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HCI 2015 (1/10) Human-Computer Interaction: Overview

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A presentation regarding the Human-Computer Interaction (2015): Human-Computer Interaction (an overview).

For details, visit the HCI discipline Website available at http://profs.info.uaic.ro/~busaco/teach/courses/hci/

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HCI 2015 (1/10) Human-Computer Interaction: Overview

  1. 1. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Human-Computer Interaction an overview 
  2. 2. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco “Design, v.: What you regret not doing later on.” /usr/games/fortune
  3. 3. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco How about the interaction(s) between user(s) and software?
  4. 4. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Human a person who tries to accomplish a goal
  5. 5. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacophoto sources: wikimedia.org
  6. 6. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Computer runs applications (software)
  7. 7. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Computer runs applications (software) locally versus remotely
  8. 8. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco first game developed on PDP (1960s)
  9. 9. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  10. 10. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  11. 11. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  12. 12. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  13. 13. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  14. 14. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  15. 15. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Interaction “dialogue” between humans and computers
  16. 16. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  17. 17. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco The interaction between user(s) and application(s) is achieved via an interface – user interface
  18. 18. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco The interaction between user(s) and application(s) is achieved via an interface – user interface API (Application Programming Interface) versus UI (User Interface)
  19. 19. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: conventional (classical) UI – e.g., desktop
  20. 20. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Graficon (Douglas Engelbart, 1963)
  21. 21. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: conventional (classical) UI – e.g., desktop WIMP (Window Icon Menu Pointer) paradigm interaction via keyboard & mouse + additional devices graphical representations (bitmap vs. vectors) support provided by the OS kernel vs. a desktop system multi-tasking
  22. 22. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco human-computer interaction Bryce (Kai Krause, 1997)
  23. 23. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: Web interface
  24. 24. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco human-computer interaction 280slides (2010)WorldWideWeb system (Tim Berners-Lee, ~1990) 25 years of Web – www.slideshare.net/busaco/25-de-ani-de-web
  25. 25. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: Web interface browser – limited controls provided by (X)HTML hypertext/hypermedia RIA (Rich Internet Applications) (a)synchronous interaction based on open standards availability – world-wide audience
  26. 26. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacowireframe.cc (2015)
  27. 27. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: mobile user interface
  28. 28. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: mobile user interface limited resources/features: display resolution, memory, I/O, power etc., one task vs. multi-tasking, off-line vs. on-line, context awareness services, different business modelsapp stores
  29. 29. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco challenge: interaction design in the context of multi-device UI responsive design see also www.punchcut.com/perspectives/
  30. 30. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: natural UI
  31. 31. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Types of user interfaces: natural UI new interaction paradigms + new expectations, haptic, gesture, locomotion, auditory & voice, tangible UI, augmented and virtual reality, physical computing, ambient intelligence (AmI), emotion & persuasion,…
  32. 32. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  33. 33. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco vimeo.com/64149547
  34. 34. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco User – desktop, Web, mobile,… – interface part of a program/application – at the desktop, Web, mobile/wearable device,… level – which permits users to expose their intentions (goals) with respect to the actual software and to interpret the results of certain actions performed by the machine
  35. 35. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco User – desktop, Web, mobile,… – interface perceived by the user not only as a visual part of a certain software application
  36. 36. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco User – desktop, Web, mobile,… – interface from the point of view of an user, it represents the entire system the application per se
  37. 37. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UI quality attributes (Jakob Nielsen, 2012) utility provides the features users need
  38. 38. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UI quality attributes (Jakob Nielsen, 2012) usability how easy & pleasant the features are to be used
  39. 39. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UI quality attributes (Jakob Nielsen, 2012) useful usability + utility
  40. 40. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Everyone who uses a (software) tool is conducted by a motivation
  41. 41. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacofinding an entity: information, object, user, etc.
  42. 42. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco (self)learning and/or instruction
  43. 43. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco performing a process – e.g., a (business) transaction
  44. 44. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacosocial interactions – at a real and/or virtual level
  45. 45. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco creating an artifact: (micro)blog note, picture, article, source-code,...
  46. 46. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacoentertainment – individual vs. community
  47. 47. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience Defining the perception of a product/service from the point of view of person(s) who use it and the apparent pleasure/satisfaction
  48. 48. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Context http://garrettdimon.com/pages/improving_interface_design
  49. 49. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience “Every product that is used by someone has a user experience: newspapers, ketchup bottles, reclining armchairs, cardigan sweaters.” James Jesse Garrett, 2003
  50. 50. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience Cannot design a user experience, only design for a user experience
  51. 51. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience experience = expectationuser is satisfied
  52. 52. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience
  53. 53. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience experience > expectationuser is delighted
  54. 54. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  55. 55. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX – User Experience experience < expectationuser is dissatisfied
  56. 56. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco www.buigallery.com
  57. 57. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco UX and interaction between users and mobile devices case study
  58. 58. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Punerea problemei
  59. 59. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interactiune web
  60. 60. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Main categories of interactions (in the mobile/wearable device context) Application Centric Activity Centric Timeline Centric Context (Location) Centric Process/Task Centric Emotion Centric People/Identity Centric http://johnnyholland.org/2010/05/archetypes-and-their-use-in-mobile-ux/
  61. 61. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco IA – Information Architecture The necessity of organizing the information desired by the users
  62. 62. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco IA – Information Architecture The solutions of presenting the content regard the IA – Information Architecture
  63. 63. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  64. 64. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  65. 65. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco IA – Information Architecture We can adopt different techniques regarding data visualization
  66. 66. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacowww.veen.com/nextgen.pdf from raw data to knowledge
  67. 67. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacowww.veen.com/nextgen.pdf from raw data to knowledge
  68. 68. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busacowww.veen.com/nextgen.pdf from raw data to knowledge
  69. 69. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco IA – Information Architecture We can adopt different techniques regarding data visualization visual design visual representation infographics
  70. 70. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Aspects concerning design example: The Evolution of the Web evolutionofweb.appspot.com for details, consult www.informationisbeautiful.net
  71. 71. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco HCI: process understand study designbuild evaluate Microsoft, 2008
  72. 72. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco The most important aspects regarding the UI design?
  73. 73. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design “Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives.” Sharp, Rogers & Preece, 2007
  74. 74. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interactiune web related domains (Dan Saffer, 2006)
  75. 75. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: issues “Digital products are rude.” Alan Cooper et al., 2007
  76. 76. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: issues The user is in charge with the application (developer) mistakes stupidity?
  77. 77. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: issues Users must think as computers …they don’t want to learn the “Boolean” language
  78. 78. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: issues Usually, applications do not help people
  79. 79. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Why digital products are so “nasty”?
  80. 80. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Ignoring reality aka the target public (the common user) we tend exclusively to develop software for the “elite” see http://developerexperience.org/
  81. 81. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Conflicts of interests: developers versus business
  82. 82. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The lack of a coherent process regarding the developing of the common software
  83. 83. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The lack of a coherent process regarding the developing of the common software too many amateurs?
  84. 84. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The lack of a coherent process regarding the developing of the common software typical example: Web development
  85. 85. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco The evolution of the software development process Alan Cooper et al., 2014
  86. 86. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The complexity of software applications is greater than the one of the tangible products “If your UI even vaguely resembles an airplane cockpit, you’re doing it wrong.” – John Gruber
  87. 87. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The process of interaction design is an inter-disciplinary one (Rogers, 2007)
  88. 88. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design research regarding interaction design (Yvonne Rogers, 2007) interac- tion design
  89. 89. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions What we want to create (develop)?
  90. 90. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions How about the premises?
  91. 91. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions What are the final goals?
  92. 92. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions We’ll really obtain what we hope?
  93. 93. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions If yes, how?
  94. 94. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions How about the intrinsic difficulties?
  95. 95. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions Can we (re)use an existing solution?
  96. 96. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The design process must be performed with respect to the user requirements/goals user-centered interface design
  97. 97. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Users (clients) typically speak to you in terms of desired features and solutions, not of needs and problems. Jenifer Tidwell, 2006
  98. 98. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) How the software will be used?
  99. 99. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) Who will use the developed application?
  100. 100. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) How often software will be used?
  101. 101. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) How long the user will interact to the application?
  102. 102. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) How about the easiness of using a given application?
  103. 103. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) Software will be portable?
  104. 104. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design: questions (II) How about the internationalization, localization, accessibility of the application?
  105. 105. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Important aspect: understanding the problem to be solved
  106. 106. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Important aspect: understanding the problem to be solved in order to create the desired design (application)
  107. 107. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Aspects: UI type(s): desktop, Web, mobile, TV screen,… user expected behavior functionalities user categories: children, teens, special users, etc. …
  108. 108. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design context con- tentusers
  109. 109. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design the interaction with a specific application is often driven by context: user goal(s) & attitude (e.g., emotional state), available time, location, (social/cultural) environment,… T. Urff, Deliver UX that converts on Web, Mobile and Apps (2015) http://optimizely.slides.com/tobyurff/deliver-ux-that-converts-on-web-mobile-and-apps
  110. 110. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Study: how a phone call differs regarding the means used to be performed? using a classical phone unit versus via a mobile device: an old and/or last generation phone versus using a VoIP software – e.g., FaceTime, Skype
  111. 111. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design We must consider: (the categories of) involved users performed activities the context of using a specific device the environment
  112. 112. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The need of a conceptual model describes how the system is perceived by its users
  113. 113. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The need of a conceptual model software (implementation) model user (mental) model environment model
  114. 114. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design The need of a conceptual model “A high level description of how a system is organized and it functions.” Johnson & Henderson, 2002
  115. 115. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Important issue: user model versus program model Alan Cooper et al., 2007
  116. 116. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction design Example: the spreadsheet conceptual model analogy with concrete tables used by accountants easy to understand simple interaction real-time computing of formulas facilities for further extensions – e.g., URLs as cell values
  117. 117. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco How about the interface usability?
  118. 118. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability Usability refers to the “proper” way the users can exploit the functionality of a given system Jakob Nielsen www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html
  119. 119. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability Learnability how easily a person can learn to use a system (its interface)
  120. 120. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco
  121. 121. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability Efficiency after user learnt the interface, how can (s)he optimally use it?
  122. 122. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability
  123. 123. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability Memorability it is easy for the users to remember the interaction with the system?
  124. 124. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco memorability versus security “many authentication systems require users to memorize secrets that they should recall whenever they want to be authenticated by a system” (R. Kainda et al.) – www.cs.ox.ac.uk/files/2859/ares_main.pdf
  125. 125. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability Errors the number of potential errors must be minimal the user mistakes must be easily detected/corrected
  126. 126. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability
  127. 127. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco usability Satisfaction the user likes to use the application/service?
  128. 128. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco system accepta- bility social accepta- bility practical accepta- bility useful- ness utility usability easy to learn efficient to use easy to remem- ber few errors sub- jectively pleasant cost compa- tibility relia- bility etc. JakobNielsen
  129. 129. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco “The applications that are easy to use are designed to be familiar.” Jenifer Tidwell
  130. 130. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco “Attractive things work better.” – Donald Norman for more examples, visit pttrns.com
  131. 131. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco remember Keep the Simple Simple “No matter how complex the overall system, there is no excuse for not keeping simple tasks simple.” Jef Raskin
  132. 132. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco Keep the Simple Simple …the most engaging interface of a game?
  133. 133. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco remember A user-interface is considered to be good if the application is behaving conform to the expectations of its users
  134. 134. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco remember A user-interface is considered to be good if the application is behaving conform to the expectations of its users “The successful games companies are the ones that recognize that their business is entertainment, not software.” Andrew Rollings & Dave Morris, 2004
  135. 135. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco A. Cooper, R. Reimann, D. Cronin, About Face (3rd Edition), Addison-Wesley, 2007 J. Raskin, The Humane Interface, Addison-Wesley, 2000 A. Sears, J. Jacko (Eds.), The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook (2nd Edition), Taylor & Francis Group, 2008 J. Tidwell, Designing Interfaces, O’Reilly, 2005 HCI Bibliography http://hcibib.org/ The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction http://www.interaction-design.org/books/hci.html essential resources
  136. 136. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco interaction, agent, IA, cognetics, markup, art, visual design, KISS, control, user testing, idiom, latency, mode, icon, GUI, Fitt’s Law, event, human factors, infographics, RAD, metaphor, accessibility, privacy, skin, affordance, prompt, menu, pointer, risk, augmented reality, UX, animation, web, game, graceful degradation, query, tag, prototyping, ID, evaluation, task, design patterns, gesture, tabs, color, ergonomics, feedback, CLI, script, look & feel, AI, navigation, role, multimodal, audio, RAD, typography, window, voice, mouse, demographics, help, l10n, shortcut, direct manipulation, efficiency, paradigm, usability, CADUI, experiment, VR, eye candy, 3D, effect, WYSIWYG, semiotics, i18n, RIA, style, tooltip, iterative, keyboard, pervasive, learnability, hypertext, anticipation, handheld, memory, social, natural language, methodology, ubiquitous computing, persona, dialogue, user, screen, wireframe, PUI, zoom, psychology, recommender system, brand, flow, storyboard, architecture, model, responsiveness, satisfaction, touch, undo, metrics, video, semantic
  137. 137. Master on Software Engineering :: Human-Computer Interaction Dr. Sabin-Corneliu Buraga – www.purl.org/net/busaco next lecture: the human factor

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