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Stefano Bussolon   Conceptualize once,
Dario Betti
                     design anywhere
Definitions of UX




UX is about the user(s) internal states (predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation,
   mood, etc.), the (eco)system, and the context.
                                                        Law, Roto, Hassenzahl, Vermeeren, Kort (2009)
Experiences




La vida no es la que uno vivió, sino la que uno recuerda y cómo la recuerda para contarla.
Gabriel García Márquez
Defining experiences




An experience is a valenced, structured, hierarchical, subjective representation of a past,
   current, or future sequence of episodic elements.
An experience is a representation.
An experience designer creates representations.
Experiences and Episodic memory




The episodic memory is at the basis of any phenomenological emergence of an experience.
There can't be any experience without episodic memory.
The episodic memory is involved not just in remembering an experience (Conway, 2009), but
   also in immagining one (Addis et al, 2009), and is recruited, online, while we are living - and
   experiencing (Kurby et al, 2008).
The building parts of the experience




We conceptualize our experiences using our cognitive frames and the objects
   and resources as semantic concepts.
Concepts are the building blocks of the experience
Concepts features




When asked to list the main attributes of a concept, participants productions can be
  classified in four main categories:
1.	 Surface properties (identification and diagnosis of the internal state)
2.	 Functional properties (the affordances of the concept)
3.	 Taxonomic properties (classification of the concept)
4.	 Affective properties (emotional and cognitive valence of the object)

                                                                              Wu, Barsalou (2009)
The user’s mental model




A mental model represents a person’s thought process for how something works.
It is the high-level understanding of how the artifact (not necessary a technological one) works:
     this allows the user to predict what the application will do in response to various user’s
     actions.
UCD and users' concepts




Methods to elicit the users' implicit concepts and attributes:
- Identifying their lexicon: there is a natural correspondence between vocabulary and
    concepts
- Asking them to list the most important attributes of any concept.
From user’s mental model to conceptual model




The "conceptual model" of an application is
- the ‘ideal’ mental model (designed by the designer) of what the app allows you to
    manipulate and what manipulations can do. UX designere shoud design a conceptual
    model that is as close as possible to the mental models of users.
- the set of objects and related operations the artifact provides the user to accomplish a
    certain task
- a statement of concepts that the application will expose to users
                                                                       (Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
Mental models, conceptual models, ontologies
     IMPLICIT                             EXPLICIT                        FORMAL




                 Domain                                                          semantic
                 expert                                                       interoperability
                 mental
                 model


                                         Service/app
                                         conceptual
                                                                                   automated
                                           model                                   reasoning
                                                                  formal or
                                                                     semi-
                      user research                                informal
  User mental                                                     ontology
   User User
        mental
    models
     models
       mental
      models
                    service/app usage   Service/app      multi-channel
                         changes        conceptual      implementation
                      mental model        model




                                                       implementation conceptual model (e.g. UML)
Conceptual models and IA




Define a conceptual model is needed in both informative and applicative dimensions
   described by (Garrett, 2010).
Between taxonomies and ontologies




Vocabulary + Structure = Taxonomy

Taxonomy + Relationships, Constraint and Rules = Ontology

                                                            (Guarino, 2007)
Between taxonomies and ontologies



    tennis              game                              Conceptual        game(x) → activity(x)
    football            athletic game
                                                           model as         athletic game(x) → game(x)
    game                 court game                                         court game(x) ↔ athletic game(x) ∧ ∃y.
                                                            “ideal
                          tennis                                            played_in(x,y) ∧ court(y)
    field game
                         outdoor game
                                                         mental model”      tennis(x) → court game(x)
    court game                           game
                          field game      NT athletic                        double fault(x) → fault(x) ∧ ∃y. part_of
                                         game                               (x,y) ∧ tennis(y)
    athletic game          football
    outdoor game
                                          NT court game                           Axiomatic
                         Taxonomy          RT court
                                                                                   theory
                                           NT tennis
             Glossary
                                             RT double
                                         fault                           DB/OO
   Catalog                                                               scheme
                                        Thesaurus



      Ontological precision



                                                                                   (adapted from Guarino, 2007)
What is a conceptual model made of?




Description of functionality at a high level, i.e. what are the main functions offered to the user.
What are the relevant concepts covered by the application, creating a “vocabulary”.
For each of them, which are the attributes, operations and relationships with other
   concepts?
Finally, how user tasks match with the concepts?
                                                                        (Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
Model, representation, interaction




The conceptual model collects every relevant information of every concepts that is required
   for the whole representation of the artifact.
The representations project the informations that are relevant in a given context
The interaction collects the informations (and the choices) the user needs
   to explicitly communicate to the artifact
An example




The conceptual model of a clinical exam
Clinical exam experience




                           tbd
User research




User: "I go to this office, wait on in line, then give the prescription to the clerk and she tells me the availability. She offers me
a date, then I accept or reject, and asks me if I prefer the morning or in the afternoon. After I made arrangements on the
date, ske asks me to pay. Of course I was asked for the health card in order to record my booking."

Interviewer: "at this point what happens?"

User: "and then she records everything on my card. She prints a confirmation from the computer and then presents me,
and tells me how much I have to pay"

Interviewer: "and what is written in the press?"

User: "The type of examination, the date, the name of the doctor and the cost”. I had to sign the confirmation too."

Interviewer: "Perfect. Anything else?"

User: "The hospital name, its address, my name and my data too. My health card number. And no more."
Concepts
A draft of conceptual model



Objects          Attributes                    Operations              Relationships




                 Name, surname, Health card    change email, mobile,   One patient - many prescriptions
Patient
                 ID, email, mobile, password   password                One patient many appointments



                 Date and time, priority,
Prescription                                   view details, book      One prescription - many health services
                 repetitiveness



                                                                       One health service - many prescriptions
Health service   name, notes, cautions         view details
                                                                       One health service - many physicians




Physician        name, surname, email          send message, rate      One physician - many health services


                                                                        (Adapted from Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
A draft of conceptual model



Objects               Attributes                 Operations           Relationships




Point of care         address, building, floor   locate on map        One point of care - many appointments




                                                                      One organizational unit - many physicians
Organizational unit   name, phone                send message
                                                                      One organizational unit - many point of care



                                                                      One appointment - one point of care
                      date and time, cost,
Appointment                                      book, cancel, rate   One appointment - one health service
                      status
                                                                      One appointment - one physician
From conceptual model to multichannel UX




“conceptualize once, use anywhere”
- design the model of the whole user experience
- design different views for different channels (devices) and contexts
Takeaways




 “conceptualize once, use anywhere”
“conceptualize once, use anywhere”
 - design the model of the whole user experience
“conceptualize always, formalize when required”
- design different views for different channels (devices) and contexts
Essential bibliography




Addis, D. R., Pan, L., Vu, M. A., Laiser, N., & Schacter, D. L. (2009). Constructive episodic simulation of the future and the
past: Distinct subsystems of a core brain network mediate imagining and remembering. Neuropsychologia, 47(11),
2222-2238.

Conway, M. A. (2009). Episodic memories. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2305-2313.

Garrett, J. J. (2010). The elements of user experience: user-centered design for the Web and beyond. New Riders Pub.

Guarino, N. (2007). Ontologies and Classifications, Italian IA Summit, Trento, 16th Novembre, unpublished

Johnson J., and Henderson A. (2011), Conceptual Models: Core to Good Use, Volume 12 of Synthesis Lectures on Human-
Centered Informatics Series Synthesis digital library of engineering and computer science, Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Kurby, C. A., & Zacks, J. M. (2008). Segmentation in the perception and memory of events. Trends in cognitive sciences, 12
(2), 72-79.

Law, E., Roto, V., Hassenzahl, M., Vermeeren, A., Kort, J. (2009). Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: a
survey approach. In: CHI, Boston, pp. 719–728

Wu L., Barsalou L. W. (2009). Perceptual simulation in conceptual combination: Evidence from property generation in Acta
Psychologica, Volume 132, Issue 2, October 2009, Pages 173–189
Thanks!




          stefano@bussolon.it @sweetdreamerit


              dario.betti@gpi.it @dariobetti

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Bussolon, Betti: Conceptualize once, design anywhere

  • 1.
  • 2. Stefano Bussolon Conceptualize once, Dario Betti design anywhere
  • 3.
  • 4. Definitions of UX UX is about the user(s) internal states (predispositions, expectations, needs, motivation, mood, etc.), the (eco)system, and the context. Law, Roto, Hassenzahl, Vermeeren, Kort (2009)
  • 5. Experiences La vida no es la que uno vivió, sino la que uno recuerda y cómo la recuerda para contarla. Gabriel García Márquez
  • 6. Defining experiences An experience is a valenced, structured, hierarchical, subjective representation of a past, current, or future sequence of episodic elements. An experience is a representation. An experience designer creates representations.
  • 7. Experiences and Episodic memory The episodic memory is at the basis of any phenomenological emergence of an experience. There can't be any experience without episodic memory. The episodic memory is involved not just in remembering an experience (Conway, 2009), but also in immagining one (Addis et al, 2009), and is recruited, online, while we are living - and experiencing (Kurby et al, 2008).
  • 8. The building parts of the experience We conceptualize our experiences using our cognitive frames and the objects and resources as semantic concepts. Concepts are the building blocks of the experience
  • 9. Concepts features When asked to list the main attributes of a concept, participants productions can be classified in four main categories: 1. Surface properties (identification and diagnosis of the internal state) 2. Functional properties (the affordances of the concept) 3. Taxonomic properties (classification of the concept) 4. Affective properties (emotional and cognitive valence of the object) Wu, Barsalou (2009)
  • 10. The user’s mental model A mental model represents a person’s thought process for how something works. It is the high-level understanding of how the artifact (not necessary a technological one) works: this allows the user to predict what the application will do in response to various user’s actions.
  • 11. UCD and users' concepts Methods to elicit the users' implicit concepts and attributes: - Identifying their lexicon: there is a natural correspondence between vocabulary and concepts - Asking them to list the most important attributes of any concept.
  • 12. From user’s mental model to conceptual model The "conceptual model" of an application is - the ‘ideal’ mental model (designed by the designer) of what the app allows you to manipulate and what manipulations can do. UX designere shoud design a conceptual model that is as close as possible to the mental models of users. - the set of objects and related operations the artifact provides the user to accomplish a certain task - a statement of concepts that the application will expose to users (Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
  • 13. Mental models, conceptual models, ontologies IMPLICIT EXPLICIT FORMAL Domain semantic expert interoperability mental model Service/app conceptual automated model reasoning formal or semi- user research informal User mental ontology User User mental models models mental models service/app usage Service/app multi-channel changes conceptual implementation mental model model implementation conceptual model (e.g. UML)
  • 14. Conceptual models and IA Define a conceptual model is needed in both informative and applicative dimensions described by (Garrett, 2010).
  • 15. Between taxonomies and ontologies Vocabulary + Structure = Taxonomy Taxonomy + Relationships, Constraint and Rules = Ontology (Guarino, 2007)
  • 16. Between taxonomies and ontologies tennis game Conceptual game(x) → activity(x) football athletic game model as athletic game(x) → game(x) game court game court game(x) ↔ athletic game(x) ∧ ∃y. “ideal tennis played_in(x,y) ∧ court(y) field game outdoor game mental model” tennis(x) → court game(x) court game game field game NT athletic double fault(x) → fault(x) ∧ ∃y. part_of game (x,y) ∧ tennis(y) athletic game football outdoor game NT court game Axiomatic Taxonomy RT court theory NT tennis Glossary RT double fault DB/OO Catalog scheme Thesaurus Ontological precision (adapted from Guarino, 2007)
  • 17. What is a conceptual model made of? Description of functionality at a high level, i.e. what are the main functions offered to the user. What are the relevant concepts covered by the application, creating a “vocabulary”. For each of them, which are the attributes, operations and relationships with other concepts? Finally, how user tasks match with the concepts? (Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
  • 18. Model, representation, interaction The conceptual model collects every relevant information of every concepts that is required for the whole representation of the artifact. The representations project the informations that are relevant in a given context The interaction collects the informations (and the choices) the user needs to explicitly communicate to the artifact
  • 19. An example The conceptual model of a clinical exam
  • 21. User research User: "I go to this office, wait on in line, then give the prescription to the clerk and she tells me the availability. She offers me a date, then I accept or reject, and asks me if I prefer the morning or in the afternoon. After I made arrangements on the date, ske asks me to pay. Of course I was asked for the health card in order to record my booking." Interviewer: "at this point what happens?" User: "and then she records everything on my card. She prints a confirmation from the computer and then presents me, and tells me how much I have to pay" Interviewer: "and what is written in the press?" User: "The type of examination, the date, the name of the doctor and the cost”. I had to sign the confirmation too." Interviewer: "Perfect. Anything else?" User: "The hospital name, its address, my name and my data too. My health card number. And no more."
  • 23. A draft of conceptual model Objects Attributes Operations Relationships Name, surname, Health card change email, mobile, One patient - many prescriptions Patient ID, email, mobile, password password One patient many appointments Date and time, priority, Prescription view details, book One prescription - many health services repetitiveness One health service - many prescriptions Health service name, notes, cautions view details One health service - many physicians Physician name, surname, email send message, rate One physician - many health services (Adapted from Johnson and Henderson, 2011)
  • 24. A draft of conceptual model Objects Attributes Operations Relationships Point of care address, building, floor locate on map One point of care - many appointments One organizational unit - many physicians Organizational unit name, phone send message One organizational unit - many point of care One appointment - one point of care date and time, cost, Appointment book, cancel, rate One appointment - one health service status One appointment - one physician
  • 25. From conceptual model to multichannel UX “conceptualize once, use anywhere” - design the model of the whole user experience - design different views for different channels (devices) and contexts
  • 26. Takeaways “conceptualize once, use anywhere” “conceptualize once, use anywhere” - design the model of the whole user experience “conceptualize always, formalize when required” - design different views for different channels (devices) and contexts
  • 27.
  • 28. Essential bibliography Addis, D. R., Pan, L., Vu, M. A., Laiser, N., & Schacter, D. L. (2009). Constructive episodic simulation of the future and the past: Distinct subsystems of a core brain network mediate imagining and remembering. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2222-2238. Conway, M. A. (2009). Episodic memories. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2305-2313. Garrett, J. J. (2010). The elements of user experience: user-centered design for the Web and beyond. New Riders Pub. Guarino, N. (2007). Ontologies and Classifications, Italian IA Summit, Trento, 16th Novembre, unpublished Johnson J., and Henderson A. (2011), Conceptual Models: Core to Good Use, Volume 12 of Synthesis Lectures on Human- Centered Informatics Series Synthesis digital library of engineering and computer science, Morgan & Claypool Publishers Kurby, C. A., & Zacks, J. M. (2008). Segmentation in the perception and memory of events. Trends in cognitive sciences, 12 (2), 72-79. Law, E., Roto, V., Hassenzahl, M., Vermeeren, A., Kort, J. (2009). Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: a survey approach. In: CHI, Boston, pp. 719–728 Wu L., Barsalou L. W. (2009). Perceptual simulation in conceptual combination: Evidence from property generation in Acta Psychologica, Volume 132, Issue 2, October 2009, Pages 173–189
  • 29. Thanks! stefano@bussolon.it @sweetdreamerit dario.betti@gpi.it @dariobetti