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The pop-out effect: how to improve choice through information architecture

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Finding something is the first step in decision making, but making a choice is the second step.

Information architecture should help users not just to find things, but also to make the right choice. From findability to choosability.

Because information becomes knowledge if it helps an agent to take a decision.

The presentation covers the following topics:
- the paradox of choice
- why is it difficult to choose
- the metaphor of pop out
- the cost of the cognitive bottlenecks
- how can we overcome the choice overload
- the role of information architecture to increase the choosability

Published in: Design

The pop-out effect: how to improve choice through information architecture

  1. 1. The pop-out effect: how to improve choice through information architecture Luca Rosati, Stefano Bussolon 1 / 59
  2. 2. About Luca Information architect and User experience designer - Independent consultant Founder of Architecta - Società italiana di architettura dell'informazione Adjunct Professor - Università per Stranieri di Perugia @lucarosati 2 / 59
  3. 3. About Stefano PhD in Cognitive Sciences Freelance UX designer: Information Architecture, Interaction Design, Usability Adjunct Professor in Human Computer Interaction at the Università degli Studi di Trento - Italy @sweetdreamerit 3 / 59
  4. 4. Summary the paradox of choice why is it difficult to choose the metaphor of pop out the cost of the cognitive bottlenecks how can we overcome the choice overload how can the information architects help to increase the choosability of a set? 4 / 59
  5. 5. The information architecture of choosability 5 / 59
  6. 6. Too many options 6 / 59
  7. 7. Information, decisions and knowledge Finding is the first step in decision making (findability). Making a choice is the second step (choosability). Information becomes knowledge if it helps an agent to take a decision. 7 / 59
  8. 8. The paradox of choice 8 / 59
  9. 9. The experiment with the jams 6 flavors: 30% of sales 24 flavors: 3% of sales 9 / 59
  10. 10. A recent research in the insurance market How customers choose what insurance company and what product to buy? Three types of behaviours: the extensive search approach the limited search approach the passive search approach 10 / 59
  11. 11. The olympian rationality process identify all the important attributes assess a weight to every attribute for every option, calculate the weighted sum choose the option with the higher weighted sum 11 / 59
  12. 12. Consequences of choice overload Behavioural choice deferral or avoidance the likelihood of reversing an already made choice Cognitive lesser decision confidence preference for smaller assortments preference for an accountable choice Emotional decision regret (did I do the right choice?) decreased choice satisfaction 12 / 59
  13. 13. The pros of large assortments higher likelihood to find a good options positive perception of choice 13 / 59
  14. 14. What makes the choice difficult? 14 / 59
  15. 15. Contextual factors time accountability number of attributes 15 / 59
  16. 16. Choice set complexity attractiveness of the choice options the presence of a dominant option feature complementarity 16 / 59
  17. 17. Attractiveness 17 / 59
  18. 18. Dominant option 18 / 59
  19. 19. Complementarity 19 / 59
  20. 20. The presentation format ordering decreases search costs greater satisfation when choosing from well organized sets the mere classification effect A good information architecture decreases the costs of choosing 20 / 59
  21. 21. Individual factors (Product) expertise: does the customer know enough about the important attributes? Preference (un)certainty: does the customer have clear preferences? The customer knows what she wants (articulated ideal point) The customer attitude to accept a tradeoff 21 / 59
  22. 22. Articulated ideal point 22 / 59
  23. 23. The customer accepts a tradeoff 23 / 59
  24. 24. The customer's expertise 24 / 59
  25. 25. The decisor intent browsing: the cognitive goal of learning more about the available options and/or their own preferences shopping trip: the affective goal of deriving pleasure from the exploration / evaluation process itself choosing: the goal to make the choice 25 / 59
  26. 26. The choice set 26 / 59
  27. 27. The popout effect 27 / 59
  28. 28. Task 1 28 / 59
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  30. 30. Task 2 30 / 59
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  32. 32. Task 3 32 / 59
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  35. 35. Systetm 1 vs system 2 fast vs slow effortless vs effortfull irrational vs rational heuristic vs systematic 35 / 59
  36. 36. Heuristics: a less effort approach εὑρίσκω: to find The goal of an heuristic is to improve the ratio between decision accuracy and costs (time, memory, cognition, computation) Ecological rationality 36 / 59
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  42. 42. Cognitive bottleneck and (dis)fluency The effort is due to the use of limited cognitive resources, that don't function in parallel (e.g. the executive functions). The process becomes sequential (and therefore slow) and is prone to cognitive fatigue. A process becomes slow and effortfull if it requires the attentional focus and / or the working memory system. 42 / 59
  43. 43. Task: remember the pieces on the board 43 / 59
  44. 44. Performance, a real game 44 / 59
  45. 45. Performance, random positions 45 / 59
  46. 46. How experts overcome the bottleneck Non experts: only the working memory Intermediates use the visual areas to see the patterns Experts use also the long term memory to recognize the pattern 46 / 59
  47. 47. The identification of chunks and templates A chunk is a collection of elements having strong associations with one another, and weak associations with elements of other chunks. 47 / 59
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  51. 51. Pop out the choice 51 / 59
  52. 52. Strategies let the patterns emerge divide the task distribute the effort 52 / 59
  53. 53. Let the patterns emerge Chunks and templates are the information architecture of the mind. NeuroIA, or the polar brain. 53 / 59
  54. 54. Divide et decide browse: learn the domain, identify the attributes and the perferences shortlist: identify a manageable list of preferred options choice: identify the best option among the shortlist 54 / 59
  55. 55. Distribute the effort The olympian rationality process, revisited: suggest the important attributes of the set help the customer to define what is important for her use the computational power of the database to do the hard work let the application sort the options by value 55 / 59
  56. 56. Conclusions Choosing can be a difficult task. Doing great information architecture can be a difficult task. Great information architecture help the people to find out what they really desire. 56 / 59
  57. 57. 57 / 59
  58. 58. Questions? Please speek slowly, I'm Italian ;) 58 / 59
  59. 59. Thank you Stefano Bussolon bussolon@gmail.com @sweetdreamerit 59 / 59

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