external funding and to pay their CAF fess, the CAF “Unfunded Project” program provides funds to cover user fees. The faculty can write a brief proposal and be granted access to the CAF instrumentation. In turn the CAF expects the faculty to submit grant proposals for external funding, educate students and publish in high quality refereed journals. They must also submit a report at the end of the granting period. The purpose is to increase the use of the CAF instruments, enhance the research productivity of the faculty and enable the faculty to compete for external funding. This policy was implemented in the spring of 2009 and to date the CAF has provided $5523.86 in support for unfunded faculty. This is only 4% of the total income from CAF user fees and therefore not a big financial burden at this time. Of those, who have taken advantage of this policy, two assistant professors from the College of Engineering have been able to leverage the CAF support into externally funded grants.<br />Stewardship of the CAF Assets<br />One responsibility of the CAF Users Advisory Committee is stewardship of the CAF assets. The committee tracks the productivity of each instrument, plans for the retirement of the older instruments and the acquisition of new instruments. In planning the committee is sensitive to the needs of all UA research faculty members, including those who have not used the CAF. The committee continuously works on a five-year plan of instrument acquisition and uses this plan to prioritize proposal writing efforts. <br />Table 4. Productivity of the CAF instruments from May 1, 2009 to August 15, 2009InstrumentUptime (%)Usage (%)JEOL 8600 Electron Microprobe8711Philips XL 30 SEM8312JEOL 7000 SEM9825FEI Dual Beam FIB7833FEI F20 TEM8931Imago LEAP10017XPS/Auger6710Bruker XRD798The CAF measures the productivity of the instruments by the percent of the time the instruments are fully operational and available for use, and by the percent of the time the instruments are being used, see Table 4. The instrument availability and usage can be determined using the CAF Equipment Manager, which can be accessed from the CAF web page ( The data in Table 4 is from the period, May 1 to August 15, 2009. We determine the percent uptime by dividing the total time the instrument is fully operational and available for use by the total calendar time elapsed. Most instruments are available at least 80% of the time. The XPS/Auger and the XRD have had problems, requiring repairs, leading to considerable down time. For both instruments the problems have been solved and in the future we expect the uptime to exceed 80%. The percent usage is determined by dividing the total time the instrument is used by the total uptime. We would like to see the instruments used at least 20% of the time, or 5 hours per day/35 hours per week. Three of the instruments were used at least 20% of the time, the JEOL SEM, the FEI dual beam FIB, and the FEI TEM. Not listed is the Hitachi H-8000 TEM. This instrument is approaching the end of its lifetime, had few trained users and was not used (0% usage). The CAF determined that it was not worth paying its service contract. The instrument was shut down and will be disposed in order to free space for future instrument acquisition. The Philips SEM has been under used, largely because the JEOL 7000 SEM has better capabilities. The XPS/Auger and the XRD have both suffered from considerable downtime due to repairs. Furthermore, the number of trained users has been small, hence the very low usage. Our recent hires will enable the CAF to train more users and we expect the productivity of these instruments to increase considerably. Clearly, the instruments are underutilized. Our approach to increasing the instrument usage is to increase the number of trained users.<br />A team from the Department of Geological Sciences, led by Harold Stowell, won a NSF award (EAR0744467) to upgrade the JEOL 8600 with a new PC-based data analysis and imaging system. The diffraction crystals in the spectrometers were also replaced allowing for higher precision microchemical analysis and faster analysis times. The NSF funded were supplemented with internal UA funds.<br />The CAF used a portion of its income from user’s fees to invest in existing instrumentation with the purpose of improving productivity. These include a manual user interface (MUI) and a live-time monitor for the FEI dual beam FIB ($23,000) and a Tomographic holder for the FEI Tecnai TEM ($12,000). <br />The Users Advisory Committee also looks to add new capabilities to the CAF. In the fall of 2008 the CAF put forward to the UA faculty a request for suggestions. The purpose was to solicit recommendations for major instrument acquisition from the UA research community. In Appendix 2 is a copy of the call for suggestions. There were three suggestions, Table 5. Rachel Frazier suggested the CAF acquire a suite of microscopes for nanoscale characterization. The CAF does not have this instrumentation. This capability would be used by a number of research groups across A&S and COE. However, it replicates some of the capabilities of the MINT Center. The CAF is still considering whether to acquire this capability. Yuebin Guo suggested the acquisition of a 3-D surface profiler and this would be a new capability. However, the CAF has not identified any potential users other than Professor Guo. Gary Mankey and Robert Metzger suggested the acquisition of a high resolution electron beam write for nanoscale patterning of materials. This would be an important acquisition that would enable faculty from A&S and COE to perform cutting edge research. It would also support Professor Metzger’s efforts to win a NSF Science and Technology Center award and the MINT Center’s effort to win a Materials Research Science and Engineering Center award. The CAF concluded that this capability would be fit in the Microfabrication Facility. <br />Table 5. Suggested instrument acquisitions in response to the call for suggestions, September 2008<br />SuggestionScientistTwo New Tools to Couple with Existing CAF Instrumentation for the Characterization of Nano-Scale Materials – A Cyto-Viva Nanoscale Microscope and Veeco Multimode V SPMRachel Frazier, AIMEAcquisition of the Talysurf CCI Machine for Research and Education in Surface Science and EngineeringYuebin Guo, Mechanical EngineeringA 10 nm E-beam WriterRobert M. Metzger, ChemistryGary J. Mankey, Physics<br />Once a year, every fall, the CAF will ask the faculty to provide suggestions for future instrument acquisition. The CAF wants to empower the faculty to influence the future direction of the CAF. This allows the Users Advisory Committee to make informed decisions about instrument acquisition. Furthermore this important activity serves to assure the UA administration that the CAF’s pans representing the needs of the research faculty. <br />Appendix 1. Publications from Projects using the Instruments in the Central Analytical Facility<br />Central Analytical Facility<br /><ul><li>R. Martens, M. G. Bersch, G. B. Thompson, M. Forseth, R. Knutson “Site Specific Atom Probe Analysis from Ceramic, Geologic and Bio-Materials” Microscopy and Microanalysis Proceedings 14(2) (2008) 1246-1247CD.
  2. 2. R.A. Morris, R.L. Martens, I. Zana, G.B. Thompson “Fabrication of High-Aspect Ratio Si Pillars for Atom Probe “Lift-out” and Field Emission Tips” Ultramicroscopy, in press</li></ul>Chemistry<br /><ul><li>"Development of Ultrahigh Surface Area Porous Electrodes using Simultaneous and Sequential Meso- and Micro-structuring Methods", Franchessa Maddox, Catherine Cook, Leigh McKenzie, Brenda O'Neil, Elizabeth A. Junkin, Christopher Redden, Soumen Basu, Martin G. Bakker*, Jan-Henrik Småtts and Mika Lindén, in Mobile Energy, edited by G. Amaratunga, A. Nathan, M. Nookala, M.C. Smart (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Volume 1127E, Warrendale, PA, 1127-T04-08, 2009.</li></ul>N. Z. Bao, L. Shen, Y.-H. A. Wang, J. Ma, D. Mazumdar, and A. Gupta, “Controlled Growth of Monodisperse Self-Supported Superparamagnetic Nanostructures of Spherical and Rod-Like CoFe2O4 Nanocrystals”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., in print. <br />Y.-H. A. Wang, C. Pan, N. Z. Bao, and A. Gupta, “Synthesis of Ternary and Quaternary CuInxGa1-xSe2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) Semiconductor Nanocrystals”, Solid State Sciences, in print.<br />N. Z. Bao, L. Shen, A. Gupta, A. Tatarenko, G. Srinivasan, and K. Yanagisawa, “Size-Controlled One-Dimensional Monocrystalline BaTiO3 Nanostructures”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 253109 (2009).<br />N. Z. Bao, L. Shen, A. Wei, P. Padhan, C. H. Turner, and A. Gupta, “Formation Mechanism and Shape Control of Monodisperse Magnetic CoFe2O4 Nanocrystals”, Chem. Mat. 21, 3458 (2009).<br />Sun, N.; Rahman, M.; Qin, Y.; Maxim, M. L.; Rodriguez, H.; Rogers, R. D. “Complete dissolution and partial delignification of wood in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate” Green.Chem. 2009, 11, 646.<br />Dong-Hyun Kim, David E. Nikles, Duane T. Johnson, Christopher S. Brazel “Heat generation of aqueously dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as heating agents for magnetically-activated drug delivery and hyperthermia” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 2008, 320(19), 2390-2396. <br />Chandan Srivastava, David E. Nikles and Gregory B. Thompson “Compositional evolution during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles” J. Appl. Phys. 2008, 104, 064315. <br />Chandan Srivastava, David E. Nikles and Gregory B. Thompson “Tailoring Nucleation and Growth Conditions for Narrow Compositional Distributions in Colloidal Synthesized Bimetallic FePt Nanoparticles” J. Appl. Phys. 2008, 104(10), 104314. <br />David E. Nikles and Medhat S. Farahat “New ultraviolet-curable formulations for binding poly(vinyl chloride)-coated fiberglass wire mesh for reinforcement applications” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 2009, 111, 3058-3064. <br />D. H. Kim, Y. T. Thai, D. E. Nikles, and C. S. Brazel “Heating of aqueous dispersions containing MnFe2O4 nanoparticles by radio-frequency magnetic field induction” IEEE Trans. Magnetics 2009, 45(1), 64-70. <br />C. K. Acharya, W. Li, Z. Liu, G. Kwon, C. H. Turner, A. M. Lane, D. E. Nikles, T. Klein and M. Weaver “Effect of boron doping in the carbon support on platinum nanoparticles and carbon corrosion” J. Power Sources, 2009, 192(2), 324-329.<br />Electrical and Computer Engineering<br /><ul><li>A. Kamto, Y. Liu, L. Schaper, and S. L. Burkett, “Reliability study of Through-Silicon Via (TSV) Copper Filled Interconnects,” Thin Solid Films, in press.</li></ul>Geological Sciences<br /><ul><li>Zuluaga, C.A., Stowell, H.H., 2008. Multidisciplinary approach to study migmatites: origin and tectonic history of the Nason Ridge Migmatitic Gneiss, Wenatchee Block, Cascades Crystalline Core, WA, USA, Earth Sciences Research Journal, 12, p. 235-265.</li></ul>Metallurgical and Materials Engineering<br />Chandan Srivastava, David E. Nikles and Gregory B. Thompson “Compositional evolution during the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles” J. Appl. Phys. 2008, 104, 064315. <br />Chandan Srivastava, David E. Nikles and Gregory B. Thompson “Tailoring Nucleation and Growth Conditions for Narrow Compositional Distributions in Colloidal Synthesized Bimetallic FePt Nanoparticles” J. Appl. Phys. 2008, 104(10), 104314. <br /><ul><li>K. L. Torres and G. B. Thompson “Grain boundary enrichment in the FePt polymorphic A1 to L10 phase transformation” Ultramicroscopy, 109 (5): 492-496 (2009).
  3. 3. Y. Inaba, K. L. Torres, A. Cole, R. Vanfleet, R. Ott, T. Klemmer, J. W. Harrell, G. B. Thompson “Thermal annealing of FePt thin films by millisecond plasma arc pulses” J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 321 (16): 2451-2458 (2009).
  4. 4. Y. Inaba, S. Kang, J. R. Izatt, J. W. Harrell, G. B. Thompson, Y. Kubota, T. J. Klemmer “L10 ordering of FePt thin films using sub-10 ms laser pulses” J. Appl. Phys. 105 (7), 07B715 (2009). </li></ul>Office of the Vice President for Research<br />M. Shamsuzzoha, R. Rahman,” Co-relation of Double Diffraction Pattern and Coincident Site Lattice”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, volume14, 598(2008).<br />Mohammad Shamsuzzoha, Fingling Liu, “Formation of the {111}<110> and {111}<112> shear bands and the <111> fiber texture during moderate and heavy wire drawing of 5056 Al-Mg alloys”, Proceedings of Symposium on Aluminium Alloys: Fabrication and Applications II, Edited by Weimin Yin, S. K. Das and Zhengdong Lau, TMS (The Minerals, Metals, Materials Society), 107-114( 2009).<br />Madhuri Mandal, Mohammad Shamsuzzoha,and David E. Nikles, “Micelles-mediated synthesis of magnetic Fe3Pt nanoparticles of cubic morphology and their characterisation “ Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol 320- Issue 5, 630-633(2008).<br />M. Shamsuzzoha, Shifan Shi, P. Padhan, David E. Nikles, and J. W. Harrell, “ FePt (core)/FeRh (shell) Na M. Shamsuzzoha , E. T. Ada, and R. G. Reddy, “Structural Information of α- alumina Supported Cobalt Nanoparticles During Auto-thermal Reforming of Iso-octane”, Supplementary Proceedings volume 2,Materials Characterization Computation & Modeling, TMS (The Minerals, Metals, Materials Society) , 181-185( 2009).noparticles: Structure and Magnetism” Microscopy and Microanalysis”, Volume14, 220(2008). <br />Physics<br /><ul><li>H. Wan, S. Shi, L. Bai, M. Shamsuzzoha, J.W. Harrell, and S.C. Street, “Synthesis and characterization of CoPt nanoparticles by room temperature chemical reduction with PAMAM dendrimer as template,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (to appear).
  5. 5. J. W. Harrell, S. Kang, D. Nikles, G. Thompson, S. Shi, C. Srivistava, “FePt and Related Nanoparticles,” in Nanoscale Magnetic Materials and Applications, editors J. Ping Liu, Eric Fullerton, Oliver Gutfleisch, and David Sellmyer, Springer, 2009.
  6. 6. Y. Inaba, S. Kang, G.B. Thompson, J.R. Izatt, I. Zana, J.W. Harrell, Y. Kubota, and T.J. Klemmer, “L10 ordering of FePt thin films using sub-10 millisecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 07B715 (2009).
  7. 7. Yuki Inaba, Karen L. Torres, Amanda Cole, Richard Vanfleet, Ronald Ott, Tim Klemmer, J.W. Harrell, and Gregory B. Thompson, “Thermal Annealing of FePt Thin Films by Millisecond Plasma Arc Pulses,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 2451 (2009). </li></ul>Appendix 2. Research Nuggets<br />Attached are one-page research nuggets provide from the faculty users of the CAF. The faculty were asked prepare a nugget for the CAF annual report that summarizes the research results accomplished using the CAF. They are placed in the order they were received.<br />ProjectInvestigatorsDepartmentMicrostructure of pacific mussel shellsChristie Jones and Fred AndrusGeological SciencesDevelopment of Micro-Nanostructured Metal Electrodes and Application to Electromodulated ChromatographyMartin G. BakkerChemistrySpectroelectrochemistry of single silver nanowiresShanlin PanChemistryMitigation of Carbon Support Corrosion for Pt/C Cathode Catalyst in PEMFC using Gold ClustersAlan M. LaneChemical & Biological EngineeringGrowth of Monodisperse Self-Supported Superparamagnetic NanostructuresN. Z. Bao, L. Shen, Y.-H. A. Wang, J. Ma, D. Mazumdar, and A. GuptaMINT CenterPatterned graded magnetic mediaR. Horton, D. Li, G. Mankey and J.W. HarrellMINT CenterUnderstanding Metamorphic Mineral Growth and Strain Utilizing Major Element Zoning and Microstructures in GarnetHarold Stowell and Matthew GatewoodGeological SciencesCharacterization of AlInGaN Semiconductor Materials for PhotovoltaicsPatrick KungElectrical and Computer EngineeringThrough Silicon Via (TSV) ReliabilityA. Kamto and S. L. BurkettElectrical and Computer EngineeringComplete dissolution and partial delignification of wood in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetateN. Sun, M., Rahman, Y. Qin, M. L. Maxim, H. Rodriguez and R. D. RogersGreen Manufacturing and ChemistryNanomaterials growth and characterizationNitin ChopraMetallurgyStructure of grain boundaries in metals, Synthesis of magnetic Nanoparticles, Collabrative research with Dr R. Reddy of MTE on fuel cellM. ShamsuzzohaOffice of the Vice President of ResearchActive Nanoparticles in Nanostructured Materials Enabling Advances in Renewable Energy and Environmental RemediationDave Dixon (PI),a J. Gole,b A. G. Fedorov, b C. Burda,c and Greg SzulczewskiaaUniversity of AlabamabGeorgia Technological UniversityProcessing of MaterialsR. G. Reddy, R. Das, A. Lahiri, D. Pradhan and M. RamachandranMetallurgyCharacterization of Dual-component Pt-Fe3O4 NanoparticlesYuping BaoChemical & Biological EngineeringArtificially engineered piezoelectric–magnetostrictive heterostructures for memory applicationsSushma KotruElectrical and Computer EngineeringFabrication of piezoelectric actuators and sensors using MEMS technologyS. Kotru, A. Highsmith and J. E. JacksonElectrical and Computer EngineeringUse of LEAP to Understand Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion CrackingGary Was and Zhijie Jiao, Richard L. MartensUniversity of MichiganUniversity of AlabamaMicrostructural Evolution in Bimetallic Drawn WireT. Sasaki and G. B. Thompson, C. Syarif and DJ Fox, MetallurgyFushi Copperweld Inc., Fayetteville, TNLEAP Investigation of Solute Clustering in Electrodeposited Al-Mn AlloysS. Ruan and C. Schuh, K.L. Torres and G.B. ThompsonM. I. T.University of Alabama<br />Microstructural Stability and Deformation Behavior in Tantalum CarbidesRA Morris and G. B. ThompsonMetallurgyQuantification of Dopant Profiles in Semiconductor StructuresK. L. Torres, R. A. Morris, G. B. Thompson, S. CorcoranMetallurgy andIntelControlling Bimetallic Composition at Individual Nanoparticle LevelC. Srivastava, G. B. Thompson, D. E. NiklesMetallurgyChemistryMagnetic Labeled Viruses for MRI Contrast EnhancementJ. S. Pritchett, M. A. Beg, A. K. Sockwell and D. E. NiklesChemistry and MINT<br />