Definitions of UXUX is about the user(s) internal states (predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation, mood, etc.), the (eco)system, and the context. Law, Roto, Hassenzahl, Vermeeren, Kort (2009)
ExperiencesLa vida no es la que uno vivió, sino la que uno recuerda y cómo la recuerda para contarla.Gabriel García Márquez
Defining experiencesAn experience is a valenced, structured, hierarchical, subjective representation of a past, current, or future sequence of episodic elements.An experience is a representation.An experience designer creates representations.
Experiences and Episodic memoryThe episodic memory is at the basis of any phenomenological emergence of an experience.There cant be any experience without episodic memory.The episodic memory is involved not just in remembering an experience (Conway, 2009), but also in immagining one (Addis et al, 2009), and is recruited, online, while we are living - and experiencing (Kurby et al, 2008).
The building parts of the experienceWe conceptualize our experiences using our cognitive frames and the objects and resources as semantic concepts.Concepts are the building blocks of the experience
Concepts featuresWhen asked to list the main attributes of a concept, participants productions can be classiﬁed in four main categories:1. Surface properties (identiﬁcation and diagnosis of the internal state)2. Functional properties (the affordances of the concept)3. Taxonomic properties (classiﬁcation of the concept)4. Affective properties (emotional and cognitive valence of the object) Wu, Barsalou (2009)
The user’s mental modelA mental model represents a person’s thought process for how something works.It is the high-level understanding of how the artifact (not necessary a technological one) works: this allows the user to predict what the application will do in response to various user’s actions.
UCD and users conceptsMethods to elicit the users implicit concepts and attributes:- Identifying their lexicon: there is a natural correspondence between vocabulary and concepts- Asking them to list the most important attributes of any concept.
From user’s mental model to conceptual modelThe "conceptual model" of an application is- the ‘ideal’ mental model (designed by the designer) of what the app allows you to manipulate and what manipulations can do. UX designere shoud design a conceptual model that is as close as possible to the mental models of users.- the set of objects and related operations the artifact provides the user to accomplish a certain task- a statement of concepts that the application will expose to users (Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
Mental models, conceptual models, ontologies IMPLICIT EXPLICIT FORMAL Domain semantic expert interoperability mental model Service/app conceptual automated model reasoning formal or semi- user research informal User mental ontology User User mental models models mental models service/app usage Service/app multi-channel changes conceptual implementation mental model model implementation conceptual model (e.g. UML)
Conceptual models and IADeﬁne a conceptual model is needed in both informative and applicative dimensions described by (Garrett, 2010).
Between taxonomies and ontologiesVocabulary + Structure = TaxonomyTaxonomy + Relationships, Constraint and Rules = Ontology (Guarino, 2007)
Between taxonomies and ontologies tennis game Conceptual game(x) → activity(x) football athletic game model as athletic game(x) → game(x) game court game court game(x) ↔ athletic game(x) ∧ ∃y. “ideal tennis played_in(x,y) ∧ court(y) ﬁeld game outdoor game mental model” tennis(x) → court game(x) court game game ﬁeld game NT athletic double fault(x) → fault(x) ∧ ∃y. part_of game (x,y) ∧ tennis(y) athletic game football outdoor game NT court game Axiomatic Taxonomy RT court theory NT tennis Glossary RT double fault DB/OO Catalog scheme Thesaurus Ontological precision (adapted from Guarino, 2007)
What is a conceptual model made of?Description of functionality at a high level, i.e. what are the main functions offered to the user.What are the relevant concepts covered by the application, creating a “vocabulary”.For each of them, which are the attributes, operations and relationships with other concepts?Finally, how user tasks match with the concepts? (Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
Model, representation, interactionThe conceptual model collects every relevant information of every concepts that is required for the whole representation of the artifact.The representations project the informations that are relevant in a given contextThe interaction collects the informations (and the choices) the user needs to explicitly communicate to the artifact
An exampleThe conceptual model of a clinical exam
User researchUser: "I go to this ofﬁce, wait on in line, then give the prescription to the clerk and she tells me the availability. She offers mea date, then I accept or reject, and asks me if I prefer the morning or in the afternoon. After I made arrangements on thedate, ske asks me to pay. Of course I was asked for the health card in order to record my booking."Interviewer: "at this point what happens?"User: "and then she records everything on my card. She prints a conﬁrmation from the computer and then presents me,and tells me how much I have to pay"Interviewer: "and what is written in the press?"User: "The type of examination, the date, the name of the doctor and the cost”. I had to sign the conﬁrmation too."Interviewer: "Perfect. Anything else?"User: "The hospital name, its address, my name and my data too. My health card number. And no more."
A draft of conceptual modelObjects Attributes Operations Relationships Name, surname, Health card change email, mobile, One patient - many prescriptionsPatient ID, email, mobile, password password One patient many appointments Date and time, priority,Prescription view details, book One prescription - many health services repetitiveness One health service - many prescriptionsHealth service name, notes, cautions view details One health service - many physiciansPhysician name, surname, email send message, rate One physician - many health services (Adapted from Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
A draft of conceptual modelObjects Attributes Operations RelationshipsPoint of care address, building, floor locate on map One point of care - many appointments One organizational unit - many physiciansOrganizational unit name, phone send message One organizational unit - many point of care One appointment - one point of care date and time, cost,Appointment book, cancel, rate One appointment - one health service status One appointment - one physician
From conceptual model to multichannel UX“conceptualize once, use anywhere”- design the model of the whole user experience- design different views for different channels (devices) and contexts
Takeaways “conceptualize once, use anywhere”“conceptualize once, use anywhere” - design the model of the whole user experience“conceptualize always, formalize when required”- design different views for different channels (devices) and contexts
Essential bibliographyAddis, D. R., Pan, L., Vu, M. A., Laiser, N., & Schacter, D. L. (2009). Constructive episodic simulation of the future and thepast: Distinct subsystems of a core brain network mediate imagining and remembering. Neuropsychologia, 47(11),2222-2238.Conway, M. A. (2009). Episodic memories. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2305-2313.Garrett, J. J. (2010). The elements of user experience: user-centered design for the Web and beyond. New Riders Pub.Guarino, N. (2007). Ontologies and Classiﬁcations, Italian IA Summit, Trento, 16th Novembre, unpublishedJohnson J., and Henderson A. (2011), Conceptual Models: Core to Good Use, Volume 12 of Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics Series Synthesis digital library of engineering and computer science, Morgan & Claypool PublishersKurby, C. A., & Zacks, J. M. (2008). Segmentation in the perception and memory of events. Trends in cognitive sciences, 12(2), 72-79.Law, E., Roto, V., Hassenzahl, M., Vermeeren, A., Kort, J. (2009). Understanding, scoping and deﬁning user experience: asurvey approach. In: CHI, Boston, pp. 719–728Wu L., Barsalou L. W. (2009). Perceptual simulation in conceptual combination: Evidence from property generation in ActaPsychologica, Volume 132, Issue 2, October 2009, Pages 173–189