Interpretations of data


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If we did not have uncertainty we would not need statisticians says Kaiser Fung on the Business901 podcast. Kaiser is a statistician with more than a decade of experience in applying statistical methods to unlocking the relationship between advertising and customer behaviors. He leads a team of statisticians at Sirius XM Radio that is responsible for gleaning insight into customers and operational best practices. His blog, "Junk Charts," pioneered the genre of critically examining data and graphics in the mass media.

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Interpretations of data

  1. 1. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing SystemsInterpretations of Data Kaiser Fung, author of Numbers Rule Your World Related Podcast: Interpretations of Data Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  2. 2. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systems Kaiser Fung is a statistician with more than a decade of experience in applying statistical methods to unlocking the relationship between advertising and customer behaviors. He leads a team of statisticians at Sirius XM Radio that is responsible for gleaning insight into customers and operational best practices. His blog, "Junk Charts," pioneered the genre of critically examining data and graphics in the mass media. Since 2005, "Junk Charts" has received rave reviews from Science magazine, the Guardian,Yahoo!, and Stanford University Libraries. He is an adjunctprofessor at New York University where he teaches practicalstatistics to professionals, and holds statistics, business, andengineering degrees from Cambridge, Harvard, and PrincetonUniversities. Fung is also a fellow of the Royal Statistics Society.NUMBERS RULE YOUR WORLDIn the popular tradition of eye-opening bestsellers likeFreakonomics, The Tipping Point, and Super Crunchers, thisfascinating book from renowned statistician and blogger KaiserFung takes you inside the hidden world of facts and figures thataffect you every day, in every way. These are the statistics thatrule your life, your job, your commute, your vacation, your food,your health, your money, and your success. This is how engineerscalculate your quality of living, how corporations determine yourneeds, and how politicians estimate your opinions. These are thenumbers you never think about-even though they play a crucialrole in every single aspect of your life. Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  3. 3. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing SystemsJoe Dager: Welcome, everyone. This is Joe Dager, the host ofthe Business 901 Podcast. With me today is Kaiser Fung. Kaiser isa professional statistician who holds degrees from Cambridge,Harvard, and Princeton Universities. He is a statistician for SiriusXM radio and applies his method to advertising and customerbehavior. Kaiser, Id like to welcome you to the podcast andyouve just written a new book that is called "Numbers Rule YourWorld." Now, could you tell us whyd you write the book and whatwere you hoping for someone to get out of it?Kaiser Fung: Yes. Thanks for having me here, Joe. Well, thebook "Numbers Rule Your World" is really a book about statisticalthinking applied to real world problems. It takes a storytellingapproach very similar to what you see in Freakonomics or in anyof the Malcolm Gladwell books, theres a little mathematics inthere. The point that Im trying to make at a very high level isthat oftentimes in practice it is the communication of thestatistical information that is the most important to influencingany decisions. The math itself is in the background and obviouslyyou want to do it right, but once thats done theres a lot stuffthat has to happen in order to make an impact on the world.I think thats the direction that I would like to take theconversation in regards to the whole business analytics area. Nowthat we have found the great insight, what are we going to dowith it?Joe: We go back to most people dont really understandnumbers do they?Kaiser: Well, I think we all home some intuitive understandingof numbers. However, there are a lot of traps in terms ofinterpreting numbers. Unfortunately, I think schools dont do areally good job in conveying that piece of information. So thatsactually another motivation for writing this sort of book is that ifyou open up a statistics textbook or any sort of introduction to Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  4. 4. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsstatistics, theres a way in which the materials are organized andits typically organized by technical methodology. So you have achapter on causative intervals. You have a chapter on hypothesistesting. You have a chapter on regression techniques and so on,so forth. Those are not concepts, those are techniques. What isvery inside all these techniques are very important concepts thatare needed to think about numbers.So my book is organized around five such concepts. Things likethinking about variability as opposed to averages, figuring outhow to form comparison groups, how do you compare like withlike, big concepts like that. Typically - then, read what Ivewritten and go back to a textbook, it will be very challenging tofind which parts of the book actually is the concepts that I talkabout and yet those concepts are really what people should bethinking about when they think about numbers.Joe: I realize, after reading your book, it kind of reinforces a fewthings. You start reading a little bit differently. You start pickingthings out, "Well, heck, that guys talking about individual, hesnot really talking about, for lack of a better word, the averageperson."Kaiser: Yeah. I think what happens is that when you are readingsome of these other textbooks and so on, so forth, what happensis that youre kind of so immersed in the math and so immersedin the numbers that you cant really see what youre doing.Oftentimes its not the case where they dont teach you anythingabout the concepts. Its thought of sitting in the background.What Im trying to do is to expose and make these thingsapparent and put them as the foreground as opposed to thebackground. So weve essentially flip-flopped what is traditionallythe way that this is presented. So all of the methodologies andthe math is kind of sitting in the background now and Imexposing the parts that are really important to get. Even if you Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  5. 5. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsdont get the math, you could at least get how to look at theworld.Oftentimes you notice that these are things that you probably aredoing instinctively. It should just reinforce, "Heres the theoreticalframework behind why you would look at things in a certain way."Joe: I dont know if you do a lot of this instinctively. I thinknumbers, statistics, and probabilities are somewhat counterintuitive for most of us. We want to accept the story aboutsomething and that story usually comes from an individual, notnecessarily what it - a person has a problem on a flight. I thinkyou mentioned in one of the subheadings of your chapters,"When youre ready to get off the flight the pilot comes on andsays, "Youre just got done with the safest part of your journey,"" but that was, "Now, go drive home." That really brings a lot oftruth to what you were saying.Kaiser: Yeah. I think youre right in the sense that if you just goby intuition, intuition leads us to a lot of wrong places. But on theother hand, oftentimes the intuitive part is not completely wrongif we only realize a couple of things then we realize that thetypical way of looking at things or framing the problem is whatcauses us to come to a wrong conclusion. So the whole fear offlying is often based on somebody telling you about specific planecrashes or looking at certain tables of, "Here are the top tenworst air disasters ever." What happens is that somebodysframed the discussion and makes us focus only on the 10 thingsthat went wrong as opposed to the tens of millions of flights thathappens every day that actually went without issues.In that case, if you were to take as your basis of analysis only the10 things that went wrong, then you apply the same statisticalthinking only to 10 things, then you would have come to theconclusion that flying is very dangerous. But if you actually applythe same type of thinking to the largest set of all flights that Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  6. 6. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsactually went out there, then you would have arrived with adifferent conclusion.Oftentimes, I guess it goes back to the point of the math isprobably not the part where things goes wrong. The formulas arethe formulas; its how you apply it. Are you applying it to theright things and are you taking into account the specific contextof application? A lot of those contextual factors are things thatdetermine whether you end up with the correct conclusion or anincorrect conclusion.Joe: You spend a lot of time, I think, talking about variability. Ormaybe not a lot of time, but you start out with that because thatreally is whether numbers work or not.Kaiser: Yeah. I think somewhere in the book I have said thatyou could, in fact, define the field of statistics as the study ofvariability because what happens is that if theres no variability, ifeverything is just like the average, there really is nothing tostudy because every data set would literally have the samenumber. The whole field of statistics is there because things donthappen the same way. It is hard for people to accept. I thinkoftentimes we like certainty and its very difficult to accept, forinstance, say in business you like your metrics to be stable, butthen it gets difficult to accept the fact that if the whole companypursues the same exact strategy and you dont change a thingfrom one month to the next month, the metrics are not going tolook exactly the same. Theres some natural fluctuation based onthings that you cant control.So oftentimes, in my work, you have to convince people that ifyoure going to do something different that something differenthas to be much better than what normally might happen. How doyou determine if the difference that you are observing after youchanged your ways? Is that real difference or is that just adifference that might happen regardless of anything different that Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  7. 7. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsyou are doing. So with certainty we are trying to get people toaccept the fact that there is some background variability nomatter what, it is a big challenge.Joe: We talk about especially in sales and marketing we talkabout forecasts, most dont understand what a forecast meansbecause there is a lot of uncertainty in forecasting. Can you reallymanage uncertainty without a good grasp of numbers?Kaiser: I think thats sort of the key. One of the key ideasbehind statistics, which when I teach my students at NYU that issort of one of those big points I want to convey. Statistics is notthere to eliminate or to cure variability. Variability is somethingthats out there that cannot be cured. What statistics does is tocreate a way for us to measure the degree of variability. Becausethe whole point is that if you dont know, as you are unable tomeasure it, you dont know how large or how small the variabilityis. You cannot find ways to minimize it. So it is certainly true thatthe whole point is to try to figure out how big it is.And being able to measure it is the first step to controlling that.And as I said, often times all you are left with is to establish thisis the range of expectations. But you cannot really get rid of thefact that things do change, whether you like it or not.Joe: I think statistics allow you really to embrace uncertainty.Kaiser: Yeah, I think thats a very big change from, I started outin engineering world and you find two very different ways ofthinking about the world. If you want to then jump to statistics,you really have to start from the point of view that pretty muchanything that you are looking at is uncertain. For things that havesmall levels of uncertainty, it is not very harmful to look ataverages. You wont make the wrong decision just based on theaverages. But then the other things where the uncertainty is Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  8. 8. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsmuch higher and you end up making wrong decisions, you dontaccount for that.Joe: We get statistics for everything now. We are flooded withstatistics; we are just flooded with data. And marketingcompanies, the smart companies are really embracing them usingthem to their advantage. But where do you see it, as far as, letsgo back to the average company. Do they really understand thestatistics out there that are available to them and are using themeffectively? Are you part of that conversation?Kaiser: Yeah, I think this whole field of what I would callbusiness analytics is still kind of developing. I would say theaverage company is probably not using them in the best waypossible and I think as a field, we are still trying to find a way tobecome more influential in the boardroom. Thats one of thereasons why, if you look at some of books that I write, and thetwo blogs that I publish, one of which is Junk Charts which isabout specializing data. And the other one is just about how tocommunicate statistics information in sort of a written format.All is, are about how do you communicate your information themost effective way to people that are not necessarily technicalthinkers or quantitative thinkers. Because ultimately, we cantreally change anything in the world and also in the business worldwithout the ability to influence people who do not necessarilythink in a quantitative way.Any important decisions are going to involve people who eitherthink intuitively or who are not trained in any quantitative skills. Ithink in the past there is this and probably in the present too incertain settings there are people who feel that well, if they dontknow anything about math, we first need to teach them the mathand then they will understand what we are talking about. Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  9. 9. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing SystemsI think thats just a completely wrong way to approach it. It iskind of like saying if you want to go do business with a localcompany in China, you should first teach them English, and thenyou speak to them in English. I think one of the big challenges isgoing to be how we speak to non-technical people in a languagethat works. Thats one of the keys I think to becoming moreeffective.Joe: So what languages do we speak to them? How do we dothat?Kaiser: I think thats kind of what I wanted to show in NumbersRule Your World. And thats where some of the reviewers actuallynoticed that despite that title, theres not a whole lot of numbers.There is certainly no statistical form of anything in the book whichis that we really should speak to people in English, and in thelanguage business as opposed to in the language of maths andlanguage of statistics. We obviously need the language of mathand language of statistics to actually analyze the data and tocome to conclusions. But once we know what the data is tellingus and once we know what the insights are, we should think ofthe communication aspect as a whole other task that is separatefrom the task of doing math.I am also hoping that there is a shift in emphasis even in thebooks written about analytics from books that focuses on how doyou get insights to kind of things like my book where it focuseson what is the context behind a decision making and how thesedecisions are actually made.If you think about books like Freakonomics, or Malcolm Gladwell,and theyve done a great job for us in terms of expandingpeoples vision and also getting the world excited about datadriven decision making. Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  10. 10. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing SystemsBut if you look at kind of how they present their stories, typicallythey end at the point where OK this is how they actually look atthe data and this is what they found. In practice, thats just thebeginning of the hardest part of the job is how do you now getother people to embrace these insights. And how do you now getthese insights to influence either a public policy or businessdecision?Joe: I think thats whats kind of scary to a lot of people and theaverage guy that maybe sitting in the meeting is that someonethats good with numbers, some statistician can make thenumber say whatever they want them to say. Cant they?Kaiser: Well, thats yes. I would say yes and no.Joe: Well, I cant say that literally.Kaiser: It is certainly true that statistics is not a black and whitefield and thats kind of also something that statisticians from sortof pure mathematician, although statistics is often consideredpart of mathematics, it is a very different field in the sense thatwe have set uncertainties one the prerequisites, one of this thingsthat just sit there, that cannot be changed about the field ofstatistics. The other thing that cannot be changed is there beingcomplete information. So we dont need to do statistics if youhave complete information about everything. Almost always thedata that we are looking at is going to be incomplete in certainways. We have to embrace that too. And so when you haveincomplete information there is just no way to know the definitivetruth. So everything is some kind of a guess. There are betterguesses and there are worse guesses. And there is definitely adifference between a good statistician and a bad statistician.It is still the case that even if you are a good statistician,whatever you say is your best guess. So it goes back to why Ikeep saying, what has asked make us thats important because Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  11. 11. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemshow do you tell if its a good statistician or a bad statistician?Judge whether the suspicions that were made based on thestatisticians recommendations would turn out to be effective ornot effective.But ultimately you can say whatever you want in coming over theinsights. But if your insights are not actually giving you results,then you know that you cannot trust whoever is doing thenumbers.Joe: I come from a field that, and in LEAN especially more sothan even Six Sigma a little bit, but in LEAN ... You know, an oldsaying goes, if youre not visual youre not LEAN. And really toportray numbers, a lot of it is about creating lets say charts orsomething thats very visual to someone to understand thenumbers. Because nobody wants to see a list of numbers, OK? Imean, thats hard to digest. They want to see the result of thenumbers and thats usually typically done in a chart. And is thatwhat Junk Charts is all about? Do you discuss how to make, inthat blog, do you discuss some of the pros and cons of charting?Kaiser: When I first started out, one of the things that Idefinitely wanted to avoid is to create a blog that just criticizesand does nothing constructive. I mean, youll notice the samevein in Numbers Rule the World book. I dont really want to writea book about Lies, Damm Lies and Statistics because there arelots of books out there about it. I also feel that it doesnt helpanyone do numbers better if all you are saying is how they havedone wrong. What the stories in my book tell you is about howpeople are using numbers to actually make a difference in ourworld, basic concepts that you can take with you and apply to thereal world, as opposed to just criticizing.Also this idea of junk art, you can actually reconstitute somethingvaluable out of something that may not be so useful. Most of thetime I strive to not only talk about whats good and whats bad Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  12. 12. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsabout a chart that I either I find in my reading or that readerssend to me, but I try to come up with different ways of visualizingthe information.Now, it may not always be better. Some readers will criticizewhat I do as well. But the whole practice of visualization is thatyou just have to do a lot of trial and errors. You need to visualizethe data in multiple ways. Eventually you will find a way thatreally brings out the message of the data. Oftentimes I find thatwithout just creating multiple versions of a chart, its hard toactually know which one was most successfully.Joe: When you looked at the charts, and of course on the blogyou look at a lot of charts. Do you feel theres a lot of room forimprovement in that area?Kaiser: Unfortunately its sort of bad habits are very difficult tocorrect. I think some of the things that I talk about have beentalked about by people for decades. And you still see the sameproblems showing up constantly. Types of charts that are used alot of these buuble charts, they use circular areas to encapsulatedata. Unfortunately, its been proven time and time again inexperiments that we just dont have a good grasp of relative sizesof circles. Anybody who presents such a chart is going to end upconveying the wrong information about the relative comparisonsthat such charts are typically created to do.You keep seeing those same charts out there and its a prettypervasive problem. So I try to counter that by showing. If youhave visualized it in a different format and not using a bubblechart, things would actually look a lot closer to reality.Something that I talk about constantly is what I call this self-sufficiency test. Which is that you can pretty much very quicklytell a bad chart by figuring out that, well, the designer of thechart put all of the data onto the chart at the same time that Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  13. 13. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsmaybe you put bars or bubbles or other concepts. What that tellsyou often times is that the reason why all the data is printed onthe chart, is that if the data is not printed on the chart the chartitself doesnt work.So if you think about it, if youre going to visualize information,the point of visualizing is to use graphical elements to convey thedata. If you need to print all of your data onto the same chartthat means that your chart just doesnt work. Ive encouragedpeople to look at charts in this way. Look at a chart, try tovisualize it without having to use the data itself and see if itactually works for you. If it doesnt then the person picked thewrong chart.Joe: Theres no really a method in being able to determine theright and the wrong chart to use at the time. Its really in whatyoure trying to express, lets say to that particular group and tothat particular audience is your selection of charts, right?Kaiser: Yes, I talk about that a lot. And I pretty in much everypost I put up there, I start with: What is the question, why arewe even looking at this data? What is the question that weresupposed to address with the data? Thats possibly the numberone thing. If you dont know what you want to say, then youcannot possibly create a good chart. I have something what Ihave called the Tri-factor checkup on my blog and thats the veryfirst question. One corner of the triangle is to try to figure outwhat is that you want to answer with the data.Then the second point, the second corner is: Do you have theright data to address that question? If youre showing me databut the data is only tangentially related to the question thatyoure trying to address, that also guarantee a bad chart. But itsjust not going to give me a convincing answer to the questionthat I would like addressed. Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  14. 14. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing SystemsThe third part is that you pick the right format of a chart toconvey the information that you have. And thats where, typicallyeveryone is focused on that particular corner. What I think peoplewould have to think beyond that corner is, as you said: What is itthat were trying to address here anyway? Then the other part is:Do we actually have the right data?Thats actually really important because I think that theres toomuch analysis out there of what I would call convenient datasets. Data sets that you just happen to come across. I wouldmuch rather that the world starts with: What are the questionswe would like to answer and then go out to find the right data toaddress those questions as opposed to the other way around,which is heres the data, lets figure out whats interesting to lookat because we have this data sitting around.Joe: What I see so many times is people selling those analyticalpackages and they show the nice charts and they show all thedifferent things Im going to get out of it and everything. And allat once, that tool is how we start interpreting some ourmarketing data and its kind of like, "Time out!" Its not what thattools is telling us, its all them things within that tool, the thingswe need to know driven by our...Kaiser: Exactly. One of my recent posts on Junk Charts is aboutthis interactive chart that was put up by one of the... I forgot whoit was, AP or one of these charitable organizations. It wassupposed to visualize some survey results about peoples, I think,expectations of the economy in various parts of Asia. Theysurveyed different people in different industries. There, theycreated some kind of interactive thing where you can walkthrough different countries, different industries, and then it wouldshow you data in some kind of a donut chart. The problem I havewith that is exactly what you said, is that when they just find that Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  15. 15. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsnavigation, that interactivity they pretty much have restrictedhow you can view the data.Which means that in order for them to design this chart right theyneed to first talk to the readers or talk to the people who aregoing to use the chart and understand what kind of questionsthey want to answer. Maybe my main question is to understandthe variability between different industries within a country. Orsomebody else might be much more interested in the variabilityof countries and they may not care about the availability withinindustry.You have to first start with having a deep understanding of all thetypes of questions that people might want to answer and youneed to have a prioritization of all these questions. Most peoplewould like to address these five questions. And then maybe thereare these other three questions that are of secondary importance.Then you need to then define a navigation and interaction withthose things in mind. The main problem I have was the executionof that particular chart, is that it presumes that people only lookat things in a uni-variant way but in reality, in business most ofthe time people look at things in a multi-dimensional way. So,you kind of have to define the chart from that angle, which iskind of what I talk about and in the book.Joe: Without a good statistical background its pretty tough isntit, to do that?Kaiser: Yes. Thats kind of the challenge of what Ive beentalking all along is, the challenge of communicating the findings. Ithink thats where the statistic community has not done enoughyet on. We are very obsessed with coming up with methodologiesand coming of new techniques that may be marginally better thanthe existing techniques. That stuff is great for academia andresearch, then youre talking about practice and business Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  16. 16. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsanalytic. Its much more about how do we even get some of thesevery basic concepts through to a much wider audience which doesnot come from the same background as the statistician. I totallyacknowledge your point and its very, very challenging.When I wrote the book, there are parts of it that is verychallenging too. I have a whole chapter that essentially conveysthe concept of what a hypothesis test is and I chose to develop itin a way that has none of the jargon and none of themathematics thats typically used. I hope that some of thereaders will find it to be a successful way of conveying thatconcept. Its not a simple concept to grasp. Where I think this hasto go is we have to come up with creative ways of conveying thatinformation.Joe: You did a nice job in the book because I sat down and readthe book and it wasnt one I had to labor through. I could sitdown and read it and also it brought some smiles along the wayof "Thats not how I remember it being portrayed to me on thenews or anything." Or when I was standing in line at Disney, youtalked about how they handled the queue, a few things like that.I reflected back to them on the things they did to not make thewait so long or appear so long. Of how they effectively managedthat. They started doing all that with numbers.Kaiser: I think going back to something that I said before, inthat case as well as... Even in that same chapter I talk about thehighway incident in Minnesota, is that in all those cases theyclearly identified what the business problem is or whats causedthe issues and then they literally have to spend a lot of sweat andenergy and time to go and collect the data. The data just doesntcome sitting there in a basket waiting for you to analyze. Thatsreally the tough part of a lot of business. If you are doing goodwork, you pretty much have to go through your own data. Youhave to go find the right pieces of information. Often times Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  17. 17. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemschosen different ways to communicate the value of the work. Thisstuff that has been published would be published in technicaljournals or published for a more technical audience.They describe their achievements the same way. But often timesthere are different ways of describing the same thing wouldactually in my view appeal more to a non-technical audience andnext to capture the essence of what they are doing.Joe: Is there something that you would like to summarize or addto this conversation that I havent asked?Kaiser: I think the only thing would be that I would encouragepeople to come to my blogs. Ive started a new blog since thebook came out "Numbers Rule the World". Theres a link to itfrom Junk Charts. But thats where I... If you enjoy the chaptersin the book thats where I continue to apply the big concepts Idescribe in the book to all kinds of current affairs and real worldthings that are happening out there. Its really kind of anextension to everything that I was trying to do.I hope that they would join in this conversation as we discussedbefore, theres plenty more work that needs to get done in termsof figuring out how do we describe and communicate this sort ofinformation effectively, have all the answers and I hope that yourlisteners will join this conversation.Joe: I think you did a great job Kaiser because you started outrecognizing the fact that its not everybody elses job to learn themath. Its your job to be able to present the math in a learnablefashion.Kaiser: Exactly. I think that eventually the academic communitywill come to this realization as well.Joe: It is so important today to do that because we are justflooded with data and how we manipulate that data and how we Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  18. 18. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systemsuse that data is really going to be the companies that flourish, Ithink.Kaiser: Yes, absolutely. We have seen a lot of signs of that. Itsan area that is on the rise, I mean lots of companies are nowrealizing that they need people who can read data accurately andhopefully this will become more and more of the norm in theupcoming years.Joe: Well, Id like to thank you very much Kaiser. This podcast isavailable on the Business901 iTunes store and also available onthe Business901 website. So, again I thank you very muchKaiser.Kaiser: OK. Thanks a lot Joe. Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901
  19. 19. Business901 Podcast TranscriptionImplementing Lean Marketing Systems Joseph T. Dager Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Ph: 260-438-0411 Fax: 260-818-2022 Email: Web/Blog: Twitter: @business901 What others say: In the past 20 years, Joe andI have collaborated on many difficult issues. Joes ability to combine hisexpertise with "out of the box" thinking is unsurpassed. He has alwaysdelivered quickly, cost effectively and with ingenuity. A brilliant mind that isalways a pleasure to work with." James R.Joe Dager is President of Business901, a progressive company providingdirection in areas such as Lean Marketing, Product Marketing, ProductLaunches and Re-Launches. As a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt,Business901 provides and implements marketing, project and performanceplanning methodologies in small businesses. The simplicity of a singleflexible model will create clarity for your staff and as a result betterexecution. My goal is to allow you spend your time on the need versus theplan.An example of how we may work: Business901 could start with aconsulting style utilizing an individual from your organization or a virtualassistance that is well versed in our principles. We have capabilities toplug virtually any marketing function into your process immediately. Asproficiencies develop, Business901 moves into a coach’s role supporting theprocess as needed. The goal of implementing a system is that the processeswill become a habit and not an event. Business901 Podcast Opportunity Expert Status Interpretations of Data Copyright Business901