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  1. 1. University of Engineering & Technology Taxila , Pakistan
  2. 2. Presentation By <ul><ul><li>Junaid Naseer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>03F-EE-22 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CONTENTS <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Background </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted Assimilation in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism & Jewish Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Balfour Declaration & World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi support for Zionism </li></ul><ul><li>Inter War Period </li></ul><ul><li>1948 Arab Israeli War </li></ul><ul><li>1956 Suez Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli Nuclear Program </li></ul><ul><li>1967 Arab Israeli War </li></ul><ul><li>1973 Arab Israeli War </li></ul><ul><li>Lebanon Invasion </li></ul><ul><li>First Intifada </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid Conference & Oslo peace Accord </li></ul><ul><li>US aid to Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim Countries and Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Al Aqsa Intifada </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Zionism, movement to unite the Jewish people of the Diaspora and settle them in Palestine ; it arose in the late 19th century and culminated in 1948 in the establishment of the state of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Zion </li></ul><ul><li>1890 by the Austrian Jewish philosopher Nathan Birnbaum . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Historical Background <ul><li>In the 6th century BC , the Jews were expelled by the Babylonians. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the centuries, the Jews of the Diaspora associated the hope of the return with the coming of the Messiah , a savior whom God would send to deliver them. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Jews often migrated to Palestine, but they remained a small minority among a largely Arab population. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Attempted assimilation in Europe <ul><li>This process began in the 18th century with the Haskalah ,a movement inspired by the European Enlightenment and initiated by the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn . </li></ul><ul><li>The liberal Jewish reform movement sought to reduce Judaism to a religious denomination , allowing Jews to adopt the local culture. </li></ul><ul><li>The achievement of political equality by European Jewry began in the French Revolution in 1791 and spread over most of Europe during the next few decades. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anti-Semitism & Jewish Reaction <ul><li>In the second half of the 19th century organized anti-Semitic parties emerged in Germany and Austria-Hungary. In Russia, the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881 unleashed a wave of pogroms . </li></ul><ul><li>To escape persecution, large numbers of Russian Jews emigrated to the West, primarily to the United States . A smaller number, went to Palestine, which was then under Turkish rule . </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-19th century, European Orthodox rabbis, adapted the traditional belief in a Messiah to modern conditions by teaching that Jews themselves must lay the groundwork for his coming . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theodor Herzl <ul><li>Writer and journalist Theodor Herzl , founder of modern political Zionism, published a pamphlet in 1896 advocating the establishment of a Eretz Yisrael . Herzl is considered one of the great influences on the formation of Israel. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Foundation of the Zionist Movement <ul><li>Herzl secured audiences with the German emperor William II and Sultan Abd al-Hamid II of Turkey, but he was unable to secure their support. </li></ul><ul><li>1897 Herzl organized the first Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. </li></ul><ul><li>Herzl directed his diplomacy toward Britain, but the British offer to investigate the possibility of Jewish colonization in East Africa—the so-called Uganda scheme —nearly split the Zionist movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Argentina Scheme </li></ul>
  11. 11. Balfour Declaration & World War I <ul><li>During World War I, the British promoted the Zionists. The declaration, contained in a letter from Foreign Secretary Arthur J. Balfour to a Chaim Weizmann , approved the establishment in Palestine of a “national home for the Jewish people.” </li></ul><ul><li>Russian-born chemist Chaim Weizmann helped secure the British government’s approval of the 1917 Balfour declaration. He later served as the first president of Israel, from 1949 to 1952 . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nazi Support of Zionism <ul><li>Herzl recognized that anti-Semitism would further his cause, the creation of a separate state for Jews.He wrote that Zionism offered the world a welcome “ final solution of the Jewish question .” Zionism was supported by the German SS and Gestapo . Hitler himself personally supported Zionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer Agreement implemented in 1933 is an important example of the cooperation between Hitler’s Third Reich and international Zionism. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler and the Zionists had a common goal: to create a world Jewish Ghetto as a solution to the Jewish Question. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Inter War Period <ul><li>During the period of the British mandate (1922-48), the Yishuv grew from 50,000 to 600,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>The White Paper of May 1939 terminated Britain's commitment to Zionism and provided for the establishment of a Palestinian state within ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Biltmore program : In May 1942, Zionist leaders meeting at the Biltmore Hotel in New York City demanded from the US a state—in all of western Palestine as part of the new world order after the war . </li></ul>
  14. 14. Albert Einstein <ul><li>Albert Einstein said, </li></ul><ul><li>“ My awareness of the essential nature of Judaism resists the idea of a Jewish state with borders , an army, and a measure of temporal power, no matter how modest. I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustain -- especially from the development of a narrow nationalism within our own ranks, against which we have already had to fight strongly, even without a Jewish state” </li></ul><ul><li>In a letter to the NY Times in 1948, Albert Einstein warned of the insidious fascism of the Israeli Freedom Party . The Freedom Party had its roots in right-wing terrorism .Freedom Party merged with many others to form the Likud Party . </li></ul>
  15. 15. David Ben-Gurion <ul><li>David Ben-Gurion served as the first prime minister of Israel when the country was created in 1948. Prior to that time, Ben-Gurion had worked for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.. His determined efforts were rewarded in 1948 when Britain recognized Israel as an independent state. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The State of Israel <ul><li>On May 14, 1948 , at midnight, the British mandate over Palestine ended, and the Jews declared their independence in the new state of Israel. Israel owed its existence to a unique set of circumstances: </li></ul><ul><li>Western sympathy for Jewish suffering; </li></ul><ul><li>the political influence of American Jews in securing the support of President Harry S. Truman; </li></ul><ul><li>Britain's loss of will to continue its rule in Palestine; and, </li></ul><ul><li>The Yishuv's determination and ability to establish and hold on to its own state. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1948 Arab-Israeli War In 1948 combined forces of several Arab nations and Palestinian guerillas attacked the newly independent nation of Israel. Israel defeated the Arab forces between 1948 and 1949, taking much of the land that had been granted to the Palestinians by the United Nations in 1947.
  18. 18. Shimon Peres <ul><li>In 1952 he was appointed deputy director-general of the ministry of defense; within a year he was promoted to director-general. He established close military cooperation with the French government, which helped him develop Israeli governments weapons industry and establish Israel’s nuclear weapons program . </li></ul><ul><li>He Received Nobel Peace Prize in 1994. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Israeli Nuclear Program <ul><li>France built the reactor and ex-traction plant secretly in the Negev desert, at a site called Dimona . </li></ul><ul><li>Plumbat affair In 1968 Israel skirted nuclear export controls by diverting 200 metric tons of Belgian uranium in barrels marked Plumbat on the high seas. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1959 to 1963 Israel imported 20t heavy water from Norway and 3.9t from the United States. This would supply Dimona indefinitely if the reactor stayed at its rated power of 24 megawatts. </li></ul><ul><li>In a September 4, 1974 , CIA concluded, &quot; We believe that Israel already has produced nuclear weapons from Dimona’s Plutonium.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, Israel reportedly assembled 13 bombs and readied them for use. In May 1985 a Los Angeles businessman, Richard Smyth, was indicted for smuggling to Israel 810 high-speed electronic switches, called krytons , which are used as nuclear weapon detonators. Smyth vanished a week before he was to appear for trial. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dimona Atomic Rector
  21. 21. Israel’s Nuclear Program Revealed <ul><li>Mordechai Vanunu , who worked at Dimona for 8 years. In September 1986 he detailed Israel's production techniques to the Sunday Times , providing almost 60 color photographs of Israel's underground bomb factory. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Vanunu's data, </li></ul><ul><li>Israel now </li></ul><ul><li>has 100 to 200 advanced fission bombs, </li></ul><ul><li>has mastered a thermonuclear design, </li></ul><ul><li>has a number of thermonuclear bombs ready for use. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimona, is producing 40 kilograms per year , which is enough for 10 advanced fission bombs. Dimona is also making tritium and deuterium, the thermonuclear bomb ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>After telling his story to the Sunday Times, Vanunu disappeared on September 30. He turned up 2 weeks later in an Israeli jail charged with espionage and other crimes. Vanunu said he was kidnapped in Rome, though Israel refuses to say how he was arrested. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Suez Crisis <ul><li>International confrontation along the Suez Canal in 1956 that pitted Egypt against the combined forces of Israel, Britain, and France. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Lavon” Affair </li></ul><ul><li>Strait of Tiran </li></ul><ul><li>Jamal Abdul Nasser and Aswan Dam </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1967 Arab-Israeli War : Operation blitzkrieg <ul><ul><li>Anticipating an Arab invasion, Israel attacked and defeated its Arab neighbors in the Six-Day War of 1967. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On June 8, the U.S.S. Liberty , a U.S. Navy electronic intelligence vessel was attacked by Israeli planes and motor torpedo boats. More than 30 officers and men of the Liberty were killed and 75 wounded </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 1973 Arab-Israeli War <ul><li>Armed conflict between Israel and the Arab countries of Egypt and Syria, fought during the month of October 1973 . </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict began on the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur and took place during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan . </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistani Participation on the side of Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>Mohammed Zia-ul Haq reputedly fought alongside the Jordanian army in 1971 while he was on a military training mission. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Camp David Accords <ul><li>Signed by Jimmy Carter , Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin in 1978, the Camp David Accords led to a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel the following year. Sadat and Begin shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat was assassinated in Cairo by Islamic extremists within the Egyptian army on October 6, 1981 . They killed him for negotiating a peace agreement with Israel in 1979. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Invasion of Lebanon <ul><li>Operation Peace for Galilee in June 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>PLO expulsion from Jordan </li></ul><ul><li>Syrian military presence </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli forces killed 19,000 civilians and maimed 30,000 more in six weeks. Israeli warplanes dropped cluster and phosphorous bombs on whole neighborhoods of Beirut. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Israeli protection, its allies in minority Christian neo-fascist Phalange militias massacred more than 2,000 Palestinian refugees in the Sabra and Chatila refugee camps </li></ul><ul><li>1996 &quot;Grapes of Wrath&quot; Bombardment of Lebanon which drove 400,000 civilians from their homes . </li></ul>
  27. 27. First intifada <ul><li>9 december,1987 </li></ul><ul><li>An uprising by Palestinians against Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip territories. </li></ul><ul><li>180,000 Israeli troops deployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli forces killed more than 1,200 Palestinians, including 344 children younger than 16. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Madrid Conference & Oslo Peace Accords In September 1993 , Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin, left, and Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasir Arafat, right, agreed to the signing of a historic peace accord. In July 1994 Yitzhak Rabin, and King Hussein of Jordan, came together in the United States, in the presence of Bill Clinton, to sign a peace agreement ending 46 years of war and tension between their countries.
  29. 29. US aid to Israel <ul><li>Israel receives $1.8 billion in military aid. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel receives $1.2 billion in economic aid. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1997 alone, Israel received $525.8 million above and beyond its $3 billion from the foreign aid budget, and yet another $2 billion in federal loan guarantees. </li></ul><ul><li>So the complete total of U.S. grants and loan guarantees to Israel for fiscal 1997 was $5,525,800,000 which is 1/3 rd of its total foreign aid. </li></ul><ul><li>1949-1996 time frame, the total of U.S. foreign aid to all of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean combined was $62,497,800,000 . </li></ul><ul><li>Lump payment in the first month. </li></ul><ul><li>Most U.S. loans to Israel are forgiven </li></ul><ul><li>Cranston Amendment </li></ul>
  30. 30. US aid to Israel (contd.) <ul><li>After the United States, the principal donor of both economic and military aid to Israel is Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>By far the largest component of German aid has been in the form of restitution payments to victims of Nazi atrocities </li></ul><ul><li>The total of German assistance in all of these categories to the Israeli government, Israeli individuals and Israeli private institutions has been some $31 billion </li></ul><ul><li>All of the $45.6 billion in U.S. foreign aid to Egypt since Egypt made peace with Israel in 1979 (compared to $4.2 billion in U.S. aid to Egypt for the preceding 26 years ). U.S. foreign aid to Egypt, which is pegged at two-thirds of U.S. foreign aid to Israel, averages $2.2 billion per year </li></ul><ul><li>America’s $84.8 billion in aid to Israel from fiscal years 1949 through 1998, and the interest the U.S. paid to borrow this money, has cost U.S. taxpayers $134.8 billion. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Jewish Lobby in the US <ul><li>Probably the only members of Congress who even suspect the full total of U.S. funds received by Israel each year are the privileged few committee members who actually mark it up. And almost all members of the concerned committees are Jewish, have taken huge campaign donations orchestrated by Israel's Washington, DC lobby , the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), or both. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Muslim countries and Israel <ul><li>Full diplomatic relations with Turkey, Egypt, Jordan and Mauritania . Israel now has ties of one kind or another with Morroco ,Tunisia, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain . </li></ul><ul><li>Israel has diplomatic relations with 9 non-Arab Muslim states . </li></ul><ul><li>In August 2004,Silviam Shalom met with the Indonesian foreign minister. </li></ul><ul><li>In September 2005, Silviam Shalom met with Pakistani foreign minister. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Al-aqsa intifada <ul><li>29 september, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Ariel Sharon’s visit to Temple Mount. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of injuried is 29,251 and No. of Deaths is 3,881. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of children detained is 6758. </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Palestinians detained is 6536 current. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty rate in 1999 was 20% and in 2004 was 51% </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Palestinian Residency revoked is 6,396 (1989-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>No. of houses demolished is 3345 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of people made homeless is 10,683 (2000-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>There are 242 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem </li></ul>
  34. 34. The End