MIT TR - Colombia ICT Ecosystems - Intl Trends in ICT - Rpt 1 - Jan 28 2014


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"International ICT Trends" Report for Colombian Ministry of ICT (MinTIC) [], Minister Diego Molano, Govt of Colombia. Performed by MIT Technology Review, Cambridge, Mass, during August 2013 to Feb 2014. Primary author: Cynthia Graber. Co-authors: Erik Pages, Ellen Harpel, Burton Lee, Antoinette Matthews. Report 1 of 2 reports done for MinTIC. Project lead: Antoinette Matthews.

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MIT TR - Colombia ICT Ecosystems - Intl Trends in ICT - Rpt 1 - Jan 28 2014

  1. 1. InternationalTrendsinICT AnInitiativeoftheICTMinistryofColombia Published in 2014
  2. 2. TableofContents Introduction 1 Government 9 Education 19 Developing Talent 27 Entrepreneurship 35 Enterprise 45 Health Care 55 National Development 63 Sources 69
  3. 3. ICT TRENDS REPORT 1MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report Colombia’s Future: ICT Today, one underlying technology has transformed nearly every sector of the world’s economies and governments: information and communications technology, or ICT. ICT facilitates transparent government activity and citizen participation. ICT improves access to health care and the quality of health care overall. ICT enables businesses to improve their logistics, streamline processes, and access new markets. It lies behind improvements in machinery and robotics. The technology provides the means to enact precision agriculture for large landholders and supplies market information and access to smaller-scale farmers. ICT enables students to learn more in their classrooms and to access information from other classrooms around the globe. The ICT industry depends on a workforce educated in the tools of its technology and the necessary business skills, and it is built on meeting the demands of every economic and government sector that will take advantage of its promises and opportunities. In May, 2013, McKinsey Quarterly’s “Ten IT-enabled business trends for the decade ahead” highlighted the industry’s growth: “Consider that the world’s stock of data is now doubling every 20 months; the number of Internet-connected devices has reached 12 billion; and payments by mobile phone are hurtling toward the $1 trillion mark.” Colombia’s economy has been growing rapidly, and its government has helped pull Colombia’s citizens out of poverty. This process has been assisted by dramatically increasing access to ICT over the past four years. Over the coming years, Colombia will continue to implement and optimize ICT throughout government and industry, and to educate students and workers to take advantage of the opportunities presented by this technology-based world. SOURCE:WORLDBANK2006,INFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONS FORDEVELOPMENT:GLOBALTRENDSANDPOLICIES ICT Use and Enterprise Performance in Developing Countries Enterprises Not Using ICT Using ICT Difference Sales Growth (%) Employment Growth (%) Profitability (%) Labor Productivity ($) (value added per worker) 0.4 4.5 4.2 5,288 3.8 5.6 9.3 8,712 +750% +24% +113% +65%
  4. 4. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW2 ICT Colombia Report ICTtoTransformGovernments,Cities,andCitizens Technology can have a transformative power for governments. Moving government services online can increase access to them; make systems more transparent and thus improve citizen confidence and reduce corruption; and provide direct economic benefits. For instance, a rapid online process to allow entrepreneurs to start new businesses may facilitate the growth of startups. And while Colombia has been recognized for the country’s advances in e-government, the potential remains for even greater use of ICT, for example in the judicial system. In addition to making governments more efficient and effective, the use of online information can enable citizens to become greater players in democracy, by alerting local governments to problems in the physical infrastructure (potholes, for instance, or other problems citizens may see around town). Citizens are also increasingly using open data provided by governments to build new apps, such as those that map a city or country’s economic trends. These open data projects can both increase government transparency and enable citizens to push governments to operate more effectively and efficiently. Data is also helping local and national governments become smarter. Cities are installing a variety of technologies to improve the delivery of services and conserve energy. National and regional governments are using massive amounts of data to create city control centers, to recover from natural disasters, and to improve regional policing and security. And as more and more of these functions move online, the protection of the nation’s data—cyber security— becomes increasingly important.
  5. 5. ICT TRENDS REPORT 3MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report ICTforEducation Technology is making inroads into education today in ways that have the power to captivate and enlighten a new world of digital learners. Reaching from the youngest children to the most mature students, ICT is opening new worlds. The use of technology in the classroom, from early grades up through high school, can bring a tremendous amount of new information to the student. Computers and Internet access not only allow students to enter that universe, but offer schools the opportunity to transform the practice of education, so that students can learn to think creatively and to solve problems in new ways. Some teachers are experimenting with changing the methods of pedagogy entirely. The trend throughout Latin America and the world is to provide every single student with a computer; programs that do so have shown great successes, along with some challenges. Teachers and community members need to be actively trained and engaged to use the systems best and most productively, and every technology program in every school system should have clear goals and methods to ensure meeting its goals. In high schools and university-level courses, the rapid rise of massive online open classrooms, or MOOCs, often taught by the very best minds in a field, holds great potential for Colombia. The greatest opportunity in MOOCs seems to be in so-called blended classrooms, where teachers and classes meet physically and then use these online courses for additional instruction. Colombia could also provide online courses of its own for the Spanish-speaking world, or translate online courses for use within Colombia.
  6. 6. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW4 ICT Colombia Report DevelopingTalent The digital economy calls for job readiness and talents across a wide variety of skill sets: programming and coding, product design, management and leadership. Leaders in all fields must now understand the digital world and be prepared to meet both local and global needs. Supplying a skilled workforce that can match the digital economy’s demands is one of Colombia’s challenges. Colombia is not alone in this respect: around the world, local and national governments, even those in the United States, are concerned about how to train the next generation of workers. Advanced training is not important solely for the traditional ICT businesses; ICTs are also essential in local and national government, in health care, energy, and transportation, and in many other fields. Other countries have tried to train their workforces through many different channels. In some cases, their focus is on the younger generation, offering classes and clubs in high schools to get students excited about the field, so that students can then meet business needs in their local community. Online courses and boot camps can impart needed skills, as Codecademy is already doing in Colombia. Some regions in Mexico, Jalisco for instance, have developed technical certification and training to ready the workforce quickly, at times using international experts in the field from companies such as Microsoft and Cisco Systems. (Both offer international training.) Training in product design, which incorporates a user’s experience and interface with technology, is another key type of training that can help ensure business success. Universities, especially computer engineering departments, have a role to play. In many countries, however, and Colombia is no exception, interest in computer engineering is declining, and university departments are not closely aligned with industry. Some countries have created special research centers to bring various industries together with academic centers, and to attract companies to the areas where they are located. University reform can also help by more closely aligning universities with the jobs that will be available for their students in the future.
  7. 7. ICT TRENDS REPORT 5MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report ICTforEntrepreneurship Although a thriving entrepreneurial sector is not made up only of ICT-based startups, ICT is the platform behind nearly all successful entrepreneurial ventures. And as such, developing and supporting the ICT ecosystem is vital to Colombia as it continues to advance its economy and create both knowledge and jobs. There are many examples around the world of programs to accelerate developing entrepreneurs, some demonstrating more success than others. In Latin America, one of the most prominent ones thus far is Start-Up Chile: this program has successfully attracted dozens of entrepreneurs from around the world and has begun to create a network of companies and venture capital, but has not been around long enough to evaluate its success substantively. At the least, it has created a buzz around Chile and has served to market Chile’s capabilities and potential as a home for entrepreneurs. Many examples from around the world demonstrate how industry or government can help communities of startups to create new businesses, jobs, and wealth. Almost all new companies need training and support. Some regions may offer natural benefits that have nothing to do with either government or industry, such as the appealing mountains around Boulder, Colorado. And some regions face special challenges; in Latin America, one particular challenge is the lack of access to capital. Hubs of entrepreneurs, from the United States to the United Kingdom to Kenya, create a strong sense of community and attract investments and additional entrepreneurs. As Colombia develops a growing base of emerging business leaders, linking those leaders and creating that community may help propel the country into greater success.
  8. 8. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW6 ICT Colombia Report ICTforEnterprise The role of ICT in enterprise cannot be overestimated: it can expand a business’s markets, enable more efficient use of financial and employee resources, and facilitate transportation logistics and the supply chain. But in Colombia, as in many other nations, some businesses have yet to make optimal use of these transformative technologies, while others, particularly microenterprises, have not yet even begun to use them in the first place. In Colombia ICT can and will play a major role in a number of sectors. This section, on enterprise use of ICT, examines two of them, agriculture and financial services, and concludes with a brief analysis of cloud computing. In agriculture, many different technologies are available to assist operations that range from small-scale farms to major landholdings. For large farms, including those that export their crops, ICT facilitates precision agriculture that employs data analysis to tell farmers when to plant, when to fertilize, and when and how to use pesticides. ICT can also allow farmers to make their supply chains public and transparent for, say, beef; such assurances of quality may allow farmers to reach a broader public. For small-scale farmers, ICT broadens access to markets and market information. Farmers can readily submit texts and/or photographs to request assistance with a variety of crop and animal questions, and can employ smartphone apps to monitor their farms and their herds. In financial services, the expanded use of cell phones and the Internet can help bring the unbanked into the world of banking. Mobile banking and micro-payments to poor consumers can help this population financially and allow them greater access to opportunities in business, health, and home services. Expanded opportunities for banks, enterprises, and consumers using mobile devices and the Internet offer greater ease, efficiency, and market opportunities. Business owners can gain access to a wider variety of services by using cloud computing. Instead of maintaining their own IT infrastructure, businesses and entrepreneurs can employ cloud computing to transcend geographical boundaries and access high-level software at low cost.
  9. 9. ICT TRENDS REPORT 7MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report ICTforHealthCare The use of ICT in health care offers a great many technological options that can improve patient care, reduce overall health-care costs, and expand the reach of health-care providers outward to poor and rural communities. Telemedicine, by which patient conditions can be monitored at a distance, or patients can access doctors and nurses via phone or video, provides numerous benefits. Remote conferencing can reduce the need for patients to travel to doctor’s offices or hospitals, and allows medical professionals to treat patients far away. New programs—for example a cardiovascular monitoring program in Beijing, China—are now setting up sensors that can continue transmitting readings from patients even after they leave their doctors’ direct care. Electronic health records (EHR) can ease a patient’s transitions between health-care providers without the need to duplicate and transfer physical records, and can also furnish a base of data for analysis of treatment successes and failures. EHR implementation and use is rising around the world; however, there are still challenges to their full implementation, such as interoperability between systems, security, network connectivity, and the design of the templates themselves. The data provided by these records, along with the vast amount of other health-care data amassed in the process of providing health care, is itself transforming health-care policies and practices. The analysis of so-called big data can be seen in programs that compile data on health, illness, and mortality around the world to help advise national (and international) policies. Big data can be used to help diagnose and treat cancer patients, and trends of illnesses and emerging epidemics can be tracked online. The ubiquitous cell phone also has the potential to improve the reach of medical care, as smartphones today, augmented by any number of small pieces of equipment, can serve to measure such functions as vision, blood pressure, pulse, lung function, and many others.
  10. 10. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW8 ICT Colombia Report ICTforNationalDevelopment National policies are crucial for the successful implementation of ICT programs throughout the government and for guiding successful development of industry as well. Different countries have taken a variety of approaches and strategies to ICT policy. Each approach carries with it its own potential benefits and pitfalls. In his book Innovation and the State: Political choice and strategies for growth in Israel, Taiwan, and Ireland, Dan Breznitz, professor of political science at the University of Toronto, lays out the choices that various nations have made. Israel is the only country that has thus far succeeded at a Silicon Valley-style approach, but this has concentrated the resulting wealth in the hands of a few people and created a gap in income. Taiwan followed a top-down plan, heavy on state-funded investment in manufacturing and R&D, and while this has worked for Taiwan, it would be difficult to copy today. Ireland focused on job creation, banking on educating its citizens for the ICT workforce and on its membership in the European Union. The world of ICT is vastly different now than the one that determined the paths of those three countries. Nations such as Brazil and Chile are now taking approaches that involve a variety of policies and initiatives, perhaps more in line with Colombia’s plans for the future. As the World Bank emphasizes in its report ICT for Greater Development Impact, national governments today need to focus on being active participants in advancing ICT. They need to develop skills among their citizens and provide strong leadership in order to help their countries become technologically stronger and more advanced, and thus better able to play an active role in the industries of the future.
  11. 11. Government IN THIS SECTION Overview Improving Government through E-Government E-Government: The Case of Estonia Accessing Justice Cities Generate Open Data Accessing and Using Big Data Making Cities Smart Moving the Masses Cyber Security: Protecting the Data ICT has been transforming government throughout developed and wealthier countries, and Colombia has much to gain from continuing and advancing the use of technology in its government. (E-government usually refers to the use of information technology within the government process, while e-governance means allowing citizens to participate in democracy online. E-governance also refers to the policy and institutional culture needs for creating effective e-government.) By 2010, global government spending on IT for e-government was estimated to have reached $423 billion annually, according to a report by Transparency International, and more than 80 percent of businesses and 40 percent of citizens had interacted online with the governments of developed economies. In addition, the majority of World Bank projects on governance reform between 2003 and 2010 included an IT component. 9 STUARTBRADFORD
  12. 12. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW10 ICT Colombia Report leverage citizen participation: encour- age applications such as revenue watch, procurement watch and open budget— and use anti-corruption hotlines, utility misuses reporting, and participatory bud- geting.” Kenya is one example of a country that has tried to take the transparency dictum to heart. In creating online appli- cations for starting a business, its dual goals were to cut the lead time and to cut out the demands for bribe money. Kenya first began the transition in 2004. The country aimed to place a variety of services on line, including applications for public sector jobs, new business appli- cations, passport and identity card forms, school examination results, tax returns, and corruption reports. It particularly hoped to facilitate access to services for its poor and rural citizens. The biggest chal- lenge to making this effective, however, has been lack of Internet connectivity or, where it exists, slow and dragging connections. In order to share the costs of moving government services online, Ghana has joined in a public-private partnership to create its electronic tax collection system. The Ghanaian system—which includes tax processing, collecting, refunds, and so on—was created through a partnership of public and private sector organiza- tions that will share both the risk and the revenues from the project. (This imple- mentation is ongoing.) A 2012 report by Transparency Inter- national on e-government (“False dawn, window dressing, or taking transparency to the next level?” by Dieter Zinnbauer) focuses on the issues of transparency and corruption. According to this report, there is not yet much empirical evidence about how effective e-government is in combating corruption. And while online activities may increase transparency, it’s not a panacea: there are “loopholes and workarounds (tailored tenders, leaking of inside information, excessive use of single- vendor exceptions) in countries such as Romania, Czech Republic, or Bulgaria.” Websites have been used in richer countries as well to provide transparency to the government spending process. In the US, is a site on which users can track funds available from the American Recovery and Reinvestment 39 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % of all individuals Mexico1 Turkey1 Japan4 Italy Poland Greece United States6 Switzerland5 Czech Republic Korea1 United Kingdom New Zealand Portugal Chile2 Ireland Hungary Spain OECD average Belgium Luxembourg Slovak Republic Slovenia Austria France Estonia Germany Canada1 Netherlands Finland Iceland Sweden Norway Denmark Note: Data from the EU Community Survey covers EU countries plus Iceland, Norway and Turkey. Data in this chart refer to Internet use in the last 12 months for all countries. Individuals aged 16-74 years, except for Canada (16+), Japan (6+) and Switzerland (14+). For Canada, the figure responds to the question “to visit or interact with government websites”. 1) 2010; 2) 2009; 3) 2006; 4) 2005; 5) 2004; 6) 2003. SOURCES:OECDICTDATABASEANDEUROSTATCOMMUNITYSURVEYONICTUSAGEINHOUSEHOLDSANDBYINDIVIDUALS, MAY2012.CANADIANINTERNETUSESURVEY,2010FROMSTATISTICSCANADA. medium-sized businesses greater partici- pation in the procurement process. E-government is also a critical tool for supporting entrepreneurship and business opportunities. One barrier to business creation can be the time neces- sary to create a new business. In Chile, the push for a stronger start-up culture led the government to reduce the time necessary to move through the bureau- cracy of registering a business down to a single day. And in Rwanda, it can take as little as an hour. Providing online access isn’t enough, as most reports stress, and this is true for online business-creation services as well. In response, New York City created a series of Easy Start Business Guides that take entrepreneurs through the steps necessary to create their businesses. In Kansas City, Missouri, they’ve created a web portal called KC BizCare Center that not only details the applicable regula- tions and procedures, but provides links to additional resources such as loan funds and technical assistance. The World Bank report states that ICT can be used to “increase the trans- parency of government activities and ImprovingGovernment throughE-Government n In the developed world, e-government programs are widespread and are con- stantly being streamlined and improved. According to an IBM report, “The Foun- dations of Efficiency: Learning to Do More With Less is the New Normal in Government,” cloud-based services in southwest England consolidated procure- ment, back-office processing, and ser- vice delivery, and saved local governments $100 million. Alameda County, California employed advanced analytics to reduce improper payments by 15 to 20 percent. Emerging and middle economies have focused on IT as a way to streamline pro- cesses, improve citizen access to services, and decrease corruption. According to the World Bank report “ICT for Greater Development Impact,” a simple web site in Brazil has led to 95 percent of citizens filing tax returns and paying their taxes online. The Republic of Korea imple- mented an e-procurement system: these systems can reduce corruption, and in Korea it led to a cost saving of 20 percent a year on government-procured prod- ucts. The system also allows smaller and ICT for Government Individuals Using the Internet to Obtain Information from Public Authorities’ Websites, 2011 (or latest available year) SOURCE:OECDICTDATABASEANDEUROSTATCOMMUNITYSURVEYONICTUSAGEIN HOUSEHOLDSANDBYINDIVIDUALS,MAY2012.CANADIANINTERNETUSESURVEY,2010FROM STATISTICSCANADA.FROMPAGE119OFTHEOECDINTERNETECONOMYOUTLOOK.
  13. 13. ICT TRENDS REPORT 11MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia ReportICT for Government NYC BigApps Apps for Californians M.T.A. App Quest SF Data Challenge Apps for Baltimore Apps 4 Climate Action Apps for Democracy US federal: Apps for America Apps for the Army Apps for Healthy Kids Apps for Inclusion Apps Against Abuse Apps for the Environment Apps for Communities SMART Apps for Health Apps for Entrepreneurs Apps for Heroes Apps4Edmonton Rio Apps Apps for Finland Apps for Denmark Apps for Norway Apps for Belgium Apps4Berlin Apps for Amsterdam Apps for North Holland Apps for Good Apps for NSW Australia MashupAustralia App My State Victoria AU Apps4Africa Civic Apps for Greater Portland Apps4Ottawa Apps 4 Metro Chicago Act (an economic stimulus plan enacted by the US government in 2009) and how they are spent on contracts, grants, and loans. The World Bank also stresses the importance of back-end systems—inte- grating IT throughout government offices and sectors—and suggests that heavy software development for such sectors is no longer an issue, “because many best- practice applications already exist in the market.” The report writers continue: “In the open source market and the software-as-a-service space, governments can buy IT services rather than produce and manage IT services themselves. Gov- ernments may, however, need to develop capacity to manage the transition.” Such capacity will include, for instance, making sure that the necessary hardware and software are in place and passing and implementing laws for elec- tronic transactions and security. Simply creating access is not enough, according to the World Bank. Access must be facilitated by the design and imple- mentation of software, access to Internet services by the general public, and advo- cacy and education, to make sure that citizens know how to access and use the new systems. Decisions must be made about how the data will be both secured and accessed. The World Bank’s own evaluation of projects from 2003-2010 reports that “only about half” of the ICT in gover- nance projects fulfill their goals, and a 2011 study in Harvard Business Review focusing on massive private investment in IT programs (“Why your IT project may be riskier than you think”) highlights how cost overruns can stretch into many times the initial planned investment, and cause time delays to match. In “E-government and e-governance,” a chapter of the book Information and Communication Technology for Devel- opment, chapter authors James Guida and Martin Crow also discuss issues that can derail projects, including competing interests among stakeholders, coordina- tion problems among the different sectors involved, lack of appropriate coordination between central and local government, and resistance from local officials. This chapter also discusses, however, a significant benefit for users: streamlin- ing their access to government services through a “one-stop-shopping” portal. “This way, citizens would not need to know what department they are deal- ing with in order to get the service they need. This approach is about innovating, not just automating.” New York City, for example, developed a new website that consolidates health and human services programs, through which users can access 35 city, state, and federal programs. The chapter “E-government and e-governance” concludes, “There is no ‘one-size-fits-all model for e-govern- ment development. Each country needs to devise its own e-government strategy and programs, taking into consideration its political, economic and social priorities and its financial, human and techno- logical capacities… The key to effective e-government implementation is a multi- pronged approach, based on technology as well as human development.” E-Government: TheCaseofEstonia n Estonia is often considered a model of e-government implementation. The Uni- versity of Massachusetts’s Meelis Kitsing critically analyzes the Estonian story in a paper entitled “An Evaluation of E-Gov- ernment in Estonia,” prepared for a 2010 Internet, Politics and Policy conference. Kitsing writes that Estonia “does not have a e-government strategy, nor did it create a special office or ministry for informa- tion society, as was the case in Slovenia, for instance.” There was little creation of specific IT governance laws. Rather, the officials focused on implementing elec- tronic services. Some key facts led to Estonia’s suc- cess. First, Estonia already had a strong community of IT specialists and scien- tists and a strong culture and tradition of software development and hacking, along with government officials familiar with the IT industry. For decades, Estonia’s Institute of Cybernetics, under the former Soviet regime, had focused strongly on computer programming. As early as 1998, its various government departments were linked by secure access to the Internet and intranet. In addition, Estonia’s relatively smooth transition to e-government ser- vices relied on the already strong system of e-banking in place in the country. By 2002, more than half of Estonia’s citizens used Internet banking, and government agencies began to use the banking ID verification system. Citizens were able to access government services such as pay- ing taxes while logged into the banking system. Now, this system has transitioned to government-issued electronic ID cards. But this overarching view of Estonia hides many of the challenges in its sys- tem, writes Kitsing. For one, their use of IT in a number of government depart- ments is still uneven, and as of 2007 the SOURCE:SOURCE:FORRESTERRESEARCH,INC.,GOVERNMENTS EMBRACENEWMODESOFCONSTITUENTENGAGEMENT,APRIL2012 Competitions Use Open Government Data for App Creation
  14. 14. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW12 ICT Colombia Report CitiesGenerate OpenData n City governments are enlisting tech- nology to ask their citizens for help in directing government priorities and solu- tions. Bogotá launched such an initia- tive, called “Hacemos Latir a Bogotá,” in 2011, in advance of the municipal elec- tion. In this campaign, citizens were asked to point out problem areas on a map of Bogotá, to share ideas for solutions, and to propose actions by the city government. Though not binding, the public came up with five major objectives for the mayoral candidates. In many cities today, public participa- tion is meant to help city officials quickly respond to problems such as potholes or other infrastructure needs. This has led to the development of city-specific apps, such as CitySourced, SeeClickFix, and Citizens Connect. Via CitySourced, resi- dents take photos of problems such as open manholes with smartphones, tag- ging each with a time-stamp and category. The city servers then can direct the photo to the appropriate city official. According to the company, this electronic measure can dramatically reduce costs to a city in processing complaints. CitySourced is being implemented in a number of cities in California. But citizens can be engaged in other ways as well. City governments are begin- ning to open data that was previously difficult to obtain, or even off limits, in the past. And they are asking members of the public for help in solving urban challenges. For instance, in 2011 Dublin released a number of its previously private city datasets to the public, including water flow, energy monitoring, air and water pollution, noise maps, and parking and traffic data, using a platform called Dub- linked. This was part of a partnership with exchange of official documents was still limited because different departments had bought different, and incompatible, software programs. And for many years after the implementation of e-govern- ment services, a number of processes, such as replacing a driver’s license, still had to be carried out on paper. The Esto- nian system, writes Kitsing, has also been weak on participatory democracy, that is, on using technology to encourage citizens to participate in, for instance, suggesting new laws or changes to existing laws, or more generally in engaging the public in government processes. Electronic vot- ing has also been weak, in part because “voters do not simply need the access to the computer, but the use of ID-card is required as well,” which would require an individual purchase of an ID-card reader. Some such readers don’t work well or may be incompatible with browsers, which could lead to a decrease in voting. ICT for Government In Colombia, a post-conflict society, the ability of citizens to access the Justice Department, and to be provided with a responsive, transparent system, can be of key importance. Not only is Colombia’s current justice system bogged down by bureaucracy, but the entire judiciary relies on the use of paper. A transformation to a computerized system could lead to more efficient passage through the justice system and greater transparency. As the examples below demonstrate, however, this transformation needs to be slow and deliberate so as to avoid the problems that have plagued other countries. In “Justice Systems and ICT: What can be learned from Europe?” Marco Velicogna writes that ICT “is considered one of the key elements to significantly improve the administration of justice.” He continues, “ICT can be used to enhance efficiency, access, timeliness, transparency and accountability, helping the judiciaries to provide adequate services.” But when Velicogna wrote in 2007, many such e-justice systems had failed to reach these goals because of failures of both hardware and software to meet their needs. One concern certainly still relevant today is this: “Unfortunately, the dissemination of such technologies, when not followed by other actions, such as training and redesign of working practices, has often resulted in very limited impact on efficiency.” In the 2013 article, “Risk Factors in e-justice information systems,” by João Rosa, Cláudio Teixeira, and Joaquim Sousa Pinto, the authors, reporting on their own efforts in the Republic of Cabo Verde (Cape Verde Islands), present a number of case studies on ICT in the judiciary. They describe the comprehensive and effective development of such a system in Singapore, whose system shifted from a mainframe approach to a web-based one; in the process, Singapore upgraded its infrastructure as well. According to Rosa, Teixeira, and Sousa Pinto, it seems to be working well and effectively. Brazil’s justice system is decentralized to its states. As the ICT infrastructure grew, challenges arose with interoperability of the state systems. As a result, Brazil attempted to create a national virtual system. This, however, was a disaster, as André Andrade wrote in his report, “Organizational structure and ICT strategies in the Brazilian judiciary system.” The new system had a steep learning curve, Brazil lost more than $50 million, and the system was abandoned in 2010. Brazil is now in a transition phase to a web-based national system; part of implementing it requires upgrading the telecommunications network to a higher bandwidth. Like Singapore, Brazil is implementing a public key infrastructure (PKI) to improve the security of the system. AccessingJustice
  15. 15. ICT TRENDS REPORT 13MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report IBM’s Smarter Cities Technology Cen- ter, based in Dublin. The open data also includes Dublin’s budget and finances, and in 2013 the city increased the munic- ipal budget data available, employing a more user-friendly online interface designed by the Silicon Valley company OpenGov. And Dublin is just one example of cit- ies around the world participating in this new “open data” model of transparent government. In Chicago, such initiatives have resulted in apps that, for instance, track trends in the city’s economy or crime in Chicago’s 50 wards. The United King- dom has undertaken a major open data initiative: The government intends this open data to make the government more accountable to its citizens, to improve services and reduce waste, to encour- age economic growth, and to engage the public. In order to do so, in two years the UK’s Government Digital Service hired more than 200 employees, including some with extensive digital experience and talent, to completely transform its government-citizen digital interactions. Today, the UK government’s open data project is one of the world’s largest sets of public data. (“Government Digital Service: the best startup in Europe we can’t invest in,” November, 2013, The Guardian.) In what’s known as “hacktivism,” cities are now sponsoring contests to tap into the creativity of local entrepre- neurs. New York City holds a Big Apps NYC coding competition—the fourth was held in 2013—and in 2013 the winning app received $150,000. The US National Day of Civic Hacking is an event that stretches over 24 hours around the US and its local, state, and federal governments, attracting inter- ested and technologically savvy citizens. Code4America, founded in 2009, has a number of projects: in one, web devel- opers, designers, and entrepreneurs are awarded fellowships in which they are paired up with cities to design new apps and open databases, and create events to encourage citizen participation. Code- 4America also hosts an accelerator for new “civic startups” and a so-called Bri- gade that offers a national platform for technology experts interested in public governance to work together. Similarly, Code4Europe matches classes of fellows with interested cities and organizes open innovation events. With some additional hardware, citizens can be deployed as scientific mon- itors. For instance, students in Beijing, a notoriously polluted city, have hooked sensors onto kites, which citizens can fly to get up-to-date readings of air quality. That information can then be centralized and analyzed. Citizens in Massachusetts ICT for Government In Belgium, according to the “Risk Factors” article, early attempts at e-justice were unsuccessful, because of a lack of high- level planning and incompatible programs and systems. The most recent Belgian attempt began in 2000, and seemed to address all possible technical and security problems from the beginning (such as the need to change the minds of its users, including judges), but the program was halted in 2007: “The main argument was that the development team could not solve the technical problems inherent to such a project.” The authors write that the system might have been better served by following the Singapore model, where the government addressed relatively minor matters with ICT before moving on to larger-scale criminal and civil issues. Portugal followed this model as well—beginning with smaller civil processes before proceeding to criminal actions—and this development, according to the authors, appears to be proving successful. The 2012 Transparency International Report False Dawn by Dieter Zinnbauer spends a fair amount of time on the issue of the use of ICT in judiciary systems. Such systems, encompassing “electronic docket and case management systems, as well as the electronic recording of court proceedings,” have proved important in deterring some manipulations of court proceedings—bringing transparency to the proceedings of assigning judges to cases, reducing backlogs, and making entire systems at once more efficient and more transparent. In the Czech Republic, as of July 2012, for instance, all official correspondence from courts and other official public authorities was to be deposited in “mandatory electronic data depository boxes.” Zinnbauer also lists electronic case files that have been rolled out in Costa Rica, proceedings in Nigeria that have been electronically recorded, and an electronic case administration information system that has been built in the Philippines. India has a “very ambitious—and ongoing—initiative to wire up its more than 15,000 courts.” New technologies are making these transitions possible. For instance, the Silicon Valley company Clearwell Systems can scan a half million documents and, from them, determine the 0.5 percent that are relevant for a particular trial; this effort, which takes only days, would in theory take an entire team of lawyers weeks to accomplish. (“Ten IT-enabled business trends for the decade ahead,” McKinsey and Co., May, 2013.) Transparency International says that it is not yet documented how effective these national initiatives are in combating corruption, but they have clearly enhanced and eased workflows and supported the transparency of those workflows. In Belgium, according to the “Risk Factors” article, early attempts at e-justice were unsuccessful, because of a lack of high- level planning and incompatible programs and systems. The most recent Belgian attempt began in 2000, and seemed to address all possible technical and security problems from the beginning (such as the need to change the minds of its users, including judges), but the program was halted in 2007: “The main argument was that the development team could not solve the technical problems inherent to such a project.” The authors write that the system might have been better served by following the Singapore model, where the government addressed relatively minor matters with ICT before moving on to larger-scale criminal and civil issues. Portugal followed this model as well—beginning with smaller civil processes before proceeding to criminal actions—and this development, according to the authors, appears to be proving successful. The 2012 Transparency International Report False Dawn by Dieter Zinnbauer spends a fair amount of time on the issue of the use of ICT in judiciary systems. Such systems, encompassing “electronic docket and case management systems, as well as the electronic recording of court proceedings,” have proved important in deterring some manipulations of court proceedings—bringing transparency to the proceedings of assigning judges to cases, reducing backlogs, and making entire systems at once more efficient and more transparent. In the Czech Republic, as of July 2012, for instance, all official correspondence from courts and other official public authorities was to be deposited in “mandatory electronic data depository boxes.” Zinnbauer also lists electronic case files that have been rolled out in Costa Rica, proceedings in Nigeria that have been electronically recorded, and an electronic case administration information system that has been built in the Philippines. India has a “very ambitious—and ongoing—initiative to wire up its more than 15,000 courts.” New technologies are making these transitions possible. For instance, the Silicon Valley company Clearwell Systems can scan a half million documents and, from them, determine the 0.5 percent that are relevant for a particular trial; this effort, which takes only days, would in theory take an entire team of lawyers weeks to accomplish. (“Ten IT-enabled business trends for the decade ahead,” McKinsey and Co., May, 2013.) Transparency International says that it is not yet documented how effective these national initiatives are in combating corruption, but they have clearly enhanced and eased workflows and supported the transparency of those workflows.
  16. 16. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW14 ICT Colombia Report Education 890–1,180 720–920 520–1,470 340–580 240–510 300-450 210–280 3,220–5,390 Transportation Consumer products Electricity Oil and gas Health care1 Consumer Finance Total Potential Value in Open Data, $ billion The values here are drawn from examples of open-data potential and are not a comprehensive sizing of potential value across the two sectors. 1 Includes US values only. help the government monitor the water quality of local rivers. One of the challenges in this entire open data movement, writes Andrew Isaacson, an engineer at the data analyt- ics company Palantir (“Beyond Alphabet Soup: Five Guidelines for Data Sharing”), is that the data need to be presented in a raw, usable manner, be both machine- and human-readable, and must use an open data format. Such systems also need to be accompanied by privacy measures— making sure the data does not violate any citizen’s privacy—and, he believes, by a control system that allows the operators to know who is requesting and accessing the data (in order to, for instance, limit access to sensitive information). The World Bank ICT report stresses that governments will need to adapt the appropriate legal and regulatory frame- works, including “open government directives, freedom of information legis- lation, information security and privacy, and in many cases technology infrastruc- ture (open standards, interoperability frameworks, information security and privacy) to make these initiatives sus- tainable.” An additional challenge to the open data movement is the lack of data and case studies on the effects of such programs. In January 2013, Google’s foundation announced a $2.1 million grant to the Sunlight Foundation, an organization that focuses on the use of ICT and transpar- ency in government in the US, to analyze case studies on the effects of open-data technology in governance. AccessingandUsing BigData n At times, even if city officials want to make data public, they don’t themselves have access to the needed data. To com- bat poverty, provide needed services, and increase transparency (and, as a result, decrease corruption), cities need up-to- date, real-time, detailed data about their communities. In response, city officials are employ- ing mobile technology to collect the needed statistics. One such project has been taking place in Nigeria, a partner- ship of the government with technical assistance from the Earth Institute at Columbia University. The project’s goals: to develop a timely, complete, and accu- rate map of services and issues related to communities, particularly to poor regions, around the country. The project is also intended to increase transparency, and enhance local planning and access to resources. To accomplish its goals, the project has equipped hundreds of gov- ernment workers with smartphones with GPS. The workers visit sites such as schools, health facilities, and water access locations, where they take photos, record the GPS coordinates, and fill in an online form about how the site is equipped to deliver the needed service. By Janu- ary of 2013, when Columbia published the report, “Cellular Citizenship,” in the Harvard International Review, the gov- ernment had acquired data from more than 250 thousand locations. In general, according to the Columbia University report, most data collection projects rely on paper, take a great deal of time, and are out of date by the time the results are collected and analyzed. In contrast, this online system can give a real-time picture of the challenges faced by the country’s communities, and can allow participants to hold the government accountable for results. A photo from the site can also show clearly whether a prom- ised government-contracted service was provided or not. To more fully realize the promise of these types of approaches, the Columbia authors write that in the future public infrastructure items will need to include QR codes, or IDs that can be scanned with a smartphone, so that they can be accurately recognized. One particular challenge the authors note is that this system also necessitates the sharing of data between government ministries, which can take time to get approved and can run into political chal- lenges. They say the solution is to make all government data open access. As they conclude, “One of the keys to closing the poverty gap is to provide planners with increased access to accurate and up-to- date data that mobile data collection systems are making increasingly possible.” A similar project took place in Tan- zania, a coordinated effort by the World Bank and the nonprofit Twaweza. Here mappers trained local community members, and even established a com- munity-mapping curriculum at a local university. The result was a new open- source data set with thousands of points of data on roads, schools, trash dumps, and other features. Citizens are also providing real-time data to help governments deal with cri- ses. Crowd-sourcing, through sites such as Ushahidi (created in Kenya in 2008), has enabled rapid data collection via mobile phones in crises such as the Haitian earth- quake and the Kenya riots. There are limitations to such approaches, however, says Ari Gesher, an engineer at the data integration company Palantir. For one thing, this method relies on locals who have access to usable phones, which might not represent the reality of the situation. SOURCE:MCKINSEYGLOBALINSTITUTEANALYSIS Open Data can Help Unlock $3 Trillion to $5 Trillion in Economic Value Annually Seven Sectors ICT for Government
  17. 17. ICT TRENDS REPORT 15MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report During Hurricane Sandy, for instance, the greatest twitter concentration was in Manhattan, while there was greater harm but less social media content in poorer areas such as Far Rockaway, with fewer smartphones and Twitter accounts. In addition, says Gesher, “people might even be spitting out good information about what’s going on, but they’re doing it in a form” that computers can’t recognize, or in nonstandard forms that prevent quick integration. Still, as the World Bank stresses, ICT is a necessary and key part of effective disaster risk management. Such analytics are also providing information for law enforcement. In the study “Predictive Policing: Preventing Crime with Data and Analytics” by Jenni- fer Bachner at Johns Hopkins University (and sponsored by the IBM Center for the Business of Government), Bachner describes ways in which data analytics and modeling is assisting policing. For instance, in Santa Cruz, California, police departments partnered with social sci- entists to determine the areas with the greatest likelihood of experiencing crime, and in Richmond, Virginia, the police “used social network analysis to cut off a suspect’s resources and drive the sus- pect to turn himself into the police.” To enable such a system, the recommenda- tions include treating technology as an addition to policing (not a substitution for it), making sure that the software is available to police officials out on their beats, and ensuring the data are timely and accurate. MakingCitiesSmart n Technology that enables a more effective, efficient government is also transforming cities themselves, making cities smarter. Probably the most advanced example of a smart city today is Santander, a small coastal city of 180 thousand on Spain’s northern Atlantic coast. The pilot project, headed by Luis Muñoz, an IT professor at the University of Cantabria, received $11 million in grants from the European Union to test the viability of smart cities, prior to rolling out the initiative elsewhere in Europe. The result: 12 thousand sensors on buildings, beneath parking lots, and attached to street lamps and poles. The data collected from those sen- sors—including the temperature and humidity, the movement of vehicles and people, the light outdoors—is regularly transmitted to a central office. Vehicles such as buses, taxis, and police cars trans- mit their locations and speed, along with air pollution data captured from the envi- ronment outside the vehicle. If residents choose, they may participate by down- loading an app for their cell phones. The information is compiled and available for use both by city officials and by citizens. Officials know the locations of traffic jams and accidents, and where Managing Disasters with ICT Palantir is a company with expertise in data integration and analysis, working on huge, sensitive caches of information for clients as massive as the CIA and international banks. Now the company is helping nonprofits and city officials deal with disasters. They are part of The Rockefeller Foundation’s initiative called 100 Resilient Cities, announced in September 2013 at the Clinton Global Initiative. Its goal is to collect weather, demographic, and census data and “fuse that [data] so the city itself generates its own operations…so that when disaster strikes they can actually respond more effectively,” according to Palantir engineer Ari Gesher. The initiative focuses on cities that could suffer extreme weather events or terrorism. Many recoveries, Gesher says, are a race against time, determining what needs to be dealt with first to effectively save as many structures (or, at times, people) as possible. This builds off Palantir’s expertise in situations such as Hurricane Sandy, when they equipped Team Rubicon, a nonprofit group of veterans who provide disaster relief, with a way to generalize and centralize the gathering of information from tablets and mobile phones to dispatch the best teams to deal with the damage. “Palantir hadn’t been configured for this,” says Gesher. “We built it on the spot, and five or six days later, they were doing disaster relief in a way that nobody had ever done before.” Probably the most advanced example of a smart city today is Santander, a small coastal city of 180 thousand on Spain’s northern Atlantic coast. COURTESYOFTHEUNIVERSITYOFCANTABRIA ICT for Government
  18. 18. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW16 ICT Colombia Report light bulbs need to be replaced. Garbage collectors know whether or not to pick up trash, depending on whether dump- sters are full. The ubiquitous sensors have led to automatic systems for dim- ming lights and watering park plants. And residents—via a Pulse of the City app—can access bus information, city cultural events, and even historical information about the town. They can contribute to the betterment of the city by anonymously sending photos of what- ever needs to be fixed. The results thus far have been positive: within only a month of imple- mentation, the city saved 25 percent on electricity costs and 20 percent on garbage collection. Many other cities have undertaken such initiatives as well, though not as comprehensively as Santander. In Singa- pore, sensors, cameras, and GPS devices are used to promote rapid traffic flow. In Rio de Janeiro, a city control center receives up-to-date streaming informa- tion from dozens of city agencies and from subway stations, traffic lights, and utilities. And in Estonia, residents who park in a city lot text the car’s number and the lot’s code to the parking authority; the parking fees are then added to their phone bills. Many major companies are getting into the business of smart cities, including IBM, Cisco, Siemens, Microsoft, General Electric, Hitachi, and Singapore Technologies. IBM’s Katharine Frase, CTO of IBM Public Sector (their Smarter Cities effort) observes that cities are made up of “infra- structure, water, services, people. How can data analytics and IT help all of these be more effective, not just more efficient?” And the company has turned its attention to solving that problem. For example, IBM held a Smarter Cities Challenge Grants competition and provided expert counsel to 33 cities around the world in 2012. The projects include plans in Nairobi, Kenya to optimize Kenya’s water system and Nairobi’s traffic; and analyses of data in Louisville, Kentucky to identify, predict, and mitigate asthma. In addition, IBM Research is building a new lab in Kenya to work on Next-Generation Public Sec- tor solutions, as they’ve titled the effort, to enable multiple government agencies to easily share information (something that remains a challenge today). Barcelona has pioneered smart ini- tiatives such as smart parking and bus networks, and is working with the inter- national company Cisco to make the city a model of smart initiatives to improve its services, such as monitoring energy consumption in buildings and develop- ing more efficient use of water, including rainwater. As part of the initiative, Cisco is now establishing the new Barcelona Insti- tute of Technology for the Habitat, which will collaborate with private companies to study innovations in urban solutions. Cisco is also helping South Korea build a new city called Songo, a $35 billion dol- lar project, with a variety of cutting-edge technologies, including extensive sensors distributed throughout the city. Visualizing Government Data All that data produced in cities can be overwhelming for citizens to make use of. But what if it were easily visualized? That’s the idea behind César Hidalgo’s Macro Connections group at the MIT Media Lab. Hidalgo and his collaborators created DataViva for the local government in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. The DataViva site still provides many options, but users can visualize the economy of the past decade as a way to help the government “sift through some of the huge amounts of economic data available from the federal government,” according to the December 2013 article on the Fast Company website, “New MIT Media Lab Tool Lets Anyone Visualize Unwieldy Data.” André Barrence, director of the Minas Gerais office of strategic priorities, told Fast Company that the data proved so useful that “we thought it would be much more interesting if we could open up the data for the entire country rather than just ourselves.” SOURCE:MITMEDIALAB ICT for Government
  19. 19. ICT TRENDS REPORT 17MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report All the data amassed by city govern- ments can be put to good use to make those governments more effective and efficient. Meeting that goal is the focus of a new center at New York University, called the Center for Urban Studies and Progress, founded by Mayor Michael Bloomberg. The program, which grants an intensive one- year masters degree, aims to breed a new generation of urban scientists, who can dive into massive data sources and use the infor- mation to develop solutions to complex and growing urban problems. NYU sees this as an opportunity to enable the university— and New York itself—to become a leader in this rapidly growing field. This program is a complement to other leaders in the field, such as MIT Cities, part of the MIT Media Lab, whose research themes include urban analytics and modeling, energy networks, and incentive and governance. MovingtheMasses n Part of what can enhance the ‘smartness’ and livability of cities is increasing the use of ICT in the transportation sector. IT companies and city planners have developed a number of different models for easing congestion and pollution. For example, the Spanish traffic authority has invested in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in recent years. Automatic overhead tolling systems collect money without slowing the cars down. In one technology in use in Spain, when GPS systems in buses can alert a central computer that the bus is approaching a traffic signal, the system allows the light to stay green and the bus to keep moving. In Singapore, sensors, cameras, and GPS devices send information to a centralized control system that keeps traffic flowing, combined with congestion pricing to reduce automobile traffic. And in a move other cities with growing elderly populations may want to adopt, the elderly or disabled in Singapore can tap special cards equipped with radio frequency IDs against traffic light poles, which will signal the lights to offer a longer and safer crossing time. In Rio, IBM has built a complex and integrated system, a control center with information regularly pouring in from 30 city agencies, which send data from city sources including subway stations, traf- fic lights, and utilities, to allow the city to manage accidents, power failures, and emergencies. And in Mumbai, real-time traffic management has been used at 253 crossings, resulting in a 12 percent reduction in traffic time and an 85 per- cent reduction in energy usage from the traffic lights. Several companies have also developed intelligent systems that can help cars avoid circling in search of parking, which wastes both time and gas and contributes to a city’s pollution. Sensors in parking spots alert a central control system when they are open, and electronic signs then communicate this information to drivers. A number of com- panies have developed such systems for parking garages and for city streets, including Streetline in California, whose sensors line city streets around the world, and Spain’s ParkHelp. This type of system enabled the city of San Francisco to introduce pricing based on demand—higher prices during times of greater demand. This arena can encourage entre- preneurship and citizen participation. The Israeli startup Waze, purchased by Google in June, 2013 for $1 billion, relies on crowd-sourced traffic infor- mation from about 30 million drivers worldwide to provide an up-to-date picture of road conditions, including traffic jams, construction, and acci- dents—all to help drivers save money, time, and gas. And startups such as Lyft and Uber match up travelers with available drivers. The World Bank has funded a pro- gram in the Philippines to distribute GPS-enabled phones to taxis in order to collect and disseminate traffic data. This will allow the city to generate real- time maps about congestion and traffic volume. At the same time, a text-mes- sage platform allows citizens to report on traffic needs to help the city create better plans and budgets for the future. Carlo Ratti, director of the SENSE- able City Lab at MIT’s Media Lab, sees The new operations center in Rio provides the incident commander and responders with a single, unified view of all the information that they require for situational awareness. Waze, purchased by Google in June, 2013 for $1 billion, relies on crowd-sourced traffic information from about 30 million drivers worldwide. SOURCE:COMMUNICATIONS&BRANDEXPERIENCE,IBM ICT for Government SOURCE:HTTPS://WWW.WAZE.COM/
  20. 20. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW18 ICT Colombia Report a way to take information about traffic and advance the discussion. If city offi- cials have access to, for instance, all the regularly updated GPS data from all of a city’s taxis, “How can we use all that information to promote action?” Ratti asked in a recent talk at MIT’s Emerg- ing Technologies (EmTech) conference. His lab has developed a project called HubCab that models all the New York City cab pickups and dropoffs, to show how much more effective and effi- cient it could be for one cab, perhaps a taxi minivan, to transport multiple people. This would reduce the use of gasoline, and the model shows that NYC could meet its taxi needs with 40 percent fewer cabs using such a sys- tem. Other cab programs like Uber and Magic Taxi—which compete with traditional taxi systems—have created entrepreneurship opportunities, and can reduce the costs of service through competition. CyberSecurity: ProtectingtheData n As ICT plays an increasing role in Colombia, the government, as those of all countries in the world today, will navigate the challenges of securing the data and the systems involved. Security is a growing concern: according to a new report by Melissa Hathaway, cyber security expert, former acting senior director for cyberspace at the US National Security Council, and a senior advisor at Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, “it is estimated that the Group of 20 economies have lost 2.5 million jobs to counterfeiting and piracy, and that governments and consumers lost $125 billion annually, including losses in tax revenue.” (“Cyber Readiness Index 1.0,” November, 2013). Hathaway examines 35 countries “that have embraced ICT and the Internet” and evaluates them across an initial five areas. (She adds that deeper analyses could be accomplished using a subindex for each area.) These are the five essential elements, as outlined in Hathaway’s study: 1. Articulation and publication of a national cyber security strategy 2. Does the country have an operational computer emergency response team or computer security incident response team? 3. Has the country demonstrated commitment to protect against cyber crime? 4. Does the country have an information-sharing mechanism? 5. Is the country investing in basic and applied cyber security research and broadly funding cyber security initiatives? Colombia is not included in the 35 countries selected for analysis here; Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are the only Latin American countries studied. According to Hathaway’s analysis, though some countries including Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US are ahead in terms of cyber security preparedness, “even these countries are experiencing GDP degradation due to cyber insecurity.” The paper states: “No country is cyber ready.” Hathaway expresses the hope that this index “should spark international discussions about priorities required to strengthen security and encourage gov- ernments to take action and reduce risks.” Conclusion: n Governments are taking advantage of ICT in a variety of ways. In e-govern- ment, local and national governments are improving the services they provide for their citizens and their citizens’ abilities to access those services easily and transpar- ently. In open-data initiatives, the govern- ments are providing data to the citizens, who can use that information to participate in democracy more actively, or can design apps or programs to make more efficient use of those services. All the data that cities provide can be augmented, whether through improved mapping, or sensors spread around cities. This increased volume of informa- tion is helping make cities “smarter,” via Smart City initiatives around the world that employ ICT to achieve, for instance, smoother traffic flow and reduced energy use. The immense quantity of data col- lected, known as big data, can allow for initiatives such as Rio’s control center, bet- ter disaster management, and improved police protection. All of these systems are potentially vulnerable to cyber attack, however, and cyber security will be an increasing concern for all governments. =SOURCE:PONEMONINSTITUTERESEARCHDEPARTMENT United StatesGermanyJapanFranceUnited KingdomAustralia $14 $12 $10 $8 $6 $4 $2 $0 $3.67 $4.72 $5.19 $6.73 $7.56 $11.56 Cost expressed in $ millions (USD) Total Cost of Cyber Crime in Six Countries This chart represents the estimated average cost of cyber crime for six country samples involving 234 separate companies. These figures are converted into US dollars for comparative purposes. As shown, there is significant variation in total cyber crime costs among partcipating companies in the benchmark samples. The US sample reports the highest total average cost at $11.56 million and the Australian sample reports the lowest total average cost at $3.67 mission. ICT for Government
  21. 21. Education IN THIS SECTION Overview Laptops for Students Supporting Teachers and Students Mobile Learning Online Learning n From Kenya to Uruguay to the US, municipalities, states, and countries have greatly increased their use of technology in education. A simultaneous trend is the growth of distance learning, particularly as is evident in the rapid development of massive open online courses, commonly known as MOOCs. This section will look at recent trends in and analyses of the introduction of computers, tablets, and Internet connectivity in classrooms; the need for content, and its development; and the potential impact and challenges of MOOCs and distance learning. MOOCS Offerings SOURCE:NATURE.COM Number of courses available on the platform Number of user accounts on the platform (millions) Supply and Demand Student Origins Courses Offered 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 0 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 February 2012 March 2012 2.27% United States 8.8% India 6% Mathematics 30% Science 13% Business 28% Arts & humanites23% Information technology 5.1% Brazil 4.4 United Kingdom 4% Spain 3.6% Canada 2.3% Australia 2.2% Russia 41.9% Rest of world 19STUARTBRADFORD
  22. 22. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW20 ICT Colombia Report provide every town with school- and com- munity-based Internet connectivity, so the students have access not just in the classroom. The goals of the project, which was initiated by President Tabaré Vázquez in 2007, were and still are multifaceted: • To bridge the digital divide by allow- ing poor and rural students access to higher technology and educational oppor- tunities • To improve educational outcomes • To provide Internet connectivity to local homes by allowing residents to access the school’s Internet connections. In 2008, the first computers, com- plete with wireless connections, video and audio capabilities, and educational software, were placed in the hands of elementary school students, and the pro- gram then focused on secondary school students as well. Teacher training ses- sions were delivered to more than twenty thousand teachers, and more than five hundred additional support teachers were hired. dren learn. If you introduce technology but continue to do the same things [in the classroom], there won’t be any improve- ments in learning.” Though other countries have handed out more computers overall, Uruguay is alone in getting a computer into the hands of every student in the country— urban, near-urban, and rural—via Plan CEIBAL. CEIBAL’s acronym translates to Educational Connectivity/Basic Com- puting for Online Learning. (A ceibo is a flowering Uruguayan tree.) The comput- ers are rugged laptops, from One Laptop Per Child, and this program also aims to LaptopsforStudents n One model many emerging and middle economy countries have found promis- ing is the idea of providing every student with a laptop or tablet. While the goal of increasing access to technology and decreasing the digital divide is a worthy one, this approach has its critics. There may be a variety of goals for the projects: increased digital access and literacy, for one, and an improvement in academic achievement. According to experts, evalu- ations of the efficacy of these programs in achieving academic advancement do not show clear results. The general implica- tions of the examples below appear to be that technology alone is not sufficient—it must be coupled with the appropriate instruction and support for teachers and others in positions of authority. Even beyond instruction, says, Clau- dia Urrea, research scientist at the MIT Media Lab and expert on technology in education, “there must be a significant change in methodology and the way chil- When we talk about computers in education, we should not think about a machine having an effect. We should be talking about the opportunity offered us, by this computer presence, to rethink what learning is all about, to rethink education.” Technocentrism (Papert and E. & L. Group, 1990) SOURCE:GIULIA@LAPTOP.ORG ICT for Education
  23. 23. ICT TRENDS REPORT 21MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report Within only a few years, Plan CEIBAL did manage its first overall goal: universal access. Some of its primary accompanying goals, however, have yet to be accom- plished. Based on surveys conducted by Lucía Pittaluga and Ana Rivoir and pub- lished in Information Technologies & International Development in December 2012 (“One Laptop Per Child and Bridg- ing the Digital Divide: The Case of Plan CEIBAL in Uruguay”), effective student use of the computers depends in large part on the abilities of the adults in their lives, whether teachers or parents. Urrea points to particular successes of Uruguayan students she’s met: “There are a number of students who have become fluent programmers, and have contributed to the number of applications available in the One Laptop Per Child platform. One of them, who won the Google Code-in last year, taught himself English.” According to the interviews in the published study, parents of the Plan CEIBAL children confirmed that their children accessed educational material at home, but the adults interviewed did not see the computers as tools that could assist them in solving problems of their own. The survey also found that chil- dren use the laptops at home primarily for entertainment, and that their inter- est in the computers tends to wane over time. Some of the interview subjects also pointed out that the computers had not been well integrated into the school curricula. The project was evaluated in Janu- ary, 2013 by the Canadian expert Michael Fullan, whose report was cowritten with Nancy Watson and Stephen Anderson. Fullan points out that the original scope of the project focused almost entirely on access. As such, it was a success: nearly every student had access, nearly every teacher knew how to use the technology, nearly every school had Internet access (connections are being upgraded to fiber optics), and the program enjoys a 92 per- cent public approval rating. In addition, the computers are being used as a way to rapidly assess student performance, which is helping teachers find holes in their teaching. Still, there are weaknesses, and chal- lenges in addressing goals for the future. For the next phase, the Uruguayan gov- ernment plans to focus on using the technology specifically to improve learn- ing, not just to narrow the digital divide. Teachers need better guidance on how to take advantage of the courses and educa- tional support the project offers. As such, they have a number of projects in place, including the following: • Hiring individuals whose mandate is to help teachers integrate technology, working within a school or with a cluster of schools; • Development of a new program for adaptive mathematics (and continuing with online math and chess tournaments); and • Remote English teaching, connect- ing classrooms to a native English teacher via video conferencing (contracted with the British Council) in which one hour of native-speaker video instruction is followed by two hours of classroom instruction. Fullan finds these programs are com- mendable but recommends three specific goals: • English and Spanish literacy, • Mathematics, and • Reducing the number of students who repeat grades six, seven, and eight. He suggests improving the ways that teachers can share their use of technology, improving the use of the online assess- ment, and making sure teachers’ funding Percentageofpeopleperincomedecile 80% 90% 10 Richest 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Poorest 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2004 2006 2008 2009 2010 Incomedistributiondecile 20%% 40% 60% 2009 (December) 2010 (December) Richest 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Poorest 1 Plan CEIBAL: Bridging the Digital Divide in Uruguay SOURCE:ENCUESTACONTINUADEHOGARES-INESOURCE:ENCUESTACONTINUADEHOGARES-INE Figure 1: Access to computers in households. Percentage of people in each per capita income decile (without leasing value, excluding rural locations and towns with a population of less than 5,000) Figure 2: Percentage of people in each per capita income decile living in a CEIBAL home ICT for Education
  24. 24. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW22 ICT Colombia Report improved in math, science, and language abilities. As a number of countries are introduc- ing major computer or tablet programs over the next few years, the World Bank frequently cites the state of Maine in its list of best practices, and Maine has become an educational reference project for countries around the world. Maine’s project began in 2001, when Governor Angus King launched a project to put a laptop in the hands of every seventh grader in the state; he succeeded in that goal. Maine students have also signifi- cantly improved in their coursework: a 2011 study by the Maine Education Policy Research Institute says that writ- ing skills and state writing-test scores have improved, and many students have been able to move out of remedial math. allows for extra time to focus on learning how to best use technology. Urrea agrees with Fullan that goal- setting is crucial for the next stage in Uruguay, but she sees opportunities, and goals, beyond reading and math. “Learning is also about learning to solve anything,” she says, “to become more cre- ative, solve problems, invent new things.” Plan CEIBAL has already had an impact on entrepreneurship and job creation in the country (see “Entrepre- neurship”): a new gaming sector has rapidly grown in Uruguay and gained international acclaim and exports, in part catalyzed by Plan CEIBAL. Plan CEIBAL is far from the only laptop distribution program in Latin America: Peru and Argentina have seen major rollouts of computers for chil- dren, as has Brazil, with smaller projects throughout the continent. (Peru has dis- tributed even more of the One Laptop per Child model of laptop than Uruguay.) One challenge in the Peruvian program was that Internet connectivity was out of the scope of the Ministry of Education, and so computers were distributed even when the school had no way to access the Internet. In Brazil, according to a study by the Inter-American Development Bank, teacher training was critical, as were pre- pilot projects to evaluate the design. In Argentina’s San Luis Province, where one such program was implemented, students There is also evidence of gains in student achievement in science. Urrea points to a number of factors in Maine’s success: the program started small, first with 7th graders, and then it expanded to other grades. The program also incorporates plans to replace and repair machines, to finance the project, and to support teachers. “Their success is in part their ability to overcome the many challenges associated with such a program,” says Urrea. A number of other projects in the US are ongoing, but none of them have lasted long enough for significant evaluation. Every student and teacher in Guilford County, North Carolina’s middle schools is to receive a tablet, with the under- standing that teachers will be able to give Flipping the Classroom One benefit technology offers is the ability to, in effect, “flip the classroom.” In such a model, students use the technology (laptop, tablet) to learn the lesson at home, and the teacher uses the class time to work with the students at their levels. A fascinating article in Wired (“How a Radical New Teaching Method Could Unleash a Generation of Geniuses,” October 2013), reports on a Mexican school populated primarily with students whose families live beside a dump. Though neither the classroom nor the students had access to the Internet, the teacher had access at home, and he decided to model his classroom after the ideas of Sugata Mitra, who left computers with children in India and recorded them as they guided themselves through learning. The Indian students were eventually able to solve com- plicated questions in biology. The Mexican teacher used his home computer to find answers to his students’ questions but let the students guide their own learn- ing. The students in his class, whose families are among Mexico’s poorest, were able to rise to the top in Mexi- co’s achievement exams. A New York Times article (“In ‘Flipped’ Classrooms, a Method for Mastery,” October, 2013) also details the potential for using technology to allow students to learn the basics at home, working at their own pace, with teachers then guiding in-class activities that allow the students to demonstrate mastery of the material. 1 2 3 5 4 Equity Integration with Maine’s Learning Results Sustainability/ Avoiding Obsolescence Teacher Preparation and Professional Development Economic Development The Maine Learning Technology Initiative has at its core five operational goals: SOURCE:MAINELEARNINGTECHNOLOGYINITIATIVE. MAINEDEPARTMENTOFEDUCATION. ICT for Education
  25. 25. ICT TRENDS REPORT 23MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report more guided instruction to different lev- els of achievement in the classroom. But as of August 2013, 15 thousand tablets had been pulled from schools because of faulty hardware. The intent was similar in Los Angeles, where there is a $1 bil- lion plan to provide an iPad to every high school student. This time, the tablets were taken back from the students when the students figured out ways to get around security measures that blocked Internet access. (Los Angeles had a similar tech- nology introduction problem beginning in 2001, where they spent $50 million on reading software and computers; the computers were not used or integrated into classrooms, and broken hardware was not fixed, because teachers had not been appropriately trained. The 2001 pro- gram was found not to have helped the students improve their reading.) According to the Inter-American Development Bank, there is not enough rigorous evaluation of the educational impact of technology programs, or com- parisons of these types of technology interventions and other types of educa- tional programs. The IADB evaluated the Peruvian program and found no evidence thus far of increases in math and language test scores, but rather positive increases in general cognitive skills. Urrea wrote in a response to the evaluation that the teachers had not changed their methodol- ogy with the computers, and that “if there are no changes to the way teachers teach and children learn, there won’t be any significant changes in children’s academic performance.” She also mentions that the report did not go deep enough to track how computers were used to advance the development of cognitive skills. Urrea draws a number of lessons from the various successes and failures of these programs, both in the US and in Latin America: “You need a clear goal, and the design of a program that ensures that such goals are accomplished. The plan includes teacher training and development pro- grams, local/online support, digital support content, changes in the curri- cula, etc. You need a strong IT team. You need a strong community-based program to engage parents, and other community members, and more.” SupportingTeachers andStudents n Of course, these efforts cannot survive without the foundations on which they’re built—both hardware and software. One hardware model is a rugged, rather sim- ple laptop, in the style of One Laptop per Child. Another trend is the use of tablets. Tablets have become increasingly popu- lar, though, as Michael Trucano writes in a World Bank EduTech blog, there is no data to support the use of tablets over any other type of hardware: “This is not to say that there aren’t potentially compel- ling reasons why purchasing tablets for use in schools and/or by teachers or stu- dents might make sense…rather that this technology choice often seems driven by assumption[s] rather than as a result of careful deliberation.” Actually, he notes, the line between tablets and laptops is blurring, as tablets today (not Apple prod- ucts, but Microsoft and Android-based systems) may have keyboards, USB ports, and other features that make them more like small-scale laptops. In terms of software, the develop- ment of appropriate content, content that engages students and teachers alike and contributes to improved academic achievement, creativity, and problem solv- ing, is critical. Trucano points out that one pitfall programs fall into is trying to copy other educational systems rather than developing local content. In Jordan, for example, according to Michelle Selinger’s chapter on education in Tim Unwin’s book ICT4D: Information and Communica- tion Technology for Development, teachers were given laptops and data projectors. The curricula were developed “based on research on effective practice in the West, but the actual e-curricula development was undertaken in country by local media developers and teachers from Jordanian schools.” When Plan CEIBAL leaders set about developing content for use in the class- rooms, one approach they took was to translate videos from English into Span- ish from the popular online site Khan Academy, which began in 2006 with a series of simple video tutorials. (Today the site reaches millions of users with thousands of videos, online tutorials, and practice problems in math, science, and the humanities, and has been incorpo- rated into classrooms as well.) According to education reporter John Higgins, who has interviewed members of the team in Uruguay, the project had access to about 1,200 translated videos in November 2012, and by May 2013 had translated two thousand. In September 2013, Khan Academy en Español—the first foreign-language offering—was released, offering the entire Khan Academy, complete with online mentors, to the world’s half-billion Span- ish speakers. This offers a new online SOURCE:KHANACADEMYABOUTPAGE ONWWW.KHANACADEMY.ORG ICT for Education
  26. 26. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW24 ICT Colombia Report Gamification as a Potential Force for Education Many see ‘gamification’—using games as a method of achieving non-game goals—as a potential force for education. Scot Osterweil, creative director of the MIT Media Lab’s Education Arcade and a founding member of the Learning Games Network, says that games can take the playfulness that kids experience in much of their lives and use that in their academics. Osterweil has worked on two projects funded by the Gates Foundation. In one, students can work collectively to solve problems in high school biology and math. In the second project, 10 weeks of playing a language-learning game helped immigrants learn English significantly more effectively than a traditional 13-week course. “This does not replace the classroom,” Osterweil stresses, “but rather games in conjunction with teaching can be quite valuable.” Game development, according to the Media Lab’s Mitch Resnick, can also provide students with learning opportunities. His team created the Scratch programming language and online community; millions of projects have been shared by Scratch users ages eight and older. In “Learn to Code, Code to Learn,” in EdSurge, May 2013, Resnick described the variety of diverse projects created around the world, and how learning to code as a foundation for creativity has changed the lives of the young users. “We find that active members of the Scratch community start to think of themselves… as creators and designers, as people who can make things with digital media, not just browse, chat, and play games… Scratch members also begin to see the world in new ways.” resource for Colombian students and classroom educators. A number of startups to meet the needs of teachers and students are emerg- ing in Latin America. (“9 Latin American education start-ups you should know,”, Feb. 15, 2013) Their offerings range from tools to help teach- ers, parents, and students communicate, to offline classes, to Open English, a year-long English language program that connects students to native teach- ers. Another Brazilian startup, Learncafe, offers course certificates in classes such as business management and technology. According to an article on the site LatinTrade, “E-Learning for the Twit- ter Generation,” cloud-based sites and platforms—such as Blackboard, Desire- One innovative startup called Duolingo, founded by computer scientists from Carnegie Mellon University (one of whom comes originally from Guatemala), seeks to link language learning and access to web resources; it can serve as both a resource for classroom education and for English- language learning. Its founder was motivated by the paucity of web-based information in Spanish. Today, the site has hundreds of thousands of users who participate in a variety of language acquisition activities and then go on to translate sentences. The end result is a crowd-sourced site that translates documents for the Web. 2Learn and Moodle—are important tools for educators wanting to create local con- tent. Kuepa, an Argentinean company, helps teachers manage classroom and online resources, and provides some of those resources. And as academic content moves online, although the companies thus far dominating in Latin America are foreign ones, local enterprises such as Competir and Kuepa, both Argentin- ean, also have significant market share. Education-focused accelerators to help advance promising startups have been appearing around the US: only one existed in 2011—Palo Alto’s Imag- ine K12—and today there are more than 15. In 2012, investment funding reached $1.1 billion. Some education accelera- tors are managed by massive education companies, such as Kaplan’s Techstars and Pearson’s partnership with Wash- ington-based accelerator 1776. These relationships are not all unmitigated suc- cesses, and can be made or broken by the skills or actions of their directors: one accelerator recently came under fire for the allegedly subpar performance of its current leader and cofounder. Experts stress that what makes many accelerators successful is the investment, mentoring, and tools made available for the partici- pants. In the US, an increasing number of these startups are being founded by teach- ers, who personally know the needs of the classroom; and more education-focused companies are gaining the trust of educa- tors. Still, some remain wary of companies SOURCE:DUOLINGO.COM SCRATCHISAPROJECTOFTHELIFELONGKINDERGARTENGROUPATTHEMITMEDIALAB. ICT for Education
  27. 27. ICT TRENDS REPORT 25MIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ICT Colombia Report whose main focus is their bottom line. As a result, 19 US states have created policy tools to assist in the creation of socially- minded startups such as those focused on education: they have made available a new legal status called “benefit corpora- tion status.” They do seek profits, but must also be certified to meet social goals. This gives startups that focus on education— or poverty reduction, or environmental issues—the ability to focus not on short- term financial gain for their investors, but rather long-term value. No matter what the hardware or soft- ware, all experts in the use of technology in education—and all critics of the use of technology thus far—warn and insist that teachers are of paramount impor- tance. School systems must invest in great teachers, they must train those teachers to use the technology, and they must enable opportunities for teachers to learn from and exchange ideas with one another. In addition, the World Bank’s Michael Trucano offers this advice: “Avoid depen- dence on a single vendor.” In the World Bank’s EduTech blog, he writes that approaching the question of technology just from a lowest-cost perspective could lead to a local or national government getting locked in to one vendor, which can lead to increased costs in the future if the government attempts to exit the relationship. He also cautions that edu- cational content in digital format carries challenges in, for instance, intellectual property rights, and that policy mak- ers should be prepared to “help lobby for changes that may be needed to help ensure educational goals and objectives are not compromised as a result of inad- equate, outdated, or poorly drafted laws and guidelines.” MobileLearning n Learning via mobile devices such as phones is an area that holds promise, even as computers remain central to school- based learning around the world. As can be seen in Colombia’s mobile literacy program, Programa Nacional de Alfabet- ización (designed for young adults and for adults who have not gone through conventional schools), there is real possi- bility for improving education and access to content on cell phones. Teachers and students need to learn how to utilize computers in the class- room most effectively. The same goes for projects such as BridgeIT, an initiative of Nokia, the Pearson Foundation, the United Nations Development Program, and the International Youth Founda- tion. In this model, teachers learn to use smartphones with Internet connectiv- ity and data projectors; they can access multimedia resources and content for the classroom, and screen educational videos or science experiments. In a similar vein, Nokia unveiled a pilot project in Kenya in October 2012 to reach 10 schools via cell phones, assisting teachers in their instruc- tion of the sciences and mathematics. Students in Argentina are now using phones through a program called EMIA- SMILE that provides the opportunity to develop writing and scientific skills by creating and answering questions via a local network. BridgeIT has partnered with various entities in Chile to help the government reach underserved commu- nities, and has created a new program in Colombia called Raíces de Aprendizaje Móvil. Some challenges in these programs include lack of 3G or 4G network cover- age, and an absence of clear guidelines and goals for how to implement use of the phones in the classrooms. And more gov- ernments are now focusing on computers in the classroom, rather than phones. Still, because phones can serve as a method of accessing online content, some experts say the important thing is to focus on content rather than on what device is used. OnlineLearning n Today, massive open online courses, or MOOCs, are capturing the imagination of curious learners around the world. In this model, hundreds, even thousands of stu- dents around the world can participate at the same time in a classes taught by some of the top professors in their fields from the world’s leading universities. A number of universities are rapidly creating online courses through platforms such as Udac- ity and Coursera, both founded by Stan- ford professors, and edX, the nonprofit platform of Harvard and MIT. The results, however, are mixed. For one MIT electronic circuits class, 155 thousand signed up—but only seven thousand, or 5 percent, passed the class. The majority of the online classes thus far appear to be in science and technology, where problems can be answered and ver- ified online. There are concerns about the dropout rate, the need to keep students engaged, and ways to maintain the level of academic and intellectual achievement. One opportunity that MOOCs offer to emerging or middle economies is the opportunity to merge classroom or after- school learning with distance videos, what is known as blended learning. The New York Times profiled a high school in Mongolia, where the principal, who had himself graduated from MIT in 2009 (the first Mongolian to do so), provided classroom support—in the form of both teacher guidance and the necessary sup- plies—for students to take the edX MIT class Circuits and Electronics. While this experience exposed all students in the More than 6.7 millionstudents were taking at least one online course during the fall 2011 term, an increase of 570,000 students over the previous year. SOURCE:HTTP://SLOANCONSORTIUM.ORG BABSONSTUDY:OVER6.7MILLIONSTUDENTSLEARNINGONLINE ICT for Education
  28. 28. ICT TRENDS REPORTMIT TECHNOLOGY REVIEW26 ICT Colombia Report classroom to the potential for academic advancement, one student in particular soared. He was 15 at the time, but he was one of only 340 of the 150 thousand orig- inal students to receive a perfect score in the sophomore-level class. He is now attending MIT, and he plans to use his time at MIT to develop solutions to ben- efit his home country. (In response to his success, edX began purposefully organiz- ing such blended classes.) An electrical-engineering professor at the University of El Salvador took part in an edX electronic-circuits course him- self, then signed up 50 students at the university to take the course. He acted as their mentor, making himself available for online discussions and weekly labs. Rwanda also has set up a prototype blended-learning program, as described in an October, 2013 Scientific American article, “Learning in the Digital Age.” Kepler is a pilot university program that marries local instructors with online videos for a small number of Rwandan students, who are selected after a highly competitive series of applications and interviews. The program appears to be significantly cheaper per student than tra- ditional university courses, and it allows students to achieve a level of learning that meets international standards. At the moment this program is partnering with Southern New Hampshire Univer- sity, which will award an associate of arts degree with a concentration in business. Kepler hopes to add additional bache- lor’s degrees, in fields such as business administration and computer science, from other educational institutions. This sort of program is not only use- ful in underserved countries like Rwanda. Though India is recognized internation- ally for the quality of its engineering schools and graduates, that holds true only for the very top universities. In the Scientific American article, Vern Agarwal, cofounder and chief operating officer of the assessment company Aspiring Minds, states that only about 7 percent of India’s engineering graduates meet international standards for the basics of coding. To meet the local need, Microsoft Research is now working on a pilot project—setting up Massively Empowered Classrooms, or MECs—that offers online classes taught by Indian professors, designed to fit into existing Indian engineering schools. A limiting factor to the deployment of such opportunities is English liter- acy. This is an area in which Colombian school children appear to possess insuf- ficient skills. Fullan, in evaluating Plan CEIBAL in Uruguay, pointed to English (and Spanish) literacy as a key goal in the next stage of the project. Uruguay has partnered with the British Council and (as one method to achieve the goal) is using distance-learning videos with native English speakers. While Colombia will of course need to continue developing locally appropriate content in Spanish, high lev- els of English literacy will be critical in order for teachers and students to take advantage of the educational opportuni- ties that exist online. In online learning, the growth opportunities for Latin America—and for Colombia—are huge. According to Sam Adkins, chief research officer at the Washington-based market research company Ambient Insight, e-learning revenues in Latin America could reach $2.29 billion in 2016, almost double the 2011 figure. He estimates that Brazil will grow fastest, followed by Colombia and Bolivia. Urrea sees opportunities in Colom- bia in the world of online learning: she learned that edX has no Latin Ameri- can partners in its lists of universities, and believes that Colombian universi- ties could promote their own courses, or translate edX courses for use within Colombia. Another opportunity exists for com- panies that develop e-learning for export. Imaginologia, based in Brazil, creates online courses for the health-care indus- try and sells them to Portuguese-speaking African countries. There is plenty of mar- ket share throughout Latin America for such e-learning initiatives. Conclusion n One clear point that emerges from all these examples is that access to technol- ogy—computers, the Internet, mobile phones, distance learning—is not enough. Motivated students will find ways to learn, but technology access alone is not sufficient for the majority of students. Instead, classroom technology programs must establish clear goals that include teacher training and curricu- lum changes, along with the necessary IT development and support for them. While online learning has been growing rapidly, perhaps the greatest opportuni- ties lie in blending online learning with in-person classes, to bring the very best instruction from around the world to help teachers and students in Colombia. Colombian universities and enterprises also have the opportunity to develop online learning and education apps that could be used throughout the Spanish- speaking world. 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 31.3%28.6% 24.1%21.6%19.6%18.2% 13.5%11.7%9.6% 31.3%28.6% 24.1%21.6%19.6%18.2% 13.5%11.7%9.6% 31.3%28.6% 24.1%21.6%19.6%18.2% 13.5%11.7%9.6% SOURCE:BABSONSURVEYRESEARCHGROUP Education Gets Disrupted, Gradually The percentage of US college students enrolled in at least one online course ICT for Education
  29. 29. DevelopingTalent IN THIS SECTION Overview Developing ICT Skills Leveraging Partnerships University Reforms to Promote Success n As Colombia heads into the new digi- tal economy, with an increasing focus on ICT in all areas of society, it will rely on a cadre of professionals who can work in the ICT industry, utilize ICT in government and private enterprises, and employ ICT in such diverse sectors as education and health care. Bringing this about will require a wealth of talents. First and foremost is the necessity of nurturing computer engineers, coders, programmers—pro- fessionals for all aspects of what can be considered the foundation of the digi- tal world. These skills are necessary but not sufficient to ensure success, however. The talent of the future will also require greater competence in skills like prod- uct design, management, and leadership. A new generation of chief information officers, or CIOs, will need both techni- cal and management skills. The digital workers of the future will include design- ers, coders, teachers, entrepreneurs—and government officials. 27 STUARTBRADFORD